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Novel food processing technologies: An overview

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International Journal of Chemical Studies 2018; 6(6): 770-776
P-ISSN: 23498528
E-ISSN: 23214902
IJCS 2018; 6(6): 770-776
© 2018 IJCS
Received: 09-09-2018
Accepted: 13-10-2018
Fozia Hameed
Research Scholar Division of
Food science and Technology
SKUAST Chatha Jammu,
Jammu and Kashmir, India
Anjum Ayoub
Research Scholar Division of
Food science and Technology
SKUAST Chatha Jammu,
Jammu and Kashmir, India
Neeraj Gupta
Assistant Professor Division of
Food science and Technology
SKUAST Chatha Jammu,
Jammu and Kashmir, India
Fozia Hameed
Research Scholar Division of
Food science and Technology
SKUAST Chatha Jammu,
Jammu and Kashmir, India
Novel food processing technologies: An overview
Fozia Hameed, Anjum Ayoub and Neeraj Gupta
Novel food processing technologies arose as a result of consumer’s desire for safe, tasty, fresh and mild
processed food products with long shelf life and maintained quality. Recent trend of lifestyle changes, as
consumers demand products with a significant nutritional contribution, bioactive compounds, and good
sensory properties, posed a great challenge toward food processing sector for the evolution of novel and
innovative food processing techniques. The novel food processing technologies, viz. HPP, PEF,
Irradiation, ultrasonication and cold plasma which influence on consumer’s health have been the major
innovations in the field of processing technology. These novel techniques act by prolonging the shelf life,
enhancing or maintaining the quality, and to regulate freshness of food product. The main objectives of
this review article are to provide basic knowledge of different new and innovative food processing
techniques about their way of preservative action, effectiveness and suitability in various types of foods.
Keywords: innovative, shelf life, processing, quality, bioactive
Novelty and recent trends in food processing techniques are the result of consumer demand for
health promoting foods with high nutritional and nutraceutical values (Bagchi, 2008) [4]. Since
ancient times, the approach of the food industry was to provide safe food product with long
shelf-life; however, presently it is not enough to simply produce safer food as consumers
demand products with a significant nutritional contribution, bioactive compounds, and good
sensory properties. The important food quality attributes, such as taste, texture, appearance,
and nutritional value, are strongly dependent on the way food is processed (Knoerzer et al.,
2016) [27]. Microorganisms are the main target organisms for food spoilage and poisoning so
are targeted by different food preservation procedures. Food processing methods used by
industry rely either on microbial inactivation or inhibition of microbial growth. Conventional
heat-dependent pathogen-reduction methods such as thermization, pasteurization and in-
container sterilization can adversely affect taste, nutritional value and appearance. Alternative
techniques for traditional thermal processing of food have received much interest, due to
increased consumer demand to deliver higher quality and better consumer-targeted food
products, many innovative food processing techniques called “novel” or “emerging”
techniques have been developed. Several novel processing techniques recently introduced; in
particular, were high pressure processing (HPP), pulsed electric field (PEF), ultrasonic,
irradiation, cold plasma, hydrodynamic cavitation etc (Knorr et al., 2011) [28]. Additionally,
food products processed through these innovative techniques contribute to global food security
by extending shelf life (Knoerzer, et al., 2015) [26]. This review aims to describe the basic
principles, mechanism of action and applications of some of these emerging technologies.
Novel food processing technologies
Thermal processing is commonly used to extend the shelf-life and to ensure the
microbiological safety of food products because of its ability to inactivate microorganisms and
spoilage enzymes (Rawson et al., 2011) [50]. However, thermal processing can cause
detrimental effects on the quality and nutritional values of the fruit-based commercial
products. The constituents responsible for color, flavor and taste are typically heat-sensitive, so
thermal processing can easily change the quality of the commercial fruit products and affect
product acceptability (Gao et al., 2016) [18]. Thus, the search for alternative methods for
thermal food processing which would generate a safer product with higher quality, nutrient
content and sensorial properties incited food scientists to explore other inactivation techniques.
Two broad fields of food processing technologies are currently under research, non-thermal
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technologies, in which the inactivation factor is by physical
hurdles such as pressure, electromagnetic fields, and sound
waves, among others; and novel thermal processing
technologies, which mainly use energy generated by
microwave and radio frequency. However, using such novel
technologies to inactivate microorganisms and enzymes in
food is not enough. A safer product should also be free of
poisonous substances and contact of food with certain
materials during processing should be avoided (Lelieveld &
Keener, 2007) [31]. Thus, evaluation of the overall quality of
food products processed by innovative technologies is an
essential requirement before a product can be
Novel food processing technologies around the world
Non thermal technologies
Non thermal technologies
Thermal technologies
High hydrostatic pressure
Pulsed electric fields
Radio frequency
Ohmic heating
Inductive heating
Cold plasma
Supercritical water
It is worth mentioning that most novel technologies were first
studied as prospective microbial inactivation technologies to
improve the safety of food. However, important results in the
final characteristics of many food items were also observed:
such as intact nutrient content in most of the novel food
products; unique sensorial properties like color, texture, and
appearance; and formation of new aroma compounds. Thus,
the search for microbial inactivation technologies not only
yielded the possibility of a safer product, but also improved
overall product quality, and provided new ingredients for the
development of other novel food products.
High pressure processing
High pressure processing (HPP) is one of the promising non-
thermal preservation techniques and has proven to be an
effective alternative to conventional food preservation
technologies to enhance safety and shelf life of perishable
foods (Balasubramaniam and Farkas, 2008) [5] with minimal
influence on the sensory, physical, and nutritional properties
of foods. High pressure processing (HPP) also referred to as
ultra high pressure UHP) or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)
is the application of elevated hydrostatic pressures of 150 to
700 MPa for 30 s to inactivate spoilage and pathogenic
microorganisms, with the aim of obtaining microbiologically
safe food products while avoiding undesirable changes in the
sensory, physicochemical and nutritional properties of food
(Munoz et al, 2007) [40]. Pressure generation is mechanical
usually through a fluid (water) which is consequently
transmitted to the product. While transmission of pressure is
typically thought to be isostatic and near-instantaneous, the
inactivation of pathogens requires a prolonged hold at high
pressure. This introduces special challenges to manufacturers,
because of the substantially high equipment and maintenance
costs and possible damage to product quality
(Balasubramaniam and Farkas, 2008) [5].
HPP induces less impact on the low molecular weight
nutrients such as vitamins and polyphenols, and compounds
related to sensory properties such as pigments and flavoring
agents compared with conventional thermal processing (Landl
et al., 2017) [30]. Hence, HPP allows better retention of
nutritional values and sensory properties than the traditional
pasteurization technologies. HPP has been successfully
employed to preserve blueberry juice (Barba et al., 2012) [7],
strawberry and its puree (Gao et al., 2016; Marszałek et al.,
2017) [18, 33], pawpaw pulp (Zhang et al, 2017) [56], apple
juices (Nayak et al, 2017) [42], cantaloupe puree
(Mukhopadhyay et al., 2017) [39], grape juice (Chang et al,
2017) [10], and so on, extending their shelf-life in 1060 days
Pascalisation is based actually on activation volume that uses
a transferring medium and is applied only in batch processing
units. HPP is based on the Le Chatelier’s principle indicating
that an application of pressure shifts the systems equilibrium
to the state that occupies the lowest volume. Therefore any
chemical or physical changes (phase transitions, chemical
reactions and changes in molecular configuration)
accompanied by decrease in volume are enhanced by the
application of pressure. Consequently non-covalent bonds are
affected while key food quality parameters remain mostly
unchanged. However, enzyme reactions can occur (e.g. during
pressure build up phase before inactivation), adiabatic heating
takes place (approx. 1-2 °C per 100 MPa) and temperature
and pressure distribution is not entirely homogenous in
processing units.
Mechanism of microbial inactivation
Significant research has been conducted to show the
inactivation of microorganisms by the application of high
hydrostatic pressure in foods (Donaghy et al., 2007) [12]. The
efficiency of HPP to inactivate microorganisms is dependent
on the target pressure, process temperature, and HT. The
relationship between pressure and temperature in a typical
HHP was described by (Muntean et al., 2016) [41]. Different
microorganisms react with different degrees of resistance to
HPP treatment and most of the vegetative microorganisms,
yeasts, and viruses can be inactivated at or near room
temperatures. On the other hand, bacterial spores are
extensively resistant to high hydrostatic pressures and for the
mold sterilization, a combination of pressure (400-600 MPa)
and heat (90-120 °C) is often required. Furthermore the
pressure sensitivity of the bacterial cells also depends on the
growth phase. Bacterial cells in the stationary growth phase
are generally more resistant to pressure than those in the
exponential growth phase (Hayman et al., 2007) [21]. For the
inactivation of vegetative pathogenic and spoilage
microorganisms, HPP pasteurization demands a logarithmic
reduction of 5 or 6 in pathogens at chilled or process
temperatures less than 45 °C and at pressures above 200 MPa.
Pressure, Temperature, and Time during a HPP process
(Ferstl, 2013).
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International Journal of Chemical Studies
The response of the microorganisms largely depends on the
substrate and food composition during the pressure treatment.
On applying pressure following detrimental changes take
place that results in the microbial cell destruction:
Irreversible structural changes of the membrane proteins
and other macromolecules, leading to disruption of cell
membrane (Muntean et al., 2016) [41].
Destruction of homogeneity of the intermediate layer
between the cell wall and the cytoplasmic membrane.
Inactivation of membrane ATPase (Hoover et al., 1989)
Nucleic acid and ribosomal disruption involved in protein
Pulsed electric field
In recent years, pulsed electric field as an emerging
technology has got wide interest for pasteurization of heat-
sensitive liquid food (Mathys et al., 2013) [34], and for refining
heat and mass transfer operations in the food industry
(Puértolas et al., 2016) [49]. PEF provokes the formation of
pores (electroporation phenomenon) by exposing the tissues
to an electric field for short high voltage pulses in the range of
10-80 KV/cm, resulting in cell membrane permeabilization.
Electroporation may be either reversible or irreversible based
on the optimization of electric field strength and treatment
intensity (Zimmermann, 1986) [57]. In case of reversible
electroporation, transient pores formed enables entrapment of
materials of interest inside the cell membranes while
Irreversible electroporation destroys the cells by permanent
membrane damage and is usually used in the processes of
microbial inactivation and to increase extraction yield (Dukić-
Vuković et al., 2017) [14]. This novel technology can ensure
good product quality due to its non-thermal nature and low
energy consumption. PEF is instant targeted, flexible, energy
efficient and because heat is minimized products have longer
shelf life whilst maintain better nutritional value than the
conventional thermal processing. However PEF technology
does have some limitations. For example, any bacterial spores
or mould ascospores in food products are usually resistant to
PEF treatment, even at high intensity. This property could
lead to a failure of the pasteurization process, resulting in a
potential food safety hazard (Arroyo et al., 2012) [1]. In
addition to the spores or ascospores, enzymes are resistant to
PEF treatment. PEF processing is restricted to foods with no
air bubbles and with low electrical conductivity. If bubbles
are present in the PEF treatment chamber, dielectric
breakdown will occur.
Schematic drawing of a flow through treatment chamber
Stages of microbial inactivation process
The process of microorganism inactivation can be divided
into the following main stages
(i) Initial stage (with the duration from nanoseconds to
milliseconds): creation of pores when an electric pulse is
applied (electroporation)
(ii) Stage of evolution of the pore population (with the
duration from nanoseconds to milliseconds): change in
the number of pores and their sizes during an electric
(iii) Post-treatment stage (with the duration from miliseconds
to hours): cell death (complete inactivation) or returning
of the cell to its initial viable state due to pore resealing.
In the latter case, the damage to the cell induced by the
pulsed electric field is sub-lethal.
The final result of the PEF treatment depends on the processes
going on during all these stages. During the action of an
electric field, more and more cells become electroporated
(initial stage of pore formation) and the number of pores
and/or their size increase. After an electric pulse, two
competing processes proceed: (i) cells return to their former
viable state due to pore resealing or (ii) cells die due to the
loss of cell membrane integrity and intracellular compounds.
Applications of PEF in food processing
Pulsed electric fields technology has been successfully used
for the pasteurization of liquid and semisolid foods such as
juices, milk, yogurt, soups, and liquid eggs. Application of
PEF processing is limited to food products with no air bubbles
and with low electrical conductivity. The maximum particle
size in the liquid must be smaller than the gap of the treatment
region in the PEF chamber in order to ensure proper
treatment. The effect of PEF at low electric fields applied
individually or in combination with heating has been
investigated in order to improve the extraction yield of
intracellular compounds present in fruits and vegetables
(Donsì et al., 2010) [13]. PEF treatments at 0.1-10 kV/cm
increased the extraction of hydrophilic compounds, such as
sugar from sugar beet (Eshtiaghi & Knorr, 2002) [15], betaine
from red beetroot (López et al., 2009) [32] and anthocyanins
from grapes, red cabbage (Gachovska et al., 2010) [17] or
purple fleshed potatoes (Puértolas et al, 2013) [48]. PEF has
been recently introduced as an alternative pre-maceration
treatment to increase and speed-up polyphenolic extraction
without altering the sensory properties, highlighting
effectiveness in improving wine stability and color quality
(Morata et al., 2017) [38].
Electropermeabilisation of cells after expose to electric field
and application in food and waste water processing with
typical electric field strength and energy input requirements.
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International Journal of Chemical Studies
Cold plasma
Amongst all innovative non-thermal technologies, cold
plasma (CP) is a relatively novel technology emerged as an
alternative source for surface sterilization and disinfection, for
ensuring the quality and safety of minimally processed food
and the novelty lies with its non-thermal, economical,
versatile and environmentally friendly nature. The term
‘plasma’ refers to a quasi-neutral ionized gas, primarily
composed of electrons, ions and reactive neutral species in
their fundamental or excited states (Pankaj et al., 2014) [43].
Based on the thermal equilibrium, there are two plasma
classesdenominated non-thermal plasma (NTP) or cold
plasma and thermal plasma. Cold plasma is generated at 30-
60 °C under atmospheric or reduced pressure (vacuum),
requires less power, exhibits electron temperatures much
higher than the corresponding gas (macroscopic temperature),
and does not present a local thermodynamic equilibrium. The
cold plasma technique was originally applied to enhance the
antimicrobial activity in surface engineering, bio-medical
field and polymer industries (Sarangapani et al., 2015) [51].
Due to its excellent antimicrobial ability, cold plasma has
attracted much attention for non-thermal preservation of
agricultural products, which has been studied for several fresh
vegetables and fruits in recent years (Misra et al., 2014) [37]. It
is suitable for treatment of heat-sensitive food products
because the ions and uncharged molecules gain only a little
energy and remain at a low temperature (Pankaj et al., 2018)
Effect of Plasma on Microbial Cells
The effect of plasma on microbial cells is cause of plasma
ions and cell interactions. The reactive species in plasma is
widely accompanied with the direct oxidative effects on the
outer surface of microbial cells. The plasma effect depends
highly on the presence of water, moist the organism highest
the effect and vice versa (Dobrynin et al., 2009) [11] Microbial
inactivation of plasma is actually based on the fact that
plasma reactive species damage the deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA) in the chromosomes. The ROS of interest in plasma
processing are hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and the
superoxide anion (Wiseman and Halliwell, 1996) [55]. The
application of plasma for microbial inactivation results in
formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in microbial cells,
which in turn participates in the formation of DNA adducts
resulting in cell damage (Dobrynin et al., 2009) [11]. In
particular, reactive species interacts with water, leading to the
formation of OH* ions (Zou et al., 2003) [58] which are most
reactive and harmful to the cells. It is worth mentioning that
the OH* radicals formed in the hydration layer around the
DNA molecule are responsible for 90 % of DNA damage.
Hydroxyl radicals can then react with nearby organics leading
to chain oxidation and thus leads to destruction of DNA
molecules as well as cellular membranes and other cell
components (Dobrynin et al., 2009) [11]. Although it is well
documented that reactive oxygen species such as oxygen
radicals can produce profound effects on cells by reacting
with various macromolecules. The microorganisms are more
sensitive to singlet state oxygen leading to destruction of cells
(Aziz et al., 2014) [2]. On the other hand lipid bi-layer of
microbial cell is more susceptible to atomic oxygen as the
reactivity of atomic oxygen is much higher than the molecular
oxygen leading to the degradation of lipids, proteins and DNA
of cells. The damage of the double bonds in lipid bi-layer
cause impaired movement of molecules in and out of cell. The
bombardment of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the
surface of bacterial cell also disrupts the membrane lipids.
(Surowsky et al. 2013) [53] found that the active species in
plasma react with the amino-acid in proteins which further
causes irreversible structural changes in proteins leading to
the destruction of the microbial spores.
L + OH• L• + H2O (1)
L• + O2 L-OO• (2)
L-OO• + L L• + L-OOH (3)
L-OOH L-O• (4)
During application of plasma, microorganisms are exposed to
an intense radicals bombardment most likely provoking
surface lesions that the living cell cannot repair quickly, this
process is termed “etching”. The phenomenon of etching is
based on the interaction of relative energetic ions and
activated species with the molecules of the substrate. The
accumulation of charges imparts an electrostatic force at the
outer surface of cell membranes which can cause cell wall
rupture called as electropermeabilization as the same principle
occurring in pulsed electric fields. During application of
plasma treatment where plasma initiates, catalyzes, or helps
sustain a complex biological response, compromised
membrane structure (e.g. peroxidation) or change in
membrane bound proteins and/or enzymes leads to complex
cell responses and may affect many cells as the affected cell
signal others.
Applications of cold plasma (CP)
In the past cold plasma was used for sterilization of thermo
labile materials in the biomedical technology sector and now
it is extended to food industries as a novel non-thermal
technology. In food industry particularly, current cold plasma
research are focused on its applications for food
decontamination, enzyme inactivation, toxin degradation,
waste water treatment and packaging modifications.
Specifically for food processing, cold plasma has proven to be
effective for inactivation of food-borne pathogens and
spoilage microorganisms. Recently, (Han, et al. 2016)
reported different inactivation mechanisms for Gram positive
and Gram negative bacteria by cold plasma. They observed
that cold plasma inactivation of Gram positive bacteria
(Staphylococcus aureus) was mainly due to intracellular
damage and little envelope damage whereas Gram negative
bacteria (Escherichia coli) was inactivated mainly by cell
leakage and low-level DNA damage. Apart from microbial
inactivation, effects of cold plasma on the food quality has
been another important aspect gaining attention of food
researchers. The changes in the enzymatic activity of trypsin
after the application of cold plasma was studied by (Dobrynin
et al., 2009) [11]. It was reported that the plasma was able to
change the 3D structure of proteins in trypsin enzymes due to
cleavage of peptides bonds. In past few years cold plasma has
shown significant potential for degradation of various food
toxins especially mycotoxins (Bosch et al., 2017) [8] drawing
increased interest from food researchers. In case of the
packaging materials plasma treatment is used for surface
decontamination (Pankaj et al., 2016) [44], surface sterilization
(Vesel and Mozetic, 2012) [54] and surface treatments such as
cleaning, coating, printing, painting, and adhesive bonding.
The immobilization of bioactive functional compounds like
lysozyme, nisin, vanillin, sodium benzoate, glucose oxidase,
bovine lactoferrin, lactoferricin, chitosan, nanosilver,
trichlosan, or antimicrobial peptides into the packaging
material by plasma treatment has been extensively studied
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International Journal of Chemical Studies
within the emerging field of antimicrobial and active
packaging (Pankaj et al., 2014) [43]. Phsicochemical effects of
plasma generates the formation of oxidizing species: radicals
(H*, O*, OH*) may diffuse into the liquids and molecules
(H2O2, O3, etc.), shockwave, ultraviolet light and
electrohydraulic cavitation may degrade the pollutant in waste
water or decomposes the pollutant into other compound (Jiang
et al., 2013) [25].
Hydrodynamic cavitation
Hydrodynamic cavitation is another non-thermal
underexplored technology in food processing (Gogate, 2011)
[19]. It is considered more physically effective and energy
efficient than the ultrasound treatment. Hydrodynamic
cavitation can simply be produced either by mechanical
rotation of an object through a liquid or by the passage of
fluid through a constriction such as a venturi, an orifice plate
or a convergent divergent nozzle resulting in increase in
velocity at the expense of local pressure (Huang et al., 2013).
Because of constriction enormous gas bubbles are created and
subsequently collapse violently downstream due to the
recovery of pressure, forming strong mechanical waves and
high-speed micro jets (Kuldeep et al., 2016). Collapsing
cavities generate highly reactive hydroxyl radicals which can
then be harnessed for a variety of applications. Cavitation
number (Cv), a dimensionless parameter, relates the flow
conditions with the cavitation intensity. Ideally, cavitation is
generated when Cv is between 0.1-1, obtained by adjusting
the flow condition and reactor geometry (Bagal and Gogate,
2014) [3]. This novel technology offers several advantages
such as no additional chemicals (clean tech), compact and in-
line reactors and low costs making it a promising technology
Novel hydrodynamic cavitation basically describes the
process of vaporization, bubble generation and bubble
implosion. Cavitation occurs when local pressure drops below
saturated vapour pressure and recovers above vapour
pressure, as a result of sudden decrease and increase in local
pressure. Flashing is said to have occurred if the recovery
pressure is not above the vapour pressure. Increase in kinetic
energy or an increase in the pipe elevation is responsible for
the generation of cavities in the pipe systems.
Cavitation is damaging when uncontrolled. Cavitation power
can be harnessed and non destructive by controlling the flow
of the cavitation. Controlled cavitation generates free radicals
due to disassociation of vapors trapped in the cavitating
bubbles. It can be used to enhance chemical reactions or
propagate certain unexpected reactions which can lead to
degradation or even mineralisation of water constituents
without addition of any chemicals. Extent of cavitation taking
place in any system is explained in terms of the cavitation
number and is simply derived from Bernoulli’s theorem
expressed by the following equation:
Cv = P2Pv
0. V2
P2 is downstream pressure
Pv is the vapor pressure of the liquid and;
V is the velocity at constriction where cavitation takes place.
Novel hydrodynamic cavitation application in food
Hydrodynamic cavitation phenomenon is of great significance
in food extraction and processing. Various high-acid (pH
4.6) fluid foods have been processed in a hydrodynamic
cavitation reactor for commercial sterility. The mechanisms
responsible for cellular inactivation are the physical stresses
owing to hydrodynamic cavitation, and hence hydrodynamic
cavitation reactors can be readily applied for food
sterilization. (Milly et al. 2007) have investigated the
application of hydrodynamic cavitation reactor for
sterilization of fluid foods such as tomato juice, apple juice
and skim milk. It was reported that hydrodynamic cavitation
induced adequate destructive forces to inactivate vegetative
cells of bacteria, yeast, yeast ascospores and heat-resistant
bacterial spores. The main advantage of using a
hydrodynamic cavitation reactor can be lower operating
temperatures for sterilization, and hence foods such as acidic
fruit juices, salad dressings and milk can be safely processed
at reduced processing temperatures, resulting into superior
product quality. Recently, (Milly et al., 2008) also
investigated the application of shock wave reactor for
inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in apple juice.
With these few examples with actual fluid foods, it indeed
appears that utilizing hydrodynamic cavitation as a processing
technology allows processors to minimally heat treat fluid
foods while extending shelf life of perishable products such as
apple juice. Reducing thermal treatments and thus retaining
heat labile nutrients and flavor components by processing
with hydrodynamic cavitation creates superior products in
today's market where “fresh picked” flavours and
healthy/nutritious products drive consumption trends. Apart
from food industry, hydrodynamic cavitation has found wide
applications in the field of microbial cell disruption
(Balasundaram and Pandit, 2001), water disinfection (Chand
et al., 2007), wastewater treatment (Pradhan and Gogate.,
2010) [47] and sludge decomposition (Hirooka et al., 2009) [22].
Concluding remarks
Trends in the emergence of novel non-thermal processing
technology with improved quality and safety resulted in
innovations in processing techniques. Research and
development in response to consumer preferences gave rise to
HPP, PEF, cold plasma (CP) and hydrodynamic cavitation
(HC) food processing techniques that are purely innovative.
These innovative processsing technologies contributed toward
the enhancement of food quality, safety, feasibility and
bioactivity of functional components. Applicability of novel
and innovative processing techniques is growing widely
because of their health impact and thus resulted in reduced
consumer complaints. In the near future traditional thermal
processing will be completely replaced by innovative food
processing techniques as these techniques are rapidly making
their way into the global market.
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The efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) with ambient air as working gas for the degradation of selected mycotoxins was studied. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, enniatins, fumonisin B1, and T2 toxin produced by Fusarium spp., sterigmatocystin produced by Aspergillus spp. and AAL toxin produced by Alternaria alternata were used. The kinetics of the decay of mycotoxins exposed to plasma discharge was monitored. All pure mycotoxins exposed to CAPP were degraded almost completely within 60 s. Degradation rates varied with mycotoxin structure: fumonisin B1 and structurally related AAL toxin were degraded most rapidly while sterigmatocystin exhibited the highest resistance to degradation. As compared to pure compounds, the degradation rates of mycotoxins embedded in extracts of fungal cultures on rice were reduced to a varying extent. Our results show that CAPP efficiently degrades pure mycotoxins, the degradation rates vary with mycotoxin structure, and the presence of matrix slows down yet does not prevent the degradation. CAPP appears promising for the decontamination of food commodities with mycotoxins confined to or enriched on surfaces such as cereal grains.
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This study was aimed at monitoring changes in the quality of strawberry purée preserved by high pressure processing (HPP) and thermal pasteurization (TP) during cold storage (6 °C) and determining its optimal storage period. The storage period of strawberry purée treated at 500 MPa, 50 °C, 15 min based on microbiological changes was 12 weeks. During this time, purée lost 32% of polyphenols, 73% of anthocyanins and all vitamin C. Color changes described as dE increased up to 5.05 whereas the overall sensory quality decreased by 3 points on a 9-point scale. During the same period of time, TP-preserved purée lost only 28% of polyphenols and 54% of anthocyanins, but also the whole vitamin C. Color changes were more visible (dE=7.21) compared to the HPP sample whereas the overall sensory quality decreased only by 2 points. Recommended cold shelf-life for the HPP product was estimated at 6 weeks, during which period HPP-preserved purée had higher content of polyphenols and colour parameters compared to TP purée.
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The paper aimed to present high pressure processing of food used to process liquid and solid foods with a high content of moisture. When using high pressure processing, microorganisms are destroyed, but covalent bonds do not break and the effect on processed food is minimal. In addition, the positive effect consists of the avoidance of excessive thermal treatments and chemical preservatives. High pressure has a small effect on low-molecular-weight compounds such as flavor compounds, vitamins, and pigments compared to thermal processes. Therefore, the quality of high pressure pasteurized food is very similar to that of fresh food products. The quality of foodstuffs during their shelf life is influenced to a greater extent by subsequent distribution and storage temperatures or by packaging rather than by the pressure treatment itself. Food products can be HPP in a batch system or a semi-continuous process. During HPP, the pressure is applied uniformly and simultaneously in all directions. After HPP the food will not return to its original size and shape due to pressure differences between the compressibility of air and water, unless the food is perfectly elastic. Pressure is instantaneously and uniformly transmitted independent of the size and geometry of food. Resultant pressure regulates most subsequent biochemical reactions occurring in treated products. This article provides an overview of current technology status.
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High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and thermal processing of strawberry in ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer cups were evaluated by examining their impacts on microorganism survival and growth, texture, nutritional properties (total phenols, total anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity) and color during 45 days of storage at 4 and 25 °C. During storage, total aerobic bacteria and yeasts and molds were not detected in all treated samples except for those HHP-treated and stored at 25 °C (3.08 and 2.58 log10CFU/g at day 45, respectively). There was a reduction in hardness, total phenols, total anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of flesh, being more striking in samples stored at 25 °C and thermal processing treated samples, and an increase in viscosity, total phenols, total anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of syrup during storage. Moreover, a significant decrease in the total level of nutritional properties in cupped strawberry (combined flesh and syrup) was observed during storage. All samples showed noticeable color changes, and ΔE values significantly increased during storage. Samples treated by HHP and stored at 4 °C showed higher hardness, total phenols, total anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity and better color than samples treated by thermal processing and stored at 25 °C, indicating that HHP processing and lower storage temperature were very useful tool in preserving the quality of cupped strawberry.
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Background: In the present work, the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) on the quality parameters (pH, Brix, total acidity, viscosity, colour, antioxidant activity, total phenols, total falvonoids, microbial flora, and sensory analysis) of elephant apple (Dillenia indica) juice was investigated. The juice samples were analysed periodically (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days) during 60 days of storage period and results were compared with thermally processed as well as with untreated (fresh juice) samples. Results: Slight variations had been observed in the quality parameters like pH, °Brix and total acidity. Other parameters like colour values, antioxidant activity, total phenols and total flavonoids were varied significantly (P < 0.05) in between the treated (HPP & thermal) and untreated juice samples. The microbial counts of the HPP treated samples were lower than the other samples. Sensory results also showed similar results as like other analysis that the treated samples were better for consumption rather than the untreated samples. The shelf-life of the HPP processed elephant apple juice was established as 60 days at 4 °C. Conclusion: This study showed that application of HPP effectively maintained quality attributes and extended shelf life of the elephant apple juice. It may be suggested that application of HPP could be considered for commercial application during storage and marketing.
This study compared the effects of high pressure processing (HPP), treatments (pasteurization, ascorbic acid, and steviosides), storage time (1 day, 15 days, 30 days, and 45 days at 4 °C) on the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, color, and sensory analysis of pulp from pawpaw fruit. HPP significantly decreased but did not completely inhibit PPO activity compared to the processed samples. HPP did not affect significantly any of the twelve sensory attributes. PPO activity and all color measurements were affected significantly by refrigerated storage. PPO activity declined after day 1 of refrigerated storage and remained unchanged thereafter. The untreated samples exhibited a significant change in all color values to varying degrees during the 45 day storage period, but this effect during storage was not observed in the samples that were pasteurized or treated with stevia or ascorbic acid. There was no difference between the PPO activity of the untreated pulp and the pulp treated with steviosides and pasteurization, however, the pawpaw pulp to which steviosides were added were perceived to be about 60% sweeter and 50% more bitter. HPP is a promising technology for shelf life extension of fresh-packaged pawpaw pulp.
Background Nowadays emerging technologies for food preservation is a topic of increasing importance because of the high efficiency of these techniques controlling pathogenic or spoilage microorganisms in foods. Most of these technologies also work at low temperature (cold pasteurization processes) improving nutritional or sensory quality. Scope and approach Grapes normally show a typical wild microorganism population of log 2–4 cfu/mL in yeasts and fungus, log 2 in bacteria, mainly LAB. The use of emerging technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasounds, pulsed electric fields, pulsed light, UV irradiation, e-beam irradiation, ozone and electrolyzed water destroy or strongly minimize the initial wild microbiota allowing more hygienic winemaking processes. Frequently, these technologies increase the extraction of phenolic compounds and aromatic molecules improving sensory quality. Also facilitate dose reduction of some chemical additives widely used in oenology and with allergenic properties like sulphur dioxide. Moreover, new winemaking biotechnologies like the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts or yeast-bacteria co-inoculations can be facilitated in either grape or must fermentations with low microbial loads. Key findings and conclusions This review highlights some useful novel strategies to improve the phenolic extraction during maceration-fermentation processes and to reduce natural microflora present in grape must allowing the better implantation and performance of selected yeast strains.
The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) applied to cantaloupe puree (CP) on microbial loads and product quality during storage for 10 days at 4 °C. Freshly prepared, double sealed and double bagged CP (ca. 5 g) was pressure treated at 300, 400 and 500 MPa at 8 °C and 15 °C for 5 min. Microflora populations, soluble solid content, pH, color, antioxidant activity, appearance and aroma were measured at 1, 6, and 10 d of storage. Results showed that high pressure treatment of 300 MPa (8 °C and 15 °C) resulted in reduction of total aerobic plate count from 3.3 to 1.8 log CFU/g. The treatment reduced the populations of native aerobic plate count to non-detectable levels (detection limit 1 log CFU/g) at 400 MPa and 500 MPa pressures at 15 °C. Pressure treatment completely inactivated mold and yeast in puree below the limits of detection at day 1 and no regrowth was observed during 10 days of storage at 4 °C while mold and yeast in untreated puree survived during the storage. High pressure treatment did not show any adverse impact on physical properties as soluble solid content (SSC, 11.2 °Brix) and acidity (pH, 6.9). The instrumental color parameters (L*, a*, b*) were affected due to HHP treatment creating a slightly lighter product, compared to control, as indicated by higher L.* and lower a* values. However the change was not detected by the sensory panel while evaluating appearance scores. Pressure treatment did not affect the antioxidant capacity of puree product compared to control. Visual appearance and sniffing aroma test by panel revealed no adverse changes in the sensory parameters as a result of HHP treatment. HHP method described in this study appears to be a promising way to inactivate spoilage microorganisms in the cantaloupe puree and maintain quality. This study provides a viable option for preservation and marketing this product.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial levels, physicochemical and antioxidant properties, and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, as well as to conduct a sensory analysis of white grape juice treated with high pressure processing (HPP) and thermal pasteurization (TP) over a period of 20 days of refrigerated storage. Results: Results showed that HPP treatment of 600 MPa and TP significantly reduced aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and yeast counts. At day 20 of storage, HPP-600 juice displayed no significant differences when compared with fresh juice in terms of physicochemical properties such as titratable acidity, pH, and soluble solids, and remained less than 50% of PPO and POD activities. Although significant differences were observed in the color, antioxidant contents, and antioxidant capacity of HPP-treated juice, the extent of these differences was substantially lower than that in TP-treated juice, indicating that HPP treatment can better retain the quality of grape juice. Sensory testing showed no significant difference between HPP-treated juice and fresh juice, while TP reduced the acceptance of grape juice. Conclusion: This study shows that HPP treatment maintained the overall quality parameters of white grape juice, thus effectively extending the shelf-life during refrigerated storage.