Abstract

The Bay of Bengal provides many ecosystem services that contribute to human well-being, such as nutrient cycling, fish stocks, water quality, biodiversity, raw materials, and climate regulation. Valuation of the benefits provided by ecosystem services can aid in designing more efficient policies for the protection and in reaching the environmental objectives for the Bay. The most commonly valued services for marine ecosystems are the cultural services, followed by provisioning services, and then regulating and supporting services respectively. Based on landings, herring-like fishes, Indo-pacific mackerels and Hilsa dominated reported landings data, while tuna and shrimp dominated in terms of landed value.
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 6 Issue 2, February 2017
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
Economic Benefits from the Bay of Bengal
Ecosystem Services
Md. Atiqur Rahman1, Abu Sharif Md. Mahbub-E-Kibria2, K M Azam Chowdhury3
1, 2Department of Oceanography, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
3Bangabondhu Skeikh Mujibur Rahman Maritime University, Bangladesh
Abstract: The Bay of Bengal provides many ecosystem services that contribute to human well-being, such as nutrient cycling, fish
stocks, water quality, biodiversity, raw materials, and climate regulation. Valuation of the benefits provided by ecosystem services can
aid in designing more efficient policies for the protection and in reaching the environmental objectives for the Bay. The most commonly
valued services for marine ecosystems are the cultural services, followed by provisioning services, and then regulating and supporting
services respectively. Based on landings, herring-like fishes, Indo-pacific mackerels and Hilsa dominated reported landings data, while
tuna and shrimp dominated in terms of landed value.
Keywords: Bay of Bengal, Marine ecosystems, Ecosystem services, Economic benefits
1. Introduction
The concepts of ecosystem services and „natural capital‟
have recently been developed to make explicit this
connection between human welfare and ecological
sustainability for policy, development and conservation
initiatives [1]. Coastal and Marine ecosystem plays a vital
role in supporting economic prosperity and social welfare in
developing countries. They sustain the livelihoods of
millions of poor households; provide multiple ecosystem
services that are essential for life, yield vast amounts of
food, and play a critical role in driving weather and climate
[2]. With the participatory approach it is fostered the
integration of different values attributed by stakeholders to a
specific ecosystem service and how it is affected by a given
decision. Bangladesh has vast coastal and marine resources
along its south edge. Due to the geographical position and
climatic condition, the coastal area of the country is known
as one of the highly productive areas of the world. The
biological and ecological values of the Bay of Bengal have
been pointed out by many authors. The coastal and marine
fisheries have been playing considerable roles not only in
the social and economic development of the country but also
in the regional ecological balance [3]. Economic analyses of
ecosystem services require a clear understanding of the
linkages between final values, benefits and ecosystem
services over temporal and spatial scale. This will allow the
decision makers to integrate the ecosystem services into
mainstream decision-making processes [4]. Over recent
years, much progress has been made towards getting a better
understanding of the role of the natural environment in
contributing to our economic performance as a country and
as individuals. The main objective of this paper is to
understand benefits of Bay of Bengal ecosystem services for
human well-being, taking into account possible future
developments.
2. Literature Survey
Economic valuation seeks to quantify the ways in which
ecosystem services provide benefits to human populations,
and express these values in monetary units that can be
compared with other sources of value to society. Valuation
techniques essentially seek to estimate Willingness to pay
through different ways developed for different types of data
[5]. Currently there are 42 countries in the world with
reports of commercial seaweed activity. About 90% seaweed
production comes from cultured based practices. Some 221
species of seaweed are utilized commercially. Of these,
about 145 species are used for food and 110 species for
phyco-colloid production. Large scale seaweed mariculture
is carried out only in Asia, where there is a high demand for
sea weed products and burgeoning populations to crate
market growth. East and South East Asian countries
contribute almost 99% cultured production, with half of the
production supplied by China. Most output is used
domestically for food but there is a growing international
trade [6].
Valuation techniques essentially seek to estimate
Willingness to pay through different ways developed for
different types of data. Approximately 400 million people
live in the Bay of Bengal catchment area, many of whom
live in poverty. Many of these people depend wholly or in
part upon fishing for their livelihood, and marine resources
contribute significantly to income, livelihood, food security
and employment [7]. Approximately two million fishermen
are directly involved in coastal capture fisheries, the
majority of whom are in Bangladesh, India, the Maldives
and Sri Lanka [8]. Important fisheries include inshore small
pelagics, demersal fish species, shrimp fisheries and
offshore tuna, and species of particular significance include
Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), hilsa
(Tenualosailisha) and various shark species. Marine fish
yield has increased four-fold over the last thirty years, and as
of 2003, stood at approximately 4 million tons [9]. In 2011,
Kenter and others developed a participatory and deliberative
approach of choice experiment aimed to define the value
attributed to ecosystem services in Solomon Islands. They
showed how a participatory process could be helpful to find
solutions and how important it is to the valuation of a
complex good in developed and developing economies [10].
Through more pluralistic approaches, it is arguably possible
Paper ID: ART2017907
DOI: 10.21275/ART2017907
1994
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 6 Issue 2, February 2017
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
to achieve fair procedures with legitimacy. The deliberative
processes could help to formulate values [11].
The Bay of Bengal and its coastal areas are one of the most
poorly studied areas of the world although it possesses high
potential for further stock improvement. The coastal and
marine fisheries of the Bay of Bengal are briefly reviewed in
this paper to provide a salient feature of the available
information and resource base and to identify future research
and management needs.
3. Material and Method
The paper combined market-based valuation of economic
activities and value transfer methods for non-marketed
impacts. The data used here mainly collected from
secondary sources. The collected data were synthesized and
the useful data were extracted for study.
4. Result and Discussion
Economical Benefits from the Bay of Bengal-
Bangladesh
Landings from the waters of Bangladesh were estimated to
be 9.5 million ton over the 1950-2006 time period (424,000
ton year-1
since 2000), and consisted almost entirely of
„miscellaneous marine fishes‟ until the mid-1980s. As of the
mid-1980s, landings were reported for several species and
species groups. The main species reported were Hilsa shad
(Tenualosa ilisha), which represented 40% of the total
landings between 1984 and 2006 (over 160,000 ton year-1
since 2000). Crustaceans represented 8% of the total
landings during this same period (1984-2006), with 36,500
ton year-1 since 2000. Overall, reported landings from the
waters of Bangladesh increased steadily until the early
1980s, after which they increased rapidly throughout the rest
of the time period to peak at just under 480,000 ton year-1 in
2006. The main contributor to this was „miscellaneous
marine fishes‟ (over 100 million ton year-1 since 2000),
followed by Hilsa shad (47 million USD/year
since 2000)
and crustaceans (38 million USD/year
since 2000) [12].
Landings by commercial group were dominated by other
fishes and invertebrates‟, followed by herring-like and
crustaceans.
India (Mainland)
Total catches in the EEZ waters of India within the Bay of
Bengal (i.e., the East Coast of India) were estimated to be
32.3 million tons over the period 1950-2006, and 1.2 million
ton year-1
from 2000 on. Multifarious marine fishes made up
the largest portion of total landings, followed by Indian oil
sardine (Sardinella longiceps), drums or croakers
(Sciaenidae) and penaeid shrimps, each representing roughly
7-8% of total landings. Total landed value of catches in
India‟s waters within the Bay of Bengal was estimated at
32.8 billion USD over the period 1950-2006, and over 1
billion USD year-1
from 2000 on. The value by commercial
group was highest for crustaceans, whose landed value was
18 billion USD over the period 1950-2006, and over 470
million USD year-1
from 2000 on. Other fishes and
invertebrates‟ contributed the second highest landed values,
estimated at 277 million USD year-1
from 2000 on, while
catches of perch-likes were estimated at 128 million USD
year-1from 2000 on [13] that showed a smart catch than
others.
Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India)
Landings for the Andaman and Nicobar Islands EEZ waters
totaled 2.0 million tons over the 1950-2006 time periods.
Reported landings were very low from 1950 to the mid
1970s, after which they increased substantially (see catch by
country below) to a peak of just under 128,000 ton year-1
in
1998, followed by a rapid decline to around 56,000 ton year-
1
in the most recent time period. The total landed value
within the EEZ of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands was
estimated at 2.3 billion USD over the entire time period,
with a peak landed value of nearly 129 million USD year-1
in
1998, before landed value declined to around 83 million
USD year-1
by the mid 2000s (Harper et al. 2011, 14-34). By
commercial grouping, perch-like fishes represented the
largest individual component, followed by tuna and
billfishes, crustaceans and herring-like fishes.
Indonesia
Total landings from the BOBLME portion of the Indonesian
EEZ were estimated to be 9.6 million tonnes for the 1950-
2006 period, and 426,000 ton year-1
from 2000 on. The total
value of landings for the 1950-2006 time period was
estimated at 6.2 billion USD, and 239 million USD year-1
from 2000. The landed value was dominated by shrimp, with
banana prawns, estimated at 65 million USD year-1
since
2000 being the single highest taxon, followed by
Metapenaeus spp. and giant tiger prawns (Penaeus
monodon), with 24 and 16 million USD year-1
from 2000 on,
respectively. Landings by commercial groups were largest
for perch-likes, which represented 41% of total landings.
„Other fishes and invertebrates‟, crustaceans and herring-
likes also represented significant portions of the total
landings (15%, 13% and 11%, respectively (Harper et al.
2011, 14-34) in this Large Marine Ecosystem.
Malaysia
Landings from the EEZ waters of Malaysia within the Bay
of Bengal were estimated to be approximately 13.3 million
tons over the period 1950-2006, and 393,000 ton year-1 from
2000 on. The catch was dominated taxonomically by Indo-
pacific mackerels (Rastrelliger spp.) accounting for 19% of
total landings. Landings of Indo-pacific mackerels where
highest from the mid-1980s onward. The total value of
landings from Malaysian waters over the 1950-2006 time
period was estimated at 17.50 billion USD, and about 476
million USD year-1
from 2000 on. Of note is that the
potential target shift from „shrimp and prawns‟ to sergestid
shrimp in the early 1980s is clearly reflected in landed
values, with sergestid shrimp accounting for 22.6 million
USD year-1
from 2000 on [14] which accounted a bit
difference to other countries.
Maldives
Reported landings from the EEZ waters of the Maldives
over the period 1950-2006 were estimated at 3.4 million
tonnes, and 163,000 ton·year-1
from 2000 on. Skipjack tuna
(Katsuwonus pelamis) represented the greatest portion of
total landings (6%), with approximately 12,000 ton year-1
being landed during the 1950s and 1960s, and nearly
Paper ID: ART2017907
DOI: 10.21275/ART2017907
1995
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 6 Issue 2, February 2017
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
140,000 ton year-1
being reported by 2006. Landings of
yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares) were also substantial,
representing 13% of the total catch over the 1950-2006 time
periods. The total landed value was estimated at 12.4 billion
USD for the period 1950-2006 and 550 million USD year-1
from 2000 on. Landed value was dominated by skipjack
tuna, with over 425 million USD year-1
from 2000 on,
accounting for 74% of total landed value. Yellow fin tuna
was valued at 76 million USD year-1
(14%) and frigate tunas
at 16 million USD year-1
(5%) since 2000, while the
remaining species contributed much less to the overall
landed value [15]. Remarkably „sharks and rays‟ were the
third most important taxonomic group in terms of landings
for this region.
Myanmar
Reported landings from the EEZ waters of Myanmar for the
period 1950-2006 were estimated to be 30.8 million tones,
and 1.4 million ton year-1
from 2000 on. Landings were
dominated by the „mixed group‟ of taxa (93%), being
predominately „miscellaneous marine fishes‟ (91%). The
remaining 6% of landings consisted mainly ofnatantian
decapods‟ (i.e., mainly shrimps and prawns) accounting for
351,000 ton (1.1%), Indo-Pacific mackerels (312,000 ton,
1.0%), Sardinella spp. (284,000 t, 0.9%), Indian scad
(208,000 t, 0.7%), anchovies (205,000 ton, 0.6%) and big
eye (198,000 ton, 0.6%). The total landed value from
Myanmar‟s waters was estimated at 21 billion USD for
1950-2006 period, and 990 million USD year-1from 2000 on
[16] that initiated the economic upscale of the country.
Sri Lanka
Landings from the waters of Sri Lanka by all fishing
countries, as presented in the Sea around us Project catch
database based on the global allocation process totaled 2.7
million tons for the period 1950-2006. The main species
caught were herring-like fishes (Clupeiformes), silky shark
(Carcharhinus falciformis) and „mackerels, tunas and
bonitos‟ (Scombridae). The total value of landings over the
period 1950-2006 was estimated to be 5.2 billion USD, and
52 million USD year-1
from 2000 on [17] but increased
afterwards with significant catch amount and catch value.
Thailand
Landings from the EEZ waters of Thailand within the Bay of
Bengal were estimated at 1.4 million tons over the 1950-
2006 time period, and 82,500 ton year-1
from 2000 on . The
total value of landings from the Bay of Bengal portion of
Thailand‟s EEZ was estimated at 1.2 billion USD for the
1950-2006 time period, and 67.5 million USD year-1
from
2000 on. The landed value by commercial groups was
highest for crustaceans and „other fishes and invertebrates‟,
estimated at 22.6 and 22.9 million USD·year-1 from 2000 on
[18] in this region.
High Seas
Landings from the high seas within the Bay of Bengal Large
Marine Ecosystem totaled 5.8 million tons (307,000 ton
year-1 since 2000, Skipjack tuna, Long tail tuna (Thunnus
tonggol) and Kawakawa dominated tax on-specific landings,
each representing 5% of total high seas landings (16,000 ton
year-1,
14,600 ton year-1
and 16,000 ton year-1 respectively
since 2000). Total landings by commercial group were
dominated by „other fishes and invertebrates‟, that
representing 65% of landings (211,000 ton year
-1
since
2000), and „tuna and billfishes‟, representing 25% of total
landings (70,900 ton year-1 since 2000. By landed value,
„tuna and billfishes‟ were estimated about 134 million USD
year-1 since 2000, while „other fishes and invertebrates‟ were
estimated at 126 million USD year-1 since 2000 on [19] for
high seas and related waters of high seas.
Export quantity and Export value (Table 1) for 1976-2008
time period of different countries surrounding the Bay of
Bengal have distinct features among themselves. Thailand is
the country that exported 29,053,711 tons, where as
Bangladesh exported only 1,086,387 tons in that time
period. Total quantity of export of all the countries is
estimated 60,850,697 tons and exported value is
175,815,833 USD. Maldives is a country of which main
GDP depends on fish catch; export a smart quantity of
1,122,582 tons. On the contrary, Exported value for
Thailand is 89,068,597 USD, Bangladesh earned 7,524,415
USD and India 27,312,772 USD.
Table 1: Total exports (quantity and value) by country
bordering the Bay of Bengal, summed for the 1976-2008
time period.
SL
Country
Export Quantity
(tons)
Export Value
(USD)
01
Bangladesh
1,086,387
7,524,415
02
India
8,534,436
27,312,772
03
Indonesia
12,774,144
35,541,179
04
Malaysia
5,396,666
9,043,943
05
Maldives
1,122,582
1,347,664
06
Myanmar
2,617,972
4,084,100
07
Sri Lanka
264,799
1,893,163
08
Thailand
29,053,711
89,068,597
Total
60,850,697
175,815,833
Graphical presentation shows that Thailand is the country
who exported (Figure 1) more than other countries in this
region and Sri Lanka is the lowest exporter within that time
period. According to earnings, reasonably Thailand is the
highest earner of USD (Figure 2) and Maldives is the lowest.
Figure 1: Total export quantity (tons) by bordering
countries of the Bay of Bengal (1976-2008 time period).
Paper ID: ART2017907
DOI: 10.21275/ART2017907
1996
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 6 Issue 2, February 2017
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
Figure 2: Total export value (USD) by bordering countries
of the Bay of Bengal (1976-2008 time period).
5. Conclusion
Valuation is one part of the challenge, but there are many
other factors at play. As with so many environmental issues,
many authors point to the fragmentation of government
responsibilities and the cross-sectoral nature of these issues
as a key challenge going forward. Greater appreciation of
coastal resources also can result in positive changes in
governmental regulations [20]. The fish catch in the Bay of
Bengal was 1.9 million tons in 1981 and 2.4 million tons in
1987. However, there are signs that harvest levels may not
be sustainable, especially with regard to tuna fishing.
Aquaculture operates intensively along the coast, with over
200,000 fish farmers currently involved, and the industry is
expected to expand [21]. For the purposes of valuation,
further work is needed on identifying and describing Bay of
Bengal ecosystem services and their interactions, evaluating
how policy changes affect these ecosystem services and
assessing the effect of changes in ecosystem services to
human welfare. The countries surrounding the Bay of
Bengal face many more challenges than simply the
management of their marine resources. Socio-economic
constraints pose as major challenges in many of these
countries, particularly Bangladesh, where poverty and weak
governance are prevalent and have resulted in fisheries
management considerations being secondary to meeting
basic needs. While each of the Bay of Bengal countries faces
its own unique set of socio-economic and political
challenges, their dependence on coastal resources is
universal.
6. Future Scope
The Bay of Bengal has been increasingly important for local
development as well as for a global perspective. But proper
attention is needed in every aspect of exploitation, handling
and processing, export and marketing as well as in biological
and institutional management strategies. The sustainable use
of fisheries resources is therefore critical to maintaining and
improving the livelihoods and food security of the Bay of
Bengal‟s coastal population.
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Author Profile
Md. Atiqur Rahman, an Environmental Science
Graduate of Stamford University of Bangladesh, has
research interest in Ocean environment, its ecosystem
and services. He completed his Masters Degree from
the department of Oceanography at Dhaka University, Bangladesh.
Paper ID: ART2017907
DOI: 10.21275/ART2017907
1997
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 6 Issue 2, February 2017
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
Abu Sharif Md. Mahbub-E-Kibria is graduated
from Soil, Water & Environment Discipline at Dhaka
University, Bangladesh. He completed his 1st Masters
degree from Xiamen University, China in Marine
Affairs then he obtained his 2nd Masters degree from
the Department of Oceanography, University of Dhaka,
Bangladesh. He has strong research interest in Marine Sediment,
Maine Environment and Marine Ecosystem Services. He has been
working as a Researcher in many local and international research
organizations. He has written research books and research articles.
K M Azam Chowdhury is an Assistant Professor &
Acting Head of the Department, Department of
Oceanography & Hydrography, Bangabandhu Sheikh
Mujibur Rahman Maritime University, Dhaka,
Bangladesh. He is interested in Physical
Oceanography especially Hydrodynamic Modelling in
Oceanography, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Air-Sea Interactions,
Circulation of Ocean and Climate Change. He has total 08 years
service experiences including 03 years Practical Hydrographic
Survey and Research in the Bay of Bengal on board Hydrographic
Ship.
Paper ID: ART2017907
DOI: 10.21275/ART2017907
1998
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Monetary valuation of ecosystem services enables more accurate accounting of the environmental costs and benefits of policies, but this has rarely been applied in developing countries. In such contexts, there are particular methodological and epistemological challenges that require novel valuation methodologies. This paper introduces a new participatory, deliberative choice experiment approach conducted in the Solomon Islands. The research aimed to determine the value people placed on ecosystem services and whether participatory interventions to elicit deeper held values influenced the preferences expressed. Results found that the initial willingness to pay for a number of tropical forest ecosystem services amounted to 30% of household income. Following deliberative intervention exercises, key ecosystem services effectively became priceless as participants were unwilling to trade them off in the choice experiment scenarios, regardless of financial cost. The group based deliberative approach, combined with participatory interventions, also resulted in significant learning for participants. This included a more sophisticated view of ecological-cultural linkages, greater recognition of deeper held values, and greater awareness of the consequences of human actions for the environment. The use of a group-based participatory approach instead of a conventional individual survey helped to overcome many of the practical difficulties associated with valuation in developing countries. Given the impact of learning on valuation outcomes, participation and deliberation should be integrated into valuation of any complex good, both in developing and developed economies. However, such a methodology raises questions about how valuation can deal with unwillingness to trade-off key ecosystem services, which results in the breakdown of monetary valuation methods. Evaluation of the appropriateness of valuation processes and methodologies for assessing deeper held values and use of mixed-method approaches will be essential to ensure policies take into account the extent to which human life is dependent on ecosystem services.
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Bangladesh has vast coastal and marine resources along its south edge. Due to the geographical position and climatic condition, the coastal area of the country is known as one of the highly productive areas of the world. Bangladesh is rich not only in terms of its vast water areas but also in terms of the biological diversity. One of the unique features of the coastal areas is the influence of the mangrove forests, which support a high number of fishes and other commercially important aquatic organisms. The biological and ecological values of the Bay of Bengal have been pointed out by many authors. The coastal and marine fisheries have been playing considerable roles not only in the social and economic development of the country but also in the regional ecological balance. A large number of commercially important fishes have long been exploited which are of high export values. Shrimp aquaculture has become a highly traded export-oriented industry for the last few decades. In spite of having bright prospects, marine aquaculture on a commercial basis as well as marine stock enhancement and sea ranching are yet to be developed. The marine fisheries sector has been suffering from chronic disintegration and mismanagement that have led to many consequences. Most of the commercially important fish stocks are either overexploited or under threat. Marine pollution has reached a level that could create an unmanageable situation in the near future; coastal shrimp farming has generated considerable debates due to its adverse environmental and socioeconomic impacts. The Bay of Bengal and its coastal areas are one of the most poorly studied areas of the world although it possesses high potential for further stock improvement. Proper attention is needed in every aspect of exploitation, handling and processing, export and marketing as well as in biological and institutional management strategies. The Bay of Bengal has been increasingly important for local development as well as for a global perspective. The coastal and marine fisheries of the Bay of Bengal are briefly reviewed in this paper to provide a salient feature of the available information and resource base and to identify future research and management needs.
Article
The concept of ecosystems services has become an important model for linking the functioning of ecosystems to human welfare. Understanding this link is critical for a wide-range of decision-making contexts. While there have been several attempts to come up with a classification scheme for ecosystem services, there has not been an agreed upon, meaningful and consistent definition for ecosystem services. In this paper we offer a definition of ecosystem services that is likely to be operational for ecosystem service research and several classification schemes. We argue that any attempt at classifying ecosystem services should be based on both the characteristics of the ecosystems of interest and a decision context for which the concept of ecosystem services is being mobilized. Because of this there is not one classification scheme that will be adequate for the many contexts in which ecosystem service research may be utilized. We discuss several examples of how classification schemes will be a function of both ecosystem and ecosystem service characteristics and the decision-making context.
Article
{textlessptextgreatertextless}br/textgreaterWhile a sustained flow of ecosystem services brings tangible benefits to humans, some ecosystem states and suites of services may be more desired by some people than others. Allocating or using the flow of services is loaded with asymmetries, complex power dynamics and political struggles between groups of people. We argue that the issues associated with such allocation and use questions are poorly integrated into the literatures of resilience, sustainability, and vulnerability. To illustrate this, we focus on three socially constructed factors that inhibit a fuller understanding about how to sustain the flow of ecosystem services: (1) rigidity/poverty traps; (2) power asymmetries; and (3) scientization of policy/politicization of science. These factors limit our ability to assess the sustainable flows of ecosystem services, and in particular to better understand the trade-offs and limits to aggregate human activity. We demonstrate that an improved understanding of the allocation trade-offs and limits to the flows of ecosystem services could result from more applied research that integrates the developing fields of deliberative democracy, pragmatic environmental philosophy, and legitimacy and rule compliance. Without the understanding that such integration would bring, researchers and policy makers risk underestimating the limits on flows of ecosystem services and how to accomplish their provision toward the greater collective - rather than individual - good.textless/ptextgreater
Coastal and Marine Resources
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LME #34: Bay of Bengal by
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