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Abstract

A pesar de la gran diversidad de grupos indígenas que existen en Bolivia, muy pocos estudios han documentado de forma detallada su conocimiento y uso de los recursos naturales. Los Chácobo son un pueblo de la familia de los Pano, con aproximadamente 500 miembros ubicados en el norte del depto. del Beni y que al igual que muchos otros grupos indígenas de la Amazonía han empleado diferentes estrategias para satisfacer sus necesidades de subsistencia, que inicialmente cuando aún eran nómadas estaba basada en la recolección de productos del bosque y aun lo hicieron durante todo el proceso de su establecimiento en las que ahora son sus comunidades actuales. Esta publicación describe el conocimiento de 329 especies de plantas que fueron reportadas como útiles por las mas de 250 personas adultas que fueron entrevistadas por el equipo Etnobotánico Chácobo en las comunidades de la TCO Chácobo Pacahuara (Dpto, Beni, Bolivia): Alto Ivon, Cachuelita, Castañalito, Firmeza, Fortaleza, La Selva, Las Limas, las Petas, Los Cayuces, Marinomo, Motacuzal, Naranjal, Nucleo, Nueva Unión, Nuevo Moxos, Palmera, Paraiso, Puerto Tujuré, Siete Almendros, Tokio, Tres Bocas, visitadas entre octubre de 2013 y diciembre de 2014. El objetivo principal del presente libro es revalorizar la importancia que las plantas tienen en comunidades indígenas asentadas en la región norte de Bolivia y los ecosistemas de bosques que las albergan, aportando a la documentación del conocimiento tradicional de los Chácobo-Pacahuara en Bolivia y favoreciendo a la conservación de sus bosques. Esta publicación es parte de los esfuerzos por recuperar y documentar información disponible acerca de los Chácobo y su cultura, y devolverlo a sus propietarios, que bajo el Protocolo de Nagoya sobre acceso a recursos genéticos y participación justa y equitativa en los beneficios provenientes de su utilización, les corresponde a los Chácobo. El conocimiento del pueblo Chácobo es propiedad intelectual del mismo. Con esta edición especial de Ethnobotany Research and Applications tratamos de llevar el tema de investigaciones interdiciplinarios y e intercientificos a un público más amplio.
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... Thus, they are considered to have knowledge about medicinal plants, both for their ability to retain it throughout life, derived from lived experience [41], and due to the frequent use they make of them [6], which is related to the number of plants that are cited in a free list, for example. These works end up restricting comparisons between individuals of different generations [41][42][43]. ...
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Background The free list, also written “freelist”, or “free recall”, is an ethnographic method that characterizes the local knowledge of a population about a given cultural domain. However, there is still much to elucidate about the variables that can influence the number of items that participants cite using this technique. This study applied a casual-comparative experimental design to analyze whether 3 months’ time, age, and external stimuli influence the similarity of plant free lists applied at different times. Methods Data was collected from 103 farmers from the rural community Alto dos Canutos, in the municipality of Picos, Piauí state, Brazil. Two free lists were conducted at two different times, with an interval of three months between them. Subsequently, the similarity between the first and second free lists of each participant was calculated using the Jaccard Similarity Index. The generalized linear model (GLM) with binomial errors and stepwise approach was used to analyze the effects of age and external stimuli on information collection when comparing free lists applied at different times. Results Participants’ age influenced the information that the free lists collected, demonstrating that the older the participants, the lower the similarity among the free lists. Among the external stimuli analyzed, only the presence of third parties influenced the content of the free lists at the time of the interview. However, contrary to expectations, third-party presence positively influenced the similarity of the lists. Conclusion The results show that the studied variables age and third-party presence can influence the capture of knowledge. These findings warrant future research into the influences’ causes and their potential mitigation, e.g., by isolation or by breaking the medicinal plant domain into focused sub-domains and conducting simpler, successive free-lists, which can mitigate memory issues.
... Thus, they are considered to have knowledge about medicinal plants, both for their ability to retain it throughout life, derived from lived experience [41], and due to the frequent use they make of them [6], which is related to the number of plants that are cited in a free list, for example. These works end up restricting comparisons between individuals of different generations [41][42][43]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The free list, also written “freelist”, or “free recall”, is an ethnographic method that characterizes the local knowledge of a population about a given cultural domain. However, there is still much to elucidate about the variables that can influence the number of items that participants cite using this technique. This study applied a casual-comparative experiemental design to analyze whether three months’ time, age and external stimuli influence the similarity of plant free lists applied at different times. Methods: Data was collected from 103 farmers from the rural community Alto dos Canutos, in the municipality of Picos, Piauí state, Brazil.Two free lists were conducted at two different times, with an interval of three months between them. Subsequently, the similarity between the first and second free lists of each participant was calculated using the Jaccard Similarity Index. The Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with binomial errors and stepwise approach was used to analyze the effects of age and external stimuli on information collection when comparing free lists applied at different times. Results: Participants’ age influenced the information that the free lists collected, demonstrating that the older the participants, the lower the similarity among the free lists. Among the external stimuli analyzed, only the presence of third parties influenced the content of the free lists at the time of the interview. However, contrary to expectations, third-party presence positively influenced the similarity of the lists. Conclusion: The results show that the studied variables age and third-party presence can influence the capture of knowledge. These findings warrant future research into the influences' causes and their potential mitigation, e.g., by isolation or by breaking the medicinal plant domain into focused sub-domains and conducting simpler, successive free-lists, which can mitigate memory issues.
... Sometimes Aloysia is part of healthy beverages (emolientes) often used for breakfast (Bussmann et al. 2015). In Bolivia, similar uses have been reported (Bussmann et al. 2016;Paniagua Zambrana et al. 2017;Paniagua-Zambrana and Bussmann 2018;Quiroga et al. 2012). ...
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An interview with Rainer W. Bussmann, Full Professor of Ethnobotany and Head of the Department of Ethnobotany at the Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Georgia and co-director of Saving Knowledge. His work focuses on ethnobotanical research and the preservation of traditional knowledge, in the Andes, the Caucasus, and the Himalayas. © 2022, Ilia State University, Institute of Botany, Department of Ethnobotany. All rights reserved.
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Los Chácobo pertenecen al grupo lingüístico Panoan, que incluye unas doce tribus (Chácobo, Pacahuara, Matis, Matses, Yaminahua, Ese Eja y otros) en toda Sudamé-rica. A finales de la década de 1890 vivían como cazadores semi-nómadas y culti-vadores de yuca y maíz, probablemente distribuidos en dos grupos en el norte de Bolivia. Durante el auge del caucho, a principios del siglo XX, fueron forzadas por tribus más agresivas a trasladarse al norte. Su primer contacto permanente con el mundo exterior ocurrió solo en 1953 con miembros de las Misiones de las Tribus, y en 1954 el Gobierno boliviano estableció una agencia a unos 15 km de la ubicación actual de Puerto Limones. El lingüista misionero Gilbert Prost llegó en 1955 bajo el auspicio del Instituto de Lingüística de Verano (SIL por sus siglas en inglés). El primer estudio del grupo fue realizado en 1911 por el antropólogo europeo Erland Nordenskiöld (1922), seguido por un antropólogo en 1956, que publicó el último relato de la vida de los Chácobo antes de que la tribu estuviera bajo la influencia de los misioneros evangelistas estadounidenses (Haenke, 1958).
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Full-text available
Background: The free list is an ethnographic method that characterizes the local knowledge of a population about a given cultural domain. However, there is still much to be elucidated about the variables that can influence the number of plants cited by the participants with the use of this technique. This study analyzed whether age and external stimuli influence the similarity of free lists applied at different times. Methods: Data was collected from 103 farmers from the rural community Alto dos Canutos, in the municipality of Picos, PI. For that purpose, two free lists were applied at two different times, with an interval of three months between them. Subsequently, the similarity between the first and second free lists of each participant was calculated using the Jaccard Similarity Index. The Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with binomial errors and stepwise approach was also used to analyze how age and external stimuli affect the collection of information when comparing the free lists applied at different times. Results: The age of the participants influenced the information collected in the free lists, demonstrating that the older the participants, the lower the similarity among the free lists. Among the external stimuli analyzed, only the presence of third parties influenced the content of the free lists at the time of the interview. However, contrary to expectations, it positively influenced the similarity of the lists. Conclusion: The results show that the studied variables can influence the capture of knowledge if the objective of the research is to influence the individual knowledge of the participants.
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Cumbrera (Caballete)-Xobomapatí
  • Hoja
Hoja, Cumbrera (Caballete)-Xobomapatí;
Dolor de huesos) Utensilios y herramientas: Otros utensilios (Tronco) XËCA Nombre castellano: Huaylusa, Huaylusa amarilla, Huaylusa morada, Papa Morao Familia botánica: Araceae Nombre científico: Xanthosoma sagittifolium L. Schott NAHUABËXË Batahua
  • Sistema
  • Semilla
Sistema músculo esquelético (Semilla, Dolor de huesos) Utensilios y herramientas: Otros utensilios (Tronco) XËCA Nombre castellano: Huaylusa, Huaylusa amarilla, Huaylusa morada, Papa Morao Familia botánica: Araceae Nombre científico: Xanthosoma sagittifolium L. Schott NAHUABËXË Batahua, Guitarrero Schefflera morototoni (Aubl.)
No reportado Familia botánica: Urticaceae Nombre científico: Pourouma minor Benoist USOS Alimentación humana: Alimento (Fruto, Comestible) Alimentación animal: Forraje (Fruto, Comida animal) Combustible: Tronco, Leña -Caro Utensilios y herramientas: Herramientas de caza y pesca (Tronco
  • Yahë Nombre Xaquini
  • Castellano
XAQUINI, YAHË Nombre castellano: No reportado Familia botánica: Urticaceae Nombre científico: Pourouma minor Benoist USOS Alimentación humana: Alimento (Fruto, Comestible) Alimentación animal: Forraje (Fruto, Comida animal) Combustible: Tronco, Leña -Caro Utensilios y herramientas: Herramientas de caza y pesca (Tronco, Arco -Canatí);
Dolor de huesos) Utensilios y herramientas: Otros utensilios (Tronco) USOS Construcción: Casas (Tronco, Cerco -Panë, Muchacho -Ninotí, Tirante largo -Cano pixquëna)
  • Sistema
  • Semilla
Sistema músculo esquelético (Semilla, Dolor de huesos) Utensilios y herramientas: Otros utensilios (Tronco) USOS Construcción: Casas (Tronco, Cerco -Panë, Muchacho -Ninotí, Tirante largo -Cano pixquëna);
USOS Alimentación humana: Alimento (Semilla, Comestible) Construcción: Casas (Corteza, Amarre de casa; Tronco, Armazón de casa, Jihuixaca) Medicinal y veterinario: Piel y tejido subcutáneo
  • Manija Manija De Batán -Chapi
  • De Tacú
Manija de batán -Chapi, Manija de Tacú, Tacú -Arusa timatí) ALMENDRO Familia botánica: Vochysiaceae Nombre científico: Qualea grandiflora Mart. USOS Alimentación humana: Alimento (Semilla, Comestible) Construcción: Casas (Corteza, Amarre de casa; Tronco, Armazón de casa, Jihuixaca) Medicinal y veterinario: Piel y tejido subcutáneo (Semilla, Acné);
Tirante -Cano Bëpotó, Tirante corto -Cano Bësëcamë, Tirante largo -Cano pixquëna)
  • Costilla -Canoxoco Tronco
  • Muchacho -Ninotí
Tronco, Costilla -Canoxoco, Muchacho -Ninotí, Pasa ratón -Xoya jabatí, Tirante -Cano Bëpotó, Tirante corto -Cano Bësëcamë, Tirante largo -Cano pixquëna);