The purpose of this study is to examine the social impact of natural hazards in Japanese society. Using the Japanese General Social Survey, this study examines how citizens’ previous experiences and perceived risks of disasters are associated with their levels of four different forms of trust: in-group, out-group, generalised, and political trust. Furthermore, as the survey was conducted a year ... [Show full abstract] after the devastating Triple Disaster in 2011, the study examines the residents of the Tohoku region, who were the primary victims of the Triple Disaster. The results of this study suggest that the disaster experience is positively associated with trust: Japanese citizens with disaster experience had higher levels of in-group and out-group trust than those without disaster experience, and Tohoku residents showed higher levels of out-group, generalised, and political trust than the residents of other regions. Contrarily, citizens’ perceived risks of disaster showed negative relationships with trust: the Japanese citizens who perceived higher risks of disasters had lower levels of out-group, generalised, and political trust. However, the negative effects of the perceived risks of disasters significantly reduced among Tohoku residents.