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Performance Evaluation of Improved Oat Varieties/Accessions at the Highland of Guji Zone, Bore, Ethiopia

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  • Salale University, Ethiopia
  • Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Mechara Agricultural Research Center

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Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.org
ISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)
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Performance Evaluation of Improved Oat Varieties/Accessions at
the Highland of Guji Zone, Bore, Ethiopia
Usman Semman*
Salale University, P.O. Box 245, Fitche, Ethiopia
Bedasa Eba
Yabello dry land and Agricultural Research Center. P.O.Box 085, Yabello, Ethiopia
P.O. Box, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Tamirat Dinkale
Mechara Agricultural Research Center, P.O.Box, 19 Mechara, Ethiopia
Abstract
This study was conducted with an objective of introducing, adapting, see the yield, quality and recommends
improved Oat accessions/varieties to the area in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three blocks.
Accessions/varieties was (CI-8251, CI-8235, CI-8237, Lampton, Jasari, SRCPX80Ab2291, SRCPX80Ab2806,
79Ab384 (TX) 80SA95, 79Ab384 (TX) 80SA94 and Grayalegris), Bonsa and Bonabas. The analysis of data
revealed that CI-8251 proved to be the highest biomass yielder accession, and as regards the other characters, it
was found to be the highest in plant height, seed yield, harvesting index (HI) and less susceptible to disease and
have no lodging, which reflects its better characteristics. 79 Ab384 (TX) 80SA94 was significant in seed yield
and HI and less significant in disease attack and has short date of flowering and maturity and no lodging, where
as JASARI was significant in disease attack and has short date of maturity and less significant in seed yield..
SRCP x 80Ab2806 was highest in Crude Protein (CP) content than the rest accessions followed by Grayalegris
and 79 Ab384 (TX) 80SA94. Bonsa and Bonabas varieties are also good both in yield and quality aspect
specially NDF content. Generally from this it is concluded that, considering all the agronomic and yield
parameters accessions, CI-8251 was superior followed by 79 Ab384 (TX) 80SA94 and from quality analysis
aspect SRCP x 80Ab2806 and Bonsa and Bonabas varieties both yield and quality aspect was selected and
recommended to the area so that farmers are using for their livestock feed and go for further demonstration.
Keywords: Acid-detergent fiber, Chemical composition, Harvest date, Seed yield
Introduction
Animal feeding systems in developing countries are mainly based on grazed native pastures, which are
deteriorating in production and quality, which vary seasonally resulting in poor animal performance. Despite the
importance of livestock, inadequate livestock nutrition is a common problem in the developing world, and a
major factor affecting the development of viable livestock industries in poor countries (Sere et al., 2008).
Substantial efforts have been made so far to resolve the feed shortage problem in the Ethiopian highlands,
aiming at improving feed availability and thereby improve livestock productivity. The available fodder supply is
1/3 less than the actual needs of animals (Younas and Yaqoob, 2005). So that more nutritious and high yielding
fodder varieties are needed to run an efficient livestock industry.
Oat is one of the potential annual fodder crop commonly cultivated in the highland agro-ecologies of
Ethiopia mainly under rain fed conditions. It is well adapted to wide range of soils and relatively tolerant to
moisture stress, water logging and frost. Oats are used for livestock feeding in the form of green and conserved
as hay or silage for dry season and are import as a source of carbohydrate as supplementation (IARI, 1980).
Different varieties/accessions of oat have different yield and agronomic performance such as forage yield,
maturity day and adaptation to specific situation. Earlier varieties/accessions performance declining due to
problems including leaf and stem rust attack. Others are high yielding and disease resistant. On the other hands
information on feed quality is one of the decision support tools required to provide rational basis to optimize
utilization of feed resources, to improve animal production and productivity and ultimately to increase financial
return to the producer. The feasibility of livestock enterprise is largely a function of the type, quality of feed and
the strategy of feeding. Removing or reducing nutritional constraints leads to dramatic improvement in livestock
production and productivity. Dynamic changes have been made in the areas of feed evaluation, nutrient
requirement and feeding systems (Seyoum et al. n.d). Several environmental, genetic and genotype by
environment interaction aspects are expected to influence chemical composition and nutritive value of the feeds.
Compositional data information on digestibility and estimated metabolizable energy offers opportunity to
formulation of least cost ration.
Selection of the promising oat varieties/accessions is one of the most important decisions of plant breeders.
This decision has an impact on the potential yield (forage and grain), disease and insect management and
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ISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)
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maturity of the crop. There is no any animal feed technology which is tested in the study area (Guji zone) and no
information on forage nutritional quality due to the remoteness of the area and Bore Agricultural Research was
established recently. This experiment was initiated to introduce, evaluate oat genotypes for yield and yield
attributes, see the adaptability to that specific agro ecology and see the nutritional quality of adapted Oats.
Therefore, the experiment was conducted with the objective of introducing, adapting, see the yield, quality and
recommend improved Oat accessions/varieties to the area so as to address farmers in quality and large quantity
of forages for sustainable livestock production and productivity of their by contributing to the food security
through increasing livestock production.
Materials and Methods
Description of the study area
The experiment was carried out at Bore Agricultural Research Center, which is one of recently established
Research Centers in the Oromia Agricultural Research Institute (OARI) at Bore district, Guji Zone of Oromia.
Bore district is located at 385 km to the south from Addis Ababa and 220 km from the Guji Zone capital city
(Negele) with geographical location of 557'23” to 626'52” N latitudes and 3825'51” to 3856'21” E longitudes,
South-eastern Oromia. It has moist humid and sub humid moisture condition, with relatively longer growing
season. The annual rain fall is about 1400-1800mm and the annual temperatures of the district ranged from 10.1
to 20
O
C. The major soil types are Nitosols (red basaltic soils) and Orthic Aerosols (Yazachew and Kasahun,
2011). Bore Agricultural Research station is located at 7km from Bore town which is geographically located at
624'37” N latitude and 3834'76” E longitudes. The research site represents highlands of Guji Zone with an
altitude of 2736m.a.s.l. receiving high rainfall characterized by bimodal distribution. The first rainy season
extends from April to October and the second season starts late November and ends at the beginning of March.
The soil type of the site is mostly black soil.
Experimental procedure
The trial was arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD). There were three blocks each containing
10 plots of Oat accessions (CI-8251, CI-8235, CI-8237, Lampton, Jasari, SRCPX80Ab2291, SRCPX80Ab2806,
79Ab384 (TX) 80SA95, 79Ab384 (TX) 80SA94 and Grayalegris) resulting to 30 plots in total and tested for two
years, 2 plots of Oat varieties (Bonsa and Bonabas) resulting to 6 plots in total tested for one year with each plot
measuring 3m x 4m. Distance between plots and replication were 1m and 1.5m respectively. Plots in each block
were randomly assigned to each treatment. Broad casting methods and no fertilizer were applied at the planting
time for the treatments of Oat accessions. Row method with 30cm spacing and no fertilizer were applied for the
varieties of Bonsa and Bonabas. The nutrient analysis was conducted at Adami Tulu Agricultural Research
Center and Holeta Agricultural Research Center Laboratory.
Composite samples from each Oats accessions and varieties were collected at 50% flowing stage in the
respective years. Samples were dried at 65
O
c in a forced draft oven for 72 hrs. All samples were ground using a
willy mill and allowed to pass through 1mm screen, run in duplicates and Dry matter (DM), Ash, Crude protein
(CP), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) and In vitro
dry matter Digestibility (DOMD) were determined by Near Infra Red Reflectance) NIRRS methods and
Hemicellulose was calculated by subtracting the ADF from the NDF content while cellulose was determined by
subtracting the ADL from the ADF content and results were carefully collected. Harvest index (HI) was
calculated on a plot basis, as the ratio of dried grain weight adjusted to 12.5% moisture content to the dried total
above ground biomass weight. Disease severity score was calculated as
= Sum of all disease rating X100
Total number of rating *Maximum disease grade
Data collected
Date of emergency, date of 50% flowering, lodging, disease resistance, pest resistant, green forage yield, plant
height, date of maturity, seed yield and harvesting index (HI) and chemical composition data were carefully
collected for all accessions/varieties at consecutive years.
Statistical analysis
Data on agronomic parameters, yield and chemical analysis was analyzed by using SAS computer soft ware
(SAS, 2002 version 9.1) and General Linear Model (GLM) was used at 5% significance level.
Result
Yield and yield components
The result of analysis shows that there was a significant difference in date of flowering, date of maturity, lodging,
disease resistance, plant height, green forage yield, seed yield and HI for oat accessions/varieties.
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Table 1. Agronomic and yield parameters as influenced by Oat accessions
Accessions Date of
emergency
Disease
severity
score
Lodging % Plant
vigor
Green
forage
yield
tone/ha
Date of
50%
flowering
Plant
height in
cm
Date of
maturity
Seed
yield
Qun/ha
HI
LAMPTON 7 26.67
ab
30.00
ab
95.00
a
76.80
bcd
120.00
dc
179.250
ab
193.00
bc
26.51
bcd
3.822
b
SRCPX80Ab2806 7 3.33
c
0.00
d
91.67
ab
65.60
cd
106.00
ef
147.667
dc
182.33
dc
49.59
abc
7.613
a
JASARI 7 40.00
a
0.00
d
91.67
ab
54.40
d
120.00
dc
133.167
de
177.00
d
23.55
d
4.323b
79Ab384
(TX)80SA95
7 13.33
bc
6.67
dc
90.00
bc
91.20
ab
109.33
edf
143.750
dc
182.33
dc
51.60
a
5.570
ab
CI-8251 7 3.33
c
0.00
d
93.33
ab
105.60
a
135.00
b
174.167
ab
200.33
b
56.93
a
5.247
ab
CI-8235 7 8.33
c
20.00
bc
92.33
ab
92.80
ab
116.33
de
174.417
ab
187.67
dc
38.72
4.190
b
79Ab
382(TX)80SA94
7 3.33
c
0.00
d
86.67
c
73.60
bcd
99.00
f
123.833
e
177.00
d
54.60
a
7.957
a
CI-8237 7 26.67
ab
43.33
a
91.67
ab
82.80
abc
130.00
bc
181.167
a
187.67
dc
23.46
d
3.127
b
GRAYALEGRIS 7 8.33
c
0.00
d
91.67
ab
60.80
cd
150.00
a
147.083
dc
215.00
a
23.94
cd
4.123
b
SRCP X
80Ab2291
7 18.33
bc
0.00
d
93.33
ab
76.80
bcd
109.00
edf
159.833
bc
177.00
d
41.23
5.247
ab
SEM 0 8.574294
9.408428 2.906570 14.57907
6.430253
10.39572
7.352500
14.98785
1.631325
a, b
Means in a column within the same category having different superscripts differ (P<0.05); cm = Centimeter;
ha = hectare; HI = Harvesting Index; Qun = Quintal and SEM = Standard Error of Means
The analysis of Oat varieties (Table 2) shows that, Bonsa was significant in seed yield, while Bonabas was
significant in plant height when compared to each other at (P< 0.05).
Table 2. Agronomic and yield parameters as influenced by Oat variety
Variety Date of
emergency
Lodging%
Date of
flowering
Plant Height
in cm
Green forage
yield in tone/ha
Seed yield
in Qt/ha
HI
Bonabas 7.00 0 96.0 184.667
a
85.60 23.233
b
9.900
Bonsa 7.00 0 96.0 161.553
b
81.60 53.790
a
6.800
SEM 0 0 0 3.436704 16.76902 4.574852 8.628152
a, b
Means in a column within the same category having different superscripts differ (P<0.05); cm = Centimeter;
ha = hectare; HI = Harvesting Index; Qun = Quintal and SEM = Standard Error of Means
Chemical composition
There was a significant difference on dry matter (DM), Ash, organic matter (OM) Crude Protein (CP), Neutral
Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) and In vitro dry matter
Digestibility (DOMD) among the tested Oat accessions/varieties.
Table 3. Chemical composition and digestibility as influenced by Oat accessions
Accessions DM%
Ash OM CP NDF ADF ADL DOMD
Cellulose Hemi-cellulose
LAMPTON
93.89
10.61
83.28 3.270
65.97 44.66 5.000
59.49 39.66 21.31
SRCP x 80Ab2806 95.59
10.45
85.18 7.980
71.10 41.58 5.010
55.22 36.57 29.52
JASARI 90.85
10.41
80.44 5.410
67.08 41.37 4.460
57.91 36.91 25.71
79Ab384 (TX)80SA95 94.60
10.30
84.30 5.050
72.85 48.09 6.120
54.74 41.97 24.76
CI-8251 93.89
10.14
83.75 3.010
75.70 46.94 6.470
54.64 40.47 28.76
CI-8235 95.02
9.96 85.06 4.250
62.51 43.52 4.490
65.58 39.03 18.99
79Ab 382(TX)80SA94 95.83
9.71 86.12 5.970
74.02 48.51 5.930
54.24 42.58 25.51
CI-8237 90.11
9.44 80.67 4.650
64.74 38.88 4.670
61.75 34.21 25.86
GRAYALEGRIS 95.33
9.05 86.28 7.940
66.67 44.14 4.770
59.14 39.37 22.53
SRCP X 80Ab2291 96.49
8.38 88.11 3.680
78.88 55.18 7.780
51.49 47.4 23.7
Mean 94.16
9.845
84.319
5.121
69.952
45.287
5.47 57.42 39.817 24.665
ADF = Acid Detergent Fiber; ADL = Acid Detergent Lignin; CP = Crude Protein; CV=Coefficient of Variation;
DOMD = In vitro dry matter Digestibility; NDF = Neutral Detergent Fiber and OM = Organic Matter
Table 4. Chemical composition and digestibility as influenced by Oat variety
Variety DM%
Ash OM CP NDF ADF ADL DOMD
Cellulose
Hemi-cellulose
Bonabas
90.11
5.21
84.9
5.9
64.24 53.77
8.04
52.77
45.73 10.47
Bonsa 91.52
5.86
85.66
4.2
60.91
52.87
9.35
59.12 43.52 8.04
Mean 90.81 5.535
85.28
5.05
62.575
53.32
8.695
55.945 44.625 9.255
ADF=Acid Detergent Fiber; ADL=Acid Detergent Lignin; CP=Crude Protein; CV=Coefficient of Variation;
DM=Dry matter; DOMD=In vitro dry matter Digestibility; LSD=Least Significant difference; NDF=Neutral
Detergent Fiber and OM=Organic Matter
Discussion
Accession CI-8237 were produced maximum height (181.167 cm), but it did not statistically different with
accession Lampton (179.250 cm), CI- 8235 (174.417 cm) and CI -8251(174.167 cm).This results high green
forage yield. However its lodging percentage (43.3%) was significantly high. While the minimum plant height
(123.833 cm) recorded by accession 79Ab 382(TX) 80SA94 (Table 1). The main cause of those differences in
plant height is due to differences in genetic makeup of the accessions. The significant effect of variety on plant
height in present study is in agreement with previous findings (Kibite et al., 2002b). Chohan et al (2004) also
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ISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)
Vol.8, No.17, 2018
24
reported significant differences among the oats accessions regarding plant height.
Data on green fodder yield (t·ha
-1
) showed that fodder yield varied significantly among the accessions
(Table 1). The fodder yield is the most important trait and the ultimate product of a fodder accession. Accession
CI-8251 produced the highest yield of (105.60 t ha
-1
). While accession Jasari produced the lowest yield of (54.40
t ha
-1
) (Table 1). The analysis of the data revealed that CI-8251 proved to be the highest yielder accession, and as
regards the other characters, it was found to be the highest in plant height, seed yield Qun/ha, HI and less
susceptible to disease and have no lodging, which reflects its better characteristics. The result obtained was in
line with Gautam et al (2006) and Peltonen-Sainio et al (1995) reported positive correlations between tiller
number, fodder and grain yield. Significant difference was observed between CI-8251 and 79Ab 382(TX)
80SA94, SRCPX80Ab2806, Grayalegris and Jasari but CI-8251 was significantly at par with the rest of the other
accessions. Nawaz et al (2004) also reported significant differences among the oat cultivars regarding green
forage yield. These results are inconformity with Ayub et al (2011), Hussain et al (1993), Naeem et al (2006)
and Lodhi et al (2009). Amanullah et al (2004) stated that higher yields of fodder in oat cultivars can be possibly
attributed to their greater leaf area, responsible for more photosynthetic activities having high capacity to store
assimilative products of photosynthesis.
Generally speaking among oat accessions tested, CI-8251 was significant in green forage yield and seed
yield and was less in disease attack and no lodging, CI-8237 was significant in plant height and lodging and less
significant in seed yield (Qun/ha), 79 Ab384 (TX) 80SA94 was significant in seed yield and HI and less
significant in disease attack and has short date of flowering and maturity and no lodging, JASARI was
significant in disease attack and has short date of maturity and less significant in seed yield; GRAYALEGRIS
has long date of flowering and date of maturity and has no lodging and less in disease attack, SRCP X 80Ab2291
has no lodging and short date of maturity as compared to the other accessions at (P< 0.05). Considering all the
agronomic and yield parameters CI-8251 was superior followed by 79 Ab384 (TX) 80SA94.
From the analyzed Oats accessions tested in 2011 summer, SRCP X 80Ab2291 was highest in OM, NDF,
ADF and ADL and less in Ash and DOMD content as compared to other accessions, SRCP x 80Ab2806 was
highest in CP content, LAMPTON was highest in Ash content, CI-8235 was highest in DOMD and less in NDF
content, JASARI was low in OM and ADL content and CI-8251 was less in CP than the rest Accessions at
(P<0.05) and from varieties tested in 2012 summer, Bonsa was highest in Ash, OM, ADL and DOMD content.
However Bonabas was Significant in CP,NDF and ADF content as compared to each other at (P<0.05).
LAMPTON was highest in Ash content, where as SRCP X 80Ab2291 was lowest at (P<0.05) and the
reverse is true for organic matter (OM) content. SRCP x 80Ab2806 was highest in CP where as CI-8251 was the
lowest at (P<0.05). The CP content of all the tested Oat accessions in 2011 summer (Table 3) and both varieties
of Oats tested in 2012 summer (Table 4) which is less than the result of (Dawit and Mulusew., 2011) on the same
variety which might be due to the soil factor and difference in chemical analysis method employed was less than
the average CP content of any feed (10.6) and the CP content of young herbage to be as high as 14 to 16%. Van
Soest (1982). This level of CP is below the recommended minimum level of CP in the diet of ruminants for
optimum rumen function (Van Soest, 1994). Roughage diets with NDF content of 45-65 and below 45% were
generally considered as medium and high quality feeds, respectively (Singh and Oosting, 1992). Therefore some
improvement mechanisms should have to be employed.
The NDF content of 79Ab 382(TX)80SA94 and CI-8235 Oat accessions and variety Bonabas and Bonsa
were (64.74%, 62.51%,64.21% and 60.91%) respectively which is categorized under NDF content of 45-65%,
medium quality feeds (Singh and Oosting, 1992). However, the rest accessions are above 65% percent which
grouped them as poor and the NDF content of all Oat accessions recorded in this experiment ranged above the
66.2% average value reported for tropical grasses (Van Soest, 1994). Roughages with less than 40% ADF is
categorized as high quality and those with greater than 40% as poor quality (Kellems and Church, 1998), and the
ADF value of Oats accessions and varieties in the present study was greater than 40% except CI-8237 which was
(38.88%). This indicates that there has to an enhancement of the feeding value of the grass. All accessions and
varieties of Oats consisted ADL ADL (limits DM intake) value was below 10% which is in a good range (Reed
et al., 1986). The Cellulose content of all the tested Oat accessions/varieties are above the recommended level of
most tropical grasses, 31.9%. Whereas the hemicelluloses contents of the treatments were below the
recommended level of most tropical grasses, 35.4% respectively as noted by Moore and Hatfield (1994).
CI-8235 was highest in DOMD where as SRCP X 80Ab2291 in OM at (P<0.05).The DOMD value of all
Oats accessions and varieties for the current study was in the range of the digestibility of tropical grasses which
lies between 50 to 60% (Own and Jaysuria, 1989) which is considered to best. However CI-8235 was even more
than this value which was (65.58%) due to its low NDF content. DOMD content of the entire tested Oat
accessions were above the average content of is any feed which is 50.3%, but less than the DOMD content of
energy supplement feeds which are 82.2%. The increase in digestibility also will lead to increased feed intake as
digestibility and feed intake are positively correlated (Van Soest, 1982).
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ISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)
Vol.8, No.17, 2018
25
Acknowledgments
Thanks for Oromia Agricultural Research Institute (OARI) for financing the activity, Adami Tulu Agricultural
Research Center animal nutrition laboratory workers for the sample preparation and Holeta Agricultural
Research Center animal nutrition laboratory workers for their analysis work.
Conclusion
Access to new and improved agricultural technologies especially that of forage is highly limited in Guji zone of
Oromia, most probably due to the remoteness from the center and in accessibility of the area. That is why Bore
Agricultural Research Center paved the way to adapt and recommend new accessions/varieties of forages to the
area. Based on the results obtained from the adaptation and nutritional quality analysis improved Oat
accessions/varieties, CI-8251, SRCP80Ab2806 and 79Ab382 (TX) 80SA94, in 2011, Bonsa and Bonabas in 2012
were selected and recommended to highland of the Guji zone. Therefore, those accessions have to be evaluated
under farmers’ conditions so as to prove their best performing ability.
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... recorded from ILRI 8237 to the higher 60.13% obtained from ILRI 6710 followed by 58.08% recorded for ILRI 5453 with a mean value of 54.57%. In disagreement with the current study, higher DM content from oat genotypes was reported by Usman et al. [25] and Amanuel et al. [26]. In addition to genetic variability, this variation might be related to the difference in rainfall, soil fertility, forage harvesting stage, and other climatic conditions in which the studies were carried. ...
... Devkota et al. [28] who studied promising oat varieties in combination with legumes reported a CP value ranging from 44.6 to 69.5 g/kg DM, which is in line with the current study result. Similar CP value was also reported by Usman et al. [25] and Fekede et al. [29] reported in a range from 30.1 to 79.8 g/kg DM and 48 to 76 g/kg DM, respectively. ese results are, however, much lower than the CP level (97.2-133.6 g/kg DM) reported by Khan et al. [30]. is variation might be Means within a row with different superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.05); * * * P < 0.001; * * P < 0.01; * P < 0.05; BK � Bako location; BB � Boneya Boshe location; ILRI � International Livestock Research Institute. ...
... g/kg DM) contained the higher ADL value, and the remaining genotypes remained intermediate in their ADL content. Both the ADF and ADL constituents obtained from the genotypes studied in the current study are in agreement to the finding reported on various studies [7,25,28,33]. All in all, at both testing locations, genotypes ILRI 5453 and 6710 are relatively lower in their both ADF and ADL attributes as compared to the remaining oat genotypes, indicating the two genotypes are more digestible and desirable over the rest of the genotypes tested. ...
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Recognizing the potential and importance of cultivating improved forage crops as a means of tackling the recurrent feed shortage facing the study area, seven oat genotypes were tested in randomized complete block design with three replications across two locations for three growing seasons (2014, 2015, and 2016). The study was aimed to evaluate dry matter (DM) and digestible organic matter yield and nutrient composition of oat genotypes. The study revealed that oat genotypes responded differently for herbage dry matter (DM) and digestible organic matter (OM) yield, and quality parameters in both study locations. Averaged over the seven oat genotypes, herbage DM and digestible OM yield. recorded at Bako were higher than Boneya Boshe location across the study periods. The ash (P > 0.05) content did not vary among oat genotypes at both testing locations, while variation was observed for DM, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), in vitro digestibility, and metabolizable energy (ME) constituents. In general, genotypes ILRI 6710 and 5453 showed higher herbage DM and digestible OM yield. Moreover, the two genotypes are also higher in their in vitro digestibility value and ME, DM, and CP contents but relatively lower in NDF, ADF, and ADL fiber constituents, and thus, they are recommended for wider cultivation.
... The higher agronomic parameters (PH, TPP, NNPP and SR%) were obtained in autumn season than summer season from this study is due to fact that higher rainfall which make faster plant growth and triggering the more tillers and nodes per plats, survival rate, and plant height ( Figure 1). Inline to findings from this study, the previous studies reported by different researchers were demonstrated that the growth parameters of forage species might be greatly affected by weather conditions such as rainfall and temperature [10,21,24,25]. ...
... The higher biomass yield for ILRI-16840 variety than the other varieties from this study is due to the varietal difference. Similarly, the different scholars from Ethiopia were reported that the variability in the biomass yields among the forage species was due to differences in genetic-potential of forage species [21,25,27]. The findings from the present study for fresh biomass yield, which was averaged about 28.87 ton/ha was lower than reported values of (49.81ton/ha) and (77.43ton/ha) for six and five Elephant grass cultivars under rain-fed and irrigated condition by [20] and [18], respectively. ...
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The Elephant grass species is among the tropical-grass and have provided high amount biomass to the livestock. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the agro-nomic parameters and biomass yields of four Elephant grass varieties under rain fed condition in South Omo Zone. The four Elephant grass varieties such as ILRI-16840, Wer-er-1333, Areka-local and Werer-local were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications per variety. The data on agronomic parameters, leaf to stem ratio, biomass yields were analyzed using the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS, and Least Significant Difference (LSD) was used for mean separation. The higher(p<0.05) fresh (38.16ton/ha) and dry biomass yield (18.27ton/ha) were obtained from the ILRI-16840 variety, while the lower fresh biomass yield (18.6ton/ha) and dry biomass yield (8.7ton/ha) were obtained from the Werer-local variety, respectively. Based result from this study, we concluded that the ILRI-16840 variety was best candidate to improve feed availability for enhanced livestock production.
... The highest CP content was obtained from common vetch variety Orakefe at 3 rd sowing date (19.35%). The CP values are in agreement with the values reported in the literature (Bingol et al. 2007, Semmana et al. 2019. The CF content was influenced significantly by a sowing date whereas the NDF, ADF and ADL contents of Hungarian vetch varieties were affected significantly by a sowing date and the variety x sowing date interaction (P<0.01). ...
... justified that variability genomic potential. In supports to result from the present study, the studies stated by [23] and [24] were showed that the difference in biomass yields among the forage crops is ascribed due to variances in hereditary potential of forage species. Moreover, "biomass yields variability for forage species could be reported due to varietal or biological potential" [25]. ...
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The shortage in livestock feeds is among the factors affecting the livestock production in South Omo. This feed shortage stretches to increase unproductive and low productive performance of livestock in the study areas. Thus, present finding intended to evaluate the biomass yields and nutritive values of Leucaena varieties under surface irrigation at Dassench Woreda. The Sermemiret Kebele from Dassench Woreda was nominated for on-farm experimental trial with vigorous connections with Woreda pastoral office experts. The Leucaena varieties viz. DZ-0032, DZ-321, DZdismounts, DZ-235 and DZ-032 were assessed in a randomized complete block design with three replicates per variety. The biomass yields, plant height, branches per plant and nutritive values were analyzed by using the General Linear Model (GLM) and Least Significance Difference (LSD) was used for mean comparison. The DZ-321 variety yielded higher (p<0.05) biomass yields (31.37 tons/ha), whereas the DZ-dismounts variety yielded lower biomass yields (11.88 tons/ha). The DZ-032 variety contained higher (p<0.05) crude protein (233.5g/kg, DM), whereas the DZ-dismounts and DZ- 321 varieties contained lower (p<0.001) crude protein (144.4 g/kg, DM and 148.5g/ kg, DM), respectively. Thus, it was concluded that the agro-pastoralists and pastoralists could enhance the feed availability for livestock by planting DZ-321 Leucaena variety for higher biomass yields
... Kebede et al. (2016) reported the CP content of the Vicia villosa to be 21.4% and 21.6% in Holetta and Ginchi districts, respectively, which is higher than the present finding. Also, Semmana et al. (2019) reported the CP content of the desho grass hay to be 23.18%, which is higher than the present findings (17%). The nutritive value of forage could be affected by agroecology and management (Enoh et al., 2005), season and stage of maturity (Papachristou & Papanastasis, 1994). ...
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This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Vicia villosa supplementation to the basal diet of desho grass hay on feed intake, growth performance, and carcass characteristics of the Arsi-Bale sheep. Twenty-four lambs were assigned by stratified randomization based on their initial body weight into six blocks consisting of four lambs per block to four dietary treatments. Desho grass hay was fed free choice to all experimental lambs whereas 0, 150, 300 and 450 g of Vicia villosa was supplemented to animals. The results showed that the daily DM intake and daily body weight gain of experimental sheep showed significant improvement (P < 0.05) with increased level of inclusion of Vicia villosa into the basal ration. It can be concluded that the supplementation of 450 g of Vicia villosa hay to desho grass hay had a positive effect on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Arsi-Bale sheep.
... Moreover, the highly significant environment effect and its high variance component could be attributed to the large differences between the two test location in altitude, physic-chemical properties of the soil, temperature, differences in both amount and distribution of annual rainfall, and other agro-climatic factors. In supports to the findings from our study the previous study reported by different scholars had confirmed that dry matter yield of forage species greatly influenced by weather conditions such as rainfall, temperature and precipitations (Eshetie Alemu et al., 2018;Usman Semman et al., 2018). Moreover, the previously reported studies from Ethiopia had demonstrated that the higher yield of forage could also be attributed to the favorable rainfall, temperature and available nutrient in the soil (Denbela Hidosa et al., 2020;Asmare Bimrew et al., 2017;Gezahagn Kebede et al., 2016;Kebede Gezahagn et al., 2016;Yasin Muhammad et al., 2003). ...
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Background: Productivity and reproductive performances of livestock in Ethiopia is low mainly due to scarcity and quality of feed. The Desho grass is indigenous to Ethiopia and belongs to the family Poaceae and has high biomass production potential that could be used to tackle the problem of scarcity and quality of feed. Objectives: This study was initiated to evaluate dry matter yield and chemical composition of four Desho grass varieties grown in irrigated lowland of Dassench and Hamer districts of South Omo Zone in southwestern Ethiopia. Material and Methods: The Sermemiret Kebele from Dassench District and Eribore Kebele from Hamer district were selected for a participatory on-farm experimental trial with active involvements of district pastoral office experts and Kebele development agents. Four Desho grass varieties, namely, Areka-DZF#590, Kulumisa-DZF#590, Kindokisha-DZF#591 and Areka local were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications per variety. Data on dry matter yield (DMY), cutting height, number of tillers per plant (NTPP) and leaf to stem ratio (LTSR) were analyzed using the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS. Results: The highest (P < 0.05) dry matter yield (35.09 t ha-1) and Crude protein (CP) (129.50g kg-1 , DM) were recorded for Areka-DZF#590 whereas the lowest dry matter yield (16.96 t ha-1) and CP (90.60g kg-1 , DM) were obtained from Areka local check. Conclusion and Implication: We conclude that Areka-DZF#590 Desho grass variety was found to be the highest in dry matter and crude protein production. Pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, and farmers in the area could enhance feed availability for increased livestock production.
... In the same way's eutrophication supporter discharged materials within the wastewater per hectare (NO 3 , PO 4 , NH 3 , SO 4 ) require estimation. Therefore, it is obligatory to estimate the emission of material input-output in the flower farms and the most greenhouse gaseous emitted from the farms to environments (atmosphere) identified for estimation ( CO 2 , N 2 O, and CH 4 ) and were evaluated or analyzed by using different equations which included equation for evaluation of GHG emitted from wastewater, from nitrogen synthetic fertilizer (DAP, UREA), from solid waste biomass burnt in the farms and combustion of energy sources by vehicles released to the environments at the end life cycle of cut flower production or transportation of main products evaluated using emission factors of the material used or disposed of; but the amount of eutrophication and acidification supporter materials calculated using laboratory results and wastewater discharged per hectare of cut flower production [22] . The identified parameters whether core indicators or sub-indicators, it used to point out the environmental problems that occurred by flower farms in the districts analyzed using Excel and evaluation was done based on average materials flow in the farms per hectare of any activities [23] . ...
Article
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Cultivation of cut flowers is a new agricultural sector in Ethiopia, which currently generates a high amount of income for the country's developments. Despite its significant contribution to economic developments; many issues were raised from communities and environmentalists concerning its environmental performance. Based on this issue the study assesses cradle to gate of cut flower production in the Wolmera district. The main objective of the study was environmental performance evaluation of flower farms in Wolmera district, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia related to operational activities throughout entire life cycles of cut flower production. In this study, primary and secondary data were collected using ISO 14031 standard structured with LCA tool methodology. Data were collected by inventory using an on-site data collection system from its sources. Based on data collected GHG (CO2, N2O, CH4 & NH3) emissions to the atmosphere were evaluated by using an inter-governmental panel on climatic changes (IPCC 2006) for inventory data and eutrophication & acidification estimated from data tested at laboratory levels. Similarly, the study also assesses banned chemicals used in the farms through inventory data assessment, and about 156 chemicals applied in the farms were collected to screen out those banned chemicals used and the two most extremely hazardous chemicals (Impulse & Meltatix) banned by WHO identified in the study. As it understood from a general assessment of all flower farms; all of them haven't EIA document established before construction in the district and production started with having less attention for EHPEA code of conducts in the flower farms which faces the environments for high impacts by emission emitted from flower farms in the district as a whole.
... It is apparent that sufficient amount of rainfall makes faster plant growth and triggered more tiller per plats which are responsible for more dry matter yield. In support to the findings from our study the previous study reported by different scholars had demonstrated that dry matter yield of forage species is greatly influenced by weather conditions such as rainfall, temperature and precipitations [27][28][29]. Year by variety interaction effect on dry matter yield, plant height, tillers per plant and leaf to stem ratio; ...
Article
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Desho grass is indigenous grass to Ethiopia and belonging to the family of Poaceae and has high biomass production potential. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate dry matter yield and chemical composition of four desho (Pennisetum pedicellatum)grass varieties in 2017 and 2018 cropping years at on- station of Jinka Agricultural Research Center under rain fed condition in randomized complete block design with three replications per tested variety. The data on dry matter yield, plant height, tillers per plant, leaf to stem ratio and chemical composition were analyzed using the General Linear Model procedures of SAS. The Areka-DZF#590 gave highest (P>0.001) dry matter yield (27.99t/ha) and whereas the, Kindo kisha-DZF#589 variety gave the lower dry matter yield (14.15t/ha). Likewise, higher (P>0.05) Crude protein (140.12g/Kg, DM) recorded for Areka-DZF#590 and whereas, significantly lowest (P<0.05) Crude protein (90.57g/Kg, DM) obtained for Kindo kasha-DZF#589 variety. Based on this finding, we concluded that farmers who live in comparable agro- ecologies to areas where this stu
... The higher dry matter yield from Jinka on-station than Chali and Shama-Bulket is might be sufficient amount of rainfall, suitable temperature and favorable soil parameters which make faster plant growth and triggering more leaves per plats. In supports to the current result, the previous study reported by different scholars were showed that the dry matter yield of forage species greatly influenced by weather conditions such as rainfall, temperature and precipitations [36,37]. Also, Veronesi F., et al. ...
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Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) species is leguminous herbaceous forage primarily used as feed for livestock due to high protein content and digestible fibers. This study was initiated to evaluate dry matter yield and chemical composition of four Alfalfa varieties grown under rain fed condition in a randomized completed block design in factorial arrangement having three locations (On-station of Jinka Agricultural Research Center, Shama-Bulket and Chali) and four varieties(DZ409, DZ407, DZ local and D5533) with three replications per variety. Data on dry matter yield, cutting height above ground, leaf to stem ratio and chemical compositions were analyzed using the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS. The higher (P > 0.05) dry matter yield (5.20 t ha-1) was recorded for DZ local variety and whereas, the lowest dry matter yield (3.74 t ha-1) was recorded for DZ5533 variety. The higher (P < 0.001) Crude Protein (220.98 g/Kg, DM) obtained from DZ409 variety and whereas, the lowest (P < 0.001) Crude protein (180 g/Kg, DM) obtained from DZ local variety. Based on the result from this study we concluded that farmers and agro-pastoralists could enhance the feed availability for increased livestock production in the study area by planting DZ local alfalfa variety and DZ409 variety for higher dry matter yield and Crude Protein respectively.
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The deficit in quantity and quality of feed in one of the major nutritional impairments that are affecting livestock production in South Omo. Pigeon pea species is among the legume fodder species, which has been playing a pivotal role in providing a high quality protein to the livestock. This study was initiated to evaluate biomass yield and quality parameters of five feed-type pigeon pea varieties. The five feed-type pigeon pea varieties such as DZ-16555, DZ-00420, DZBS, Tsegabe and local pigeon pea were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications per variety. The agronomic parameters, biomass yield and quality parameters were analyzed by using Generalized Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS and Least Significance Difference (LSD) was used for mean comparison among tested varieties. The DZ-16555 variety gave higher (p<0.05) biomass yield (21.27tha-1), while local variety gave the lowest (12.54tha-1) biomass yield. Correspondingly, DZ-16555 variety had higher (p<0.05) crude protein (270.18gkg-1 , DM) over the local variety (190.91gkg-1 , DM). Based result from this study, it was concluded that DZ-16555 pigeon pea variety was best candidate to improve feed and nutritional supply for enhanced production from livestock.
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Fodders are the main source of animal feed in Sibi region. However, the yield per acre is still far below than optimum level of production. Considering such a miserable picture in the region, a series of different fodder production trials were initiated at Large Ruminant Research Institute, Sibi. In the present study, nine cultivars of oats (Avena sativa) were evaluated for different yield components during November, 2007 to January, 2008. Data on plant height, leaf area and fodder yield per unit area were recorded. Differences among cultivars were considered as significant (P< 0.05). The results further revealed that variety No. 725 excelled over all other varieties in higher fresh fodder yield (47.6 kg/hectare) under agro-climatic conditions of Sibi. However, further studies are needed in order to recommend a suitable variety for general cultivation to meet increasing demand of fodder in the region.
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An experiment was conducted to compare the forage yield and quality of oat (Avena sativa L.) varieties namely: Avon, Scott, Ravi, CK-1, F-311, F-411 and PD 2 LV 65 at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan during the year 2008 to 2009. Experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design having three replications and measuring a net plot size 1.8 x 6 m. Varieties differed significantly (P<0.05) in yield, growth and quality parameters. The variety Scott produced significantly higher green forage (71.27 t ha-1) and dry matter yield (15.67 t ha-1) than other varieties due to taller plants (159.1 cm), more number of tillers (287.5 m-2) and leaf area per plant (178.5 cm-2). It had also highest crude protein percentage (9.867%). The varieties CK-1 and Avon had highest crude fibre and total ash percentage, respectively. Keeping in view both forage yield and crude protein contents the variety Scott may be grown under the condition of Faisalabad (Pakistan).
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An investigation to evaluate the performance of different oat varieties (Tibor, Scott, PD2LV65, Sargotha 81 and Swan) was conducted at Arid Zone Research Institute, Bahawalpur. It was observed that days to anthesis, days to maturity, number of seeds per tiller, number of tillers per plant, 1000 grain weight, plant height, fodder yield, grain yield and dry matter yield were significantly different in all varieties. The results revealed that PD2LV65 gave the maximum fodder yield (14160 kg ha -1 ), grain yield (2435 kg ha-1) and dry matter yield (1900 kg ha-1). Hence, PD2LV65 proved to be the best variety among five varieties included in the study under the agro-climatic conditions of Bahawalpur (Pakistan).
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Livestock improvement demands the efficient use of available feed resources. The provision of feeding stuffs of adequate nutritional quality is likely to be the most limiting factor in increasing livestock production in the developing countries. This paper reviews the extent of feed resources available and their potential in meeting the animal needs and maintaining their health status. It deals with the different aspects of fodder crops, concentrate feeding, range resources, non-conventional feed resources, and nutrient requirements of farm animals. It further delineates the strategies to cope with the future threats confronting the livestock sector.
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Development and application of modem technology for upgrading straw in Europe during the 1970's has stimulated intense interest in developing countries. Since 1980, twenty four international workshops have been held in Africa and Asia to consider research and development on crop residues as feed, with emphasis on improving their intake and digestibility in ruminants by treatment with ammonia generated from urea and/or supplementation. Despite much research and development at universities and experiment stations, farmer-uptake of the findings has been minimal. Reasons for this are manifold, but include difficulties of transporting and storing crop residues, insufficient trials at farmer-level demonstrating obvious economic benefits from treatment and supplementation, inappropriate technology and near-absence of agricultural extension services. The annual dry matter production of 2.0 t crop residue per 500 kg livestock unit in developing countries is a vast resource which is currently underutilised. Future population pressure in developing countries will require greater utilisation of crop residues as animal feed; hopefully ways of applying the recent research findings will be found.
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Ten varieties of oats including a check variety were evaluated. Significant differences were observed for plant height, number of tillers per meter row, number of leaves per tiller and green fodder yield while differences for stem thickness and leaf area were non-significant. The highest green fodder yield of 61.11 t ha -1
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A seeding rate for oat (Avena sativa L.) of 500 viable seeds m−2 is used in Finland for development of a uniculm stand, and to avoid post-anthesis tillering and subsequent uneven ripening of the crop. Plant breeding has, however, considerably altered plant height and plant stand structure, thereby possibly changing tillering capacity. The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of tillers to grain yield and morpho-physiological traits comparing an oat landrace cultivar (Jalostettu maatiainen), a modern cultivar (Puhti), and a semi-dwarf line (Hja 76416) when grown at 200 to 900 viable seeds m−2 at increments of 100 seeds m−2. The experiments were conducted at Viikki Experimental Farm, University of Helsinki, Finland (60°13′N), in 1991 and 1992. Increasing the seeding rate significantly increased the number of main culms m−2, but decreased straw length and several yield components on the main shoot. Tillers in the semi-dwarf line contributed 27% to the grain yield at 200 seeds m−2. This line yielded highest at 600 seeds m−2 which favored a uniculm growth habit, and 98% of grain yield was solely from main panicles. Due to the sensitivity of the landrace and modern cultivar to lodging, no significant effect of seeding rate on grain yield was recorded under favorable growing conditions (1991). The highest grain yield for them was recorded at 600 to 800 seeds m−2 with early summer drought (1992). No tiller contribution to grain yield was observed at ⩾ 500 seeds m−2. Following sensitivity to lodging the optimum seeding rate for the longer strawed lines is lower and more dependent on environmental factors than that for the semi-dwarf line.