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Resilience is a Verb

Authors:

Abstract

SNAFU is natural state of systems & SNAFU Catching is essential for viability of systems in complex worlds. But organizations rationalize this core finding away. Available on irgc.epfl.ch and irgc.org.
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... Noch direkter definiert er schon 2005 Resilienz als Fähigkeit, sich Störungen und Disruptionen anzupassen oder diese zu absorbieren (Woods 2005: 302). Passend zur Betonung von überraschend auftretenden Ereignissen spezifiziert Woods seine Definition im Hinblick darauf, dass die Resilienz eines Systems sich darin ausdrücke, wie gut es sich an Störungen und Veränderungen anpassen könne, die außerhalb dessen liegen, wofür das System ursprünglich ausgelegt wurde (Woods 2018(Woods : 2, 2006. Anpassungsfähigkeit an widrige Umstände und Ereignisse wird auch von anderen Autoren als charakteristisch für Resilienz skizziert (Dekker/Woods 2010: 134, Fujita 2006: 67, Hale/Heijer 2006b: 132, Hollnagel/Sundström 2006: 343, Hollnagel/Woods 2006: 357, Leveson et al. 2006 (Hollnagel 2006: 16). ...
Thesis
Die zunehmende Komplexität unserer Welt macht das Auftreten disruptiver Ereignisse mit unvorhersehbaren Folgen wahrscheinlicher. Die Zukunft ist durch Unsicherheit gekennzeichnet. Deshalb brauchen Gesellschaften und ihre kritische Infrastrukturen Resilienz, verstanden als generische Anpassungsfähigkeit dank Flexibilität und loser Ressourcen. Der Autor argumentiert in diesem Buch, dass Resilienz durch das Zusammendenken von individueller Freiheit und Sicherheit normativ wünschenswert sein kann. Davon ausgehend entwickelt er ein neues Resilienz-Konzept für die zivile Sicherheitsforschung und zeigt, wie die Ingenieurwissenschaften dieses durch Systemprinzipien wie Diversität, Modularität, Dezentralität und Redundanz umsetzen können.
... These dehumanising practices, in terms of treatment, social interaction, guarantee of rights, valuation or recognition of work, undermine any possibility of building resilient systems. Resilience requires initiative and proactivity, as they are needed to develop adaptive systems that can respond to unavoidable events [19], and these elements are not likely to be developed in environments that dehumanise work teams. The question 'is it possible to deal or not?' found in the system map (Figure 1), was proposed to raise the problem of the secular social paradigm established between managers and employees (dominant and dominated, respectively) on power issues, with the intention of overcoming it and subsequently achieving a desirable level of system resilience. ...
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Download for free: https://www.intechopen.com/online-first/79696 In this chapter, food safety is portrayed as an intrinsic component of food security and food systems. The objective is to discuss the ‘commercial restaurant’ system and the ‘kitchen worker’ subsystem from the perspective of building resilience in food safety. Relationship maps built for the system and subsystem guide the presentation and discussion of structural, organisational, social and symbolic aspects and elements. Resilience investigation is based on the references of the International Risk Governance Centre Resource Guide on Resilience and current and emerging topics related to food safety, such as risk perception of foodborne diseases, cognitive illusions, sociological aspects, social dimension of taste, humanisation and working conditions and precariousness of work in kitchens. In the final section, a list of recommendations for building resilience in commercial restaurants is presented to help researchers, decision-makers and practice agents apply this concept in their fields of expertise.
... From the perspective of resilience, adaptation is a central key factor that is not always about changing the plan, model, or previous approaches, but sometimes involves the readiness to modify plans to suit changing situations. Woods [46], describes this ability as being able to recognize and to stretch, extend, or change what is being done or had been planned to be done. In our study, prioritizing and solving upcoming issues was a crucial strategy as the problem had to be solved; inaction was not an option. ...
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Background: Clinical work in the operating room (OR) is considered challenging as it is complex, dynamic, and often time- and resource-constrained. Important characteristics for successful management of complexity include adaptations and adaptive coordination when managing expected and unexpected events. However, there is a lack of explorative research addressing what makes things go well and how OR staff describe they do when responding to challenges and compensating for constraints. The aim of this study was therefore to explore how complexity is managed as expressed by operating room nurses, registered nurse anesthetists, and surgeons, and how these professionals adapt to create safe care in the OR. Method: Data for this qualitative explorative study were collected via group interviews with three professional groups of the OR-team, including operating room nurses, registered nurse anesthetists and operating and assisting surgeons in four group interview sessions, one for each profession except for ORNs for which two separate interviews were performed. The audio-taped transcripts were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Results: The findings revealed three generic categories covering ways of creating safe care in the OR: preconditions and resources, planning and preparing for the expected and unexpected, and adapting to the unexpected. In each generic category, one sub-category emerged that was common to all three professions: coordinating and reaffirming information, creating a plan for the patient and undergoing mental preparation, and prioritizing and solving upcoming problems, respectively. Conclusion: Creating safe care in the OR should be understood as a process of planning and preparing in order to manage challenging and complex work processes. OR staff need preconditions and resources such as having experience and coordinating and reaffirming information, to make sense of different situations. This requires a mental model, which is created through planning and preparing in different ways. Some situations are repetitive and easier to plan for but planning for the unexpected requires anticipation from experience. The main results strengthen that abilities described in the theory of resilience are used by OR staff as a strategy to manage complexity in the OR.
... Systems operate under multiple pressures and virtually QUEUE focus always in degraded mode. 10 The adaptive capacity of complex systems resides in people. It is people who adapt to meet the inevitable challenges, pressures, tradeoffs, resource scarcity, and surprises that occur. ...
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It's time to appreciate the human side of Internet-facing software systems.
... Systems operate under multiple pressures and virtually QUEUE focus always in degraded mode. 10 The adaptive capacity of complex systems resides in people. It is people who adapt to meet the inevitable challenges, pressures, tradeoffs, resource scarcity, and surprises that occur. ...
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Understanding, supporting, and sustaining the capabilities above the line of representation require all stakeholders to be able to continuously update and revise their models of how the system is messy and yet usually manages to work. This kind of openness to continually reexamine how the system really works requires expanding the efforts to learn from incidents.
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The paper introduces the theory of graceful extensibility which expresses fundamental characteristics of the adaptive universe that constrain the search for sustained adaptability. The theory explains the contrast between successful and unsuccessful cases of sustained adaptability for systems that serve human purposes. Sustained adaptability refers to the ability to continue to adapt to changing environments, stakeholders, demands, contexts, and constraints (in effect, to adapt how the system in question adapts). The key new concept at the heart of the theory is graceful extensibility. Graceful extensibility is the opposite of brittleness, where brittleness is a sudden collapse or failure when events push the system up to and beyond its boundaries for handling changing disturbances and variations. As the opposite of brittleness, graceful extensibility is the ability of a system to extend its capacity to adapt when surprise events challenge its boundaries. The theory is presented in the form of a set of 10 proto-theorems derived from just two assumptions-in the adaptive universe, resources are always finite and change continues. The theory contains three subsets of fundamentals: managing the risk of saturation, networks of adaptive units, and outmaneuvering constraints. The theory attempts to provide a formal base and common language that characterizes how complex systems sustain and fail to sustain adaptability as demands change.
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Safety is Not a System Property One of the recurrent themes of this book is that safety is something a system or an organisation does, rather than something a system or an organisation has. In other words, it is not a system property that, once having been put in place, will remain. It is rather a characteristic of how a system performs. This creates the dilemma that safety is shown more by the absence of certain events – namely accidents – than by the presence of something. Indeed, the occurrence of an unwanted event need not mean that safety as such has failed, but could equally well be due to the fact that safety is never complete or absolute. In consequence of this, resilience engineering abandons the search for safety as a property, whether defined through adherence to standard rules, in error taxonomies, or in 'human error' counts. By doing so it acknowledges the danger of the reification fallacy, i.e., the tendency to convert a complex process or abstract concept into a single entity or thing in itself (Gould, 1981, p. 24). Seeing resilience as a quality of functioning has two important consequences. • We can only measure the potential for resilience but not resilience itself. Safety has often been expressed by means of reliability, measured as the probability that a given function or component would fail under specific circumstances. It is, however, not enough that systems are reliable and that the probability of failure is below a certain value (cf. Chapter 16); they must also be resilient and have the ability to recover from irregular variations, disruptions and degradation of expected working conditions.
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1) Complex systems are intrinsically hazardous systems. All of the interesting systems (e.g. transportation, healthcare, power generation) are inherently and unavoidably hazardous by the own nature. The frequency of hazard exposure can sometimes be changed but the processes involved in the system are themselves intrinsically and irreducibly hazardous. It is the presence of these hazards that drives the creation of defenses against hazard that characterize these systems. 2) Complex systems are heavily and successfully defended against failure. The high consequences of failure lead over time to the construction of multiple layers of defense against failure. These defenses include obvious technical components (e.g. backup systems, 'safety' features of equipment) and human components (e.g. training, knowledge) but also a variety of organizational, institutional, and regulatory defenses (e.g. policies and procedures, certification, work rules, team training). The effect of these measures is to provide a series of shields that normally divert operations away from accidents. 3) Catastrophe requires multiple failures – single point failures are not enough..
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Clinical work is accomplished by complex, highly distributed, joint cognitive systems, and involves high levels of uncertainty and ambiguity. Hospital emergency departments (EDs) in particular must adapt to uncertainty, ambiguity and change on a variety of different temporal scales. Many of these adaptations are unofficial, in part because they cannot be specified in advance and because the official models of healthcare work do not include or acknowledge them. This paper presents two case studies of reactive adaptation within the ED setting and uses these to explore their implications for cognitive engineering and design.
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Acentral question has overshadowed the thinking of social scientists at least since the work of Thomas Hobbes (1960 [1651]): How do communities of individuals sustain agreements that counteract individual temptations to select short-term, hedonistic actions when all parties would be better off if each party selected actions leading to higher group and individual returns? In other words, how do groups of individuals gain trust? Hobbes's answer is that communities have to rely on an authority external to themselves to impose and enforce commands that extricate them from the traps of their own making. Hobbes considers it impossible for individuals to escape from what we now call social dilemmas and argues that a strong, centralized, and external authority is therefore necessary. Thus, for Hobbes, trust is created by the presence of strong external actors.
Retrieved from hQps:// lup.lub.lu.se/student-papers/search/publica6on/8084520. Illustra6on of SNAFUs, SNAFU catching in resilience management for cri6cal digital infrastructure
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Cook, R. I., & Woods, D. D. (2016). Situa6on normal: All fouled up. Velocity: Web Performance and Opera6ons Conference, New York. Retrieved from hQps://www.oreilly.com/ideas/situa6on-normal-all-fouled-up. How systems are messy, SNAFU is the natural state of systems, and suppor6ng SNAFU Catching is essen6al.