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Novel food processing technologies: An overview

Authors:
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International Journal of Chemical Studies 2018; 6(6): 770-776
P-ISSN: 23498528
E-ISSN: 23214902
IJCS 2018; 6(6): 770-776
© 2018 IJCS
Received: 09-09-2018
Accepted: 13-10-2018
Fozia Hameed
Research Scholar Division of
Food science and Technology
SKUAST Chatha Jammu,
Jammu and Kashmir, India
Anjum Ayoub
Research Scholar Division of
Food science and Technology
SKUAST Chatha Jammu,
Jammu and Kashmir, India
Neeraj Gupta
Assistant Professor Division of
Food science and Technology
SKUAST Chatha Jammu,
Jammu and Kashmir, India
Correspondence
Fozia Hameed
Research Scholar Division of
Food science and Technology
SKUAST Chatha Jammu,
Jammu and Kashmir, India
Novel food processing technologies: An overview
Fozia Hameed, Anjum Ayoub and Neeraj Gupta
Abstract
Novel food processing technologies arose as a result of consumer’s desire for safe, tasty, fresh and mild
processed food products with long shelf life and maintained quality. Recent trend of lifestyle changes, as
consumers demand products with a significant nutritional contribution, bioactive compounds, and good
sensory properties, posed a great challenge toward food processing sector for the evolution of novel and
innovative food processing techniques. The novel food processing technologies, viz. HPP, PEF,
Irradiation, ultrasonication and cold plasma which influence on consumer’s health have been the major
innovations in the field of processing technology. These novel techniques act by prolonging the shelf life,
enhancing or maintaining the quality, and to regulate freshness of food product. The main objectives of
this review article are to provide basic knowledge of different new and innovative food processing
techniques about their way of preservative action, effectiveness and suitability in various types of foods.
Keywords: innovative, shelf life, processing, quality, bioactive
Introduction
Novelty and recent trends in food processing techniques are the result of consumer demand for
health promoting foods with high nutritional and nutraceutical values (Bagchi, 2008) [4]. Since
ancient times, the approach of the food industry was to provide safe food product with long
shelf-life; however, presently it is not enough to simply produce safer food as consumers
demand products with a significant nutritional contribution, bioactive compounds, and good
sensory properties. The important food quality attributes, such as taste, texture, appearance,
and nutritional value, are strongly dependent on the way food is processed (Knoerzer et al.,
2016) [27]. Microorganisms are the main target organisms for food spoilage and poisoning so
are targeted by different food preservation procedures. Food processing methods used by
industry rely either on microbial inactivation or inhibition of microbial growth. Conventional
heat-dependent pathogen-reduction methods such as thermization, pasteurization and in-
container sterilization can adversely affect taste, nutritional value and appearance. Alternative
techniques for traditional thermal processing of food have received much interest, due to
increased consumer demand to deliver higher quality and better consumer-targeted food
products, many innovative food processing techniques called “novel” or “emerging”
techniques have been developed. Several novel processing techniques recently introduced; in
particular, were high pressure processing (HPP), pulsed electric field (PEF), ultrasonic,
irradiation, cold plasma, hydrodynamic cavitation etc (Knorr et al., 2011) [28]. Additionally,
food products processed through these innovative techniques contribute to global food security
by extending shelf life (Knoerzer, et al., 2015) [26]. This review aims to describe the basic
principles, mechanism of action and applications of some of these emerging technologies.
Novel food processing technologies
Thermal processing is commonly used to extend the shelf-life and to ensure the
microbiological safety of food products because of its ability to inactivate microorganisms and
spoilage enzymes (Rawson et al., 2011) [50]. However, thermal processing can cause
detrimental effects on the quality and nutritional values of the fruit-based commercial
products. The constituents responsible for color, flavor and taste are typically heat-sensitive, so
thermal processing can easily change the quality of the commercial fruit products and affect
product acceptability (Gao et al., 2016) [18]. Thus, the search for alternative methods for
thermal food processing which would generate a safer product with higher quality, nutrient
content and sensorial properties incited food scientists to explore other inactivation techniques.
Two broad fields of food processing technologies are currently under research, non-thermal
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International Journal of Chemical Studies
technologies, in which the inactivation factor is by physical
hurdles such as pressure, electromagnetic fields, and sound
waves, among others; and novel thermal processing
technologies, which mainly use energy generated by
microwave and radio frequency. However, using such novel
technologies to inactivate microorganisms and enzymes in
food is not enough. A safer product should also be free of
poisonous substances and contact of food with certain
materials during processing should be avoided (Lelieveld &
Keener, 2007) [31]. Thus, evaluation of the overall quality of
food products processed by innovative technologies is an
essential requirement before a product can be
commercialized.
Novel food processing technologies around the world
Non thermal technologies
Non thermal technologies
Thermal technologies
High hydrostatic pressure
microwave
Pulsed electric fields
Radio frequency
Irradiation
Ohmic heating
Ultrasound
Inductive heating
Cold plasma
Ozone
Supercritical water
It is worth mentioning that most novel technologies were first
studied as prospective microbial inactivation technologies to
improve the safety of food. However, important results in the
final characteristics of many food items were also observed:
such as intact nutrient content in most of the novel food
products; unique sensorial properties like color, texture, and
appearance; and formation of new aroma compounds. Thus,
the search for microbial inactivation technologies not only
yielded the possibility of a safer product, but also improved
overall product quality, and provided new ingredients for the
development of other novel food products.
High pressure processing
High pressure processing (HPP) is one of the promising non-
thermal preservation techniques and has proven to be an
effective alternative to conventional food preservation
technologies to enhance safety and shelf life of perishable
foods (Balasubramaniam and Farkas, 2008) [5] with minimal
influence on the sensory, physical, and nutritional properties
of foods. High pressure processing (HPP) also referred to as
ultra high pressure UHP) or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)
is the application of elevated hydrostatic pressures of 150 to
700 MPa for 30 s to inactivate spoilage and pathogenic
microorganisms, with the aim of obtaining microbiologically
safe food products while avoiding undesirable changes in the
sensory, physicochemical and nutritional properties of food
(Munoz et al, 2007) [40]. Pressure generation is mechanical
usually through a fluid (water) which is consequently
transmitted to the product. While transmission of pressure is
typically thought to be isostatic and near-instantaneous, the
inactivation of pathogens requires a prolonged hold at high
pressure. This introduces special challenges to manufacturers,
because of the substantially high equipment and maintenance
costs and possible damage to product quality
(Balasubramaniam and Farkas, 2008) [5].
HPP induces less impact on the low molecular weight
nutrients such as vitamins and polyphenols, and compounds
related to sensory properties such as pigments and flavoring
agents compared with conventional thermal processing (Landl
et al., 2017) [30]. Hence, HPP allows better retention of
nutritional values and sensory properties than the traditional
pasteurization technologies. HPP has been successfully
employed to preserve blueberry juice (Barba et al., 2012) [7],
strawberry and its puree (Gao et al., 2016; Marszałek et al.,
2017) [18, 33], pawpaw pulp (Zhang et al, 2017) [56], apple
juices (Nayak et al, 2017) [42], cantaloupe puree
(Mukhopadhyay et al., 2017) [39], grape juice (Chang et al,
2017) [10], and so on, extending their shelf-life in 1060 days
range.
Principle
Pascalisation is based actually on activation volume that uses
a transferring medium and is applied only in batch processing
units. HPP is based on the Le Chatelier’s principle indicating
that an application of pressure shifts the systems equilibrium
to the state that occupies the lowest volume. Therefore any
chemical or physical changes (phase transitions, chemical
reactions and changes in molecular configuration)
accompanied by decrease in volume are enhanced by the
application of pressure. Consequently non-covalent bonds are
affected while key food quality parameters remain mostly
unchanged. However, enzyme reactions can occur (e.g. during
pressure build up phase before inactivation), adiabatic heating
takes place (approx. 1-2 °C per 100 MPa) and temperature
and pressure distribution is not entirely homogenous in
processing units.
Mechanism of microbial inactivation
Significant research has been conducted to show the
inactivation of microorganisms by the application of high
hydrostatic pressure in foods (Donaghy et al., 2007) [12]. The
efficiency of HPP to inactivate microorganisms is dependent
on the target pressure, process temperature, and HT. The
relationship between pressure and temperature in a typical
HHP was described by (Muntean et al., 2016) [41]. Different
microorganisms react with different degrees of resistance to
HPP treatment and most of the vegetative microorganisms,
yeasts, and viruses can be inactivated at or near room
temperatures. On the other hand, bacterial spores are
extensively resistant to high hydrostatic pressures and for the
mold sterilization, a combination of pressure (400-600 MPa)
and heat (90-120 °C) is often required. Furthermore the
pressure sensitivity of the bacterial cells also depends on the
growth phase. Bacterial cells in the stationary growth phase
are generally more resistant to pressure than those in the
exponential growth phase (Hayman et al., 2007) [21]. For the
inactivation of vegetative pathogenic and spoilage
microorganisms, HPP pasteurization demands a logarithmic
reduction of 5 or 6 in pathogens at chilled or process
temperatures less than 45 °C and at pressures above 200 MPa.
Pressure, Temperature, and Time during a HPP process
(Ferstl, 2013).
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The response of the microorganisms largely depends on the
substrate and food composition during the pressure treatment.
On applying pressure following detrimental changes take
place that results in the microbial cell destruction:
Irreversible structural changes of the membrane proteins
and other macromolecules, leading to disruption of cell
membrane (Muntean et al., 2016) [41].
Destruction of homogeneity of the intermediate layer
between the cell wall and the cytoplasmic membrane.
Inactivation of membrane ATPase (Hoover et al., 1989)
[23].
Nucleic acid and ribosomal disruption involved in protein
synthesis.
Pulsed electric field
In recent years, pulsed electric field as an emerging
technology has got wide interest for pasteurization of heat-
sensitive liquid food (Mathys et al., 2013) [34], and for refining
heat and mass transfer operations in the food industry
(Puértolas et al., 2016) [49]. PEF provokes the formation of
pores (electroporation phenomenon) by exposing the tissues
to an electric field for short high voltage pulses in the range of
10-80 KV/cm, resulting in cell membrane permeabilization.
Electroporation may be either reversible or irreversible based
on the optimization of electric field strength and treatment
intensity (Zimmermann, 1986) [57]. In case of reversible
electroporation, transient pores formed enables entrapment of
materials of interest inside the cell membranes while
Irreversible electroporation destroys the cells by permanent
membrane damage and is usually used in the processes of
microbial inactivation and to increase extraction yield (Dukić-
Vuković et al., 2017) [14]. This novel technology can ensure
good product quality due to its non-thermal nature and low
energy consumption. PEF is instant targeted, flexible, energy
efficient and because heat is minimized products have longer
shelf life whilst maintain better nutritional value than the
conventional thermal processing. However PEF technology
does have some limitations. For example, any bacterial spores
or mould ascospores in food products are usually resistant to
PEF treatment, even at high intensity. This property could
lead to a failure of the pasteurization process, resulting in a
potential food safety hazard (Arroyo et al., 2012) [1]. In
addition to the spores or ascospores, enzymes are resistant to
PEF treatment. PEF processing is restricted to foods with no
air bubbles and with low electrical conductivity. If bubbles
are present in the PEF treatment chamber, dielectric
breakdown will occur.
Schematic drawing of a flow through treatment chamber
Stages of microbial inactivation process
The process of microorganism inactivation can be divided
into the following main stages
(i) Initial stage (with the duration from nanoseconds to
milliseconds): creation of pores when an electric pulse is
applied (electroporation)
(ii) Stage of evolution of the pore population (with the
duration from nanoseconds to milliseconds): change in
the number of pores and their sizes during an electric
treatment.
(iii) Post-treatment stage (with the duration from miliseconds
to hours): cell death (complete inactivation) or returning
of the cell to its initial viable state due to pore resealing.
In the latter case, the damage to the cell induced by the
pulsed electric field is sub-lethal.
The final result of the PEF treatment depends on the processes
going on during all these stages. During the action of an
electric field, more and more cells become electroporated
(initial stage of pore formation) and the number of pores
and/or their size increase. After an electric pulse, two
competing processes proceed: (i) cells return to their former
viable state due to pore resealing or (ii) cells die due to the
loss of cell membrane integrity and intracellular compounds.
Applications of PEF in food processing
Pulsed electric fields technology has been successfully used
for the pasteurization of liquid and semisolid foods such as
juices, milk, yogurt, soups, and liquid eggs. Application of
PEF processing is limited to food products with no air bubbles
and with low electrical conductivity. The maximum particle
size in the liquid must be smaller than the gap of the treatment
region in the PEF chamber in order to ensure proper
treatment. The effect of PEF at low electric fields applied
individually or in combination with heating has been
investigated in order to improve the extraction yield of
intracellular compounds present in fruits and vegetables
(Donsì et al., 2010) [13]. PEF treatments at 0.1-10 kV/cm
increased the extraction of hydrophilic compounds, such as
sugar from sugar beet (Eshtiaghi & Knorr, 2002) [15], betaine
from red beetroot (López et al., 2009) [32] and anthocyanins
from grapes, red cabbage (Gachovska et al., 2010) [17] or
purple fleshed potatoes (Puértolas et al, 2013) [48]. PEF has
been recently introduced as an alternative pre-maceration
treatment to increase and speed-up polyphenolic extraction
without altering the sensory properties, highlighting
effectiveness in improving wine stability and color quality
(Morata et al., 2017) [38].
Electropermeabilisation of cells after expose to electric field
and application in food and waste water processing with
typical electric field strength and energy input requirements.
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International Journal of Chemical Studies
Cold plasma
Amongst all innovative non-thermal technologies, cold
plasma (CP) is a relatively novel technology emerged as an
alternative source for surface sterilization and disinfection, for
ensuring the quality and safety of minimally processed food
and the novelty lies with its non-thermal, economical,
versatile and environmentally friendly nature. The term
‘plasma’ refers to a quasi-neutral ionized gas, primarily
composed of electrons, ions and reactive neutral species in
their fundamental or excited states (Pankaj et al., 2014) [43].
Based on the thermal equilibrium, there are two plasma
classesdenominated non-thermal plasma (NTP) or cold
plasma and thermal plasma. Cold plasma is generated at 30-
60 °C under atmospheric or reduced pressure (vacuum),
requires less power, exhibits electron temperatures much
higher than the corresponding gas (macroscopic temperature),
and does not present a local thermodynamic equilibrium. The
cold plasma technique was originally applied to enhance the
antimicrobial activity in surface engineering, bio-medical
field and polymer industries (Sarangapani et al., 2015) [51].
Due to its excellent antimicrobial ability, cold plasma has
attracted much attention for non-thermal preservation of
agricultural products, which has been studied for several fresh
vegetables and fruits in recent years (Misra et al., 2014) [37]. It
is suitable for treatment of heat-sensitive food products
because the ions and uncharged molecules gain only a little
energy and remain at a low temperature (Pankaj et al., 2018)
[45].
Effect of Plasma on Microbial Cells
The effect of plasma on microbial cells is cause of plasma
ions and cell interactions. The reactive species in plasma is
widely accompanied with the direct oxidative effects on the
outer surface of microbial cells. The plasma effect depends
highly on the presence of water, moist the organism highest
the effect and vice versa (Dobrynin et al., 2009) [11] Microbial
inactivation of plasma is actually based on the fact that
plasma reactive species damage the deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA) in the chromosomes. The ROS of interest in plasma
processing are hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and the
superoxide anion (Wiseman and Halliwell, 1996) [55]. The
application of plasma for microbial inactivation results in
formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in microbial cells,
which in turn participates in the formation of DNA adducts
resulting in cell damage (Dobrynin et al., 2009) [11]. In
particular, reactive species interacts with water, leading to the
formation of OH* ions (Zou et al., 2003) [58] which are most
reactive and harmful to the cells. It is worth mentioning that
the OH* radicals formed in the hydration layer around the
DNA molecule are responsible for 90 % of DNA damage.
Hydroxyl radicals can then react with nearby organics leading
to chain oxidation and thus leads to destruction of DNA
molecules as well as cellular membranes and other cell
components (Dobrynin et al., 2009) [11]. Although it is well
documented that reactive oxygen species such as oxygen
radicals can produce profound effects on cells by reacting
with various macromolecules. The microorganisms are more
sensitive to singlet state oxygen leading to destruction of cells
(Aziz et al., 2014) [2]. On the other hand lipid bi-layer of
microbial cell is more susceptible to atomic oxygen as the
reactivity of atomic oxygen is much higher than the molecular
oxygen leading to the degradation of lipids, proteins and DNA
of cells. The damage of the double bonds in lipid bi-layer
cause impaired movement of molecules in and out of cell. The
bombardment of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the
surface of bacterial cell also disrupts the membrane lipids.
(Surowsky et al. 2013) [53] found that the active species in
plasma react with the amino-acid in proteins which further
causes irreversible structural changes in proteins leading to
the destruction of the microbial spores.
L + OH• L• + H2O (1)
L• + O2 L-OO• (2)
L-OO• + L L• + L-OOH (3)
L-OOH L-O• (4)
During application of plasma, microorganisms are exposed to
an intense radicals bombardment most likely provoking
surface lesions that the living cell cannot repair quickly, this
process is termed “etching”. The phenomenon of etching is
based on the interaction of relative energetic ions and
activated species with the molecules of the substrate. The
accumulation of charges imparts an electrostatic force at the
outer surface of cell membranes which can cause cell wall
rupture called as electropermeabilization as the same principle
occurring in pulsed electric fields. During application of
plasma treatment where plasma initiates, catalyzes, or helps
sustain a complex biological response, compromised
membrane structure (e.g. peroxidation) or change in
membrane bound proteins and/or enzymes leads to complex
cell responses and may affect many cells as the affected cell
signal others.
Applications of cold plasma (CP)
In the past cold plasma was used for sterilization of thermo
labile materials in the biomedical technology sector and now
it is extended to food industries as a novel non-thermal
technology. In food industry particularly, current cold plasma
research are focused on its applications for food
decontamination, enzyme inactivation, toxin degradation,
waste water treatment and packaging modifications.
Specifically for food processing, cold plasma has proven to be
effective for inactivation of food-borne pathogens and
spoilage microorganisms. Recently, (Han, et al. 2016)
reported different inactivation mechanisms for Gram positive
and Gram negative bacteria by cold plasma. They observed
that cold plasma inactivation of Gram positive bacteria
(Staphylococcus aureus) was mainly due to intracellular
damage and little envelope damage whereas Gram negative
bacteria (Escherichia coli) was inactivated mainly by cell
leakage and low-level DNA damage. Apart from microbial
inactivation, effects of cold plasma on the food quality has
been another important aspect gaining attention of food
researchers. The changes in the enzymatic activity of trypsin
after the application of cold plasma was studied by (Dobrynin
et al., 2009) [11]. It was reported that the plasma was able to
change the 3D structure of proteins in trypsin enzymes due to
cleavage of peptides bonds. In past few years cold plasma has
shown significant potential for degradation of various food
toxins especially mycotoxins (Bosch et al., 2017) [8] drawing
increased interest from food researchers. In case of the
packaging materials plasma treatment is used for surface
decontamination (Pankaj et al., 2016) [44], surface sterilization
(Vesel and Mozetic, 2012) [54] and surface treatments such as
cleaning, coating, printing, painting, and adhesive bonding.
The immobilization of bioactive functional compounds like
lysozyme, nisin, vanillin, sodium benzoate, glucose oxidase,
bovine lactoferrin, lactoferricin, chitosan, nanosilver,
trichlosan, or antimicrobial peptides into the packaging
material by plasma treatment has been extensively studied
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International Journal of Chemical Studies
within the emerging field of antimicrobial and active
packaging (Pankaj et al., 2014) [43]. Phsicochemical effects of
plasma generates the formation of oxidizing species: radicals
(H*, O*, OH*) may diffuse into the liquids and molecules
(H2O2, O3, etc.), shockwave, ultraviolet light and
electrohydraulic cavitation may degrade the pollutant in waste
water or decomposes the pollutant into other compound (Jiang
et al., 2013) [25].
Hydrodynamic cavitation
Hydrodynamic cavitation is another non-thermal
underexplored technology in food processing (Gogate, 2011)
[19]. It is considered more physically effective and energy
efficient than the ultrasound treatment. Hydrodynamic
cavitation can simply be produced either by mechanical
rotation of an object through a liquid or by the passage of
fluid through a constriction such as a venturi, an orifice plate
or a convergent divergent nozzle resulting in increase in
velocity at the expense of local pressure (Huang et al., 2013).
Because of constriction enormous gas bubbles are created and
subsequently collapse violently downstream due to the
recovery of pressure, forming strong mechanical waves and
high-speed micro jets (Kuldeep et al., 2016). Collapsing
cavities generate highly reactive hydroxyl radicals which can
then be harnessed for a variety of applications. Cavitation
number (Cv), a dimensionless parameter, relates the flow
conditions with the cavitation intensity. Ideally, cavitation is
generated when Cv is between 0.1-1, obtained by adjusting
the flow condition and reactor geometry (Bagal and Gogate,
2014) [3]. This novel technology offers several advantages
such as no additional chemicals (clean tech), compact and in-
line reactors and low costs making it a promising technology
platform.
Principle
Novel hydrodynamic cavitation basically describes the
process of vaporization, bubble generation and bubble
implosion. Cavitation occurs when local pressure drops below
saturated vapour pressure and recovers above vapour
pressure, as a result of sudden decrease and increase in local
pressure. Flashing is said to have occurred if the recovery
pressure is not above the vapour pressure. Increase in kinetic
energy or an increase in the pipe elevation is responsible for
the generation of cavities in the pipe systems.
Cavitation is damaging when uncontrolled. Cavitation power
can be harnessed and non destructive by controlling the flow
of the cavitation. Controlled cavitation generates free radicals
due to disassociation of vapors trapped in the cavitating
bubbles. It can be used to enhance chemical reactions or
propagate certain unexpected reactions which can lead to
degradation or even mineralisation of water constituents
without addition of any chemicals. Extent of cavitation taking
place in any system is explained in terms of the cavitation
number and is simply derived from Bernoulli’s theorem
expressed by the following equation:
Cv = P2Pv
0. V2
Where,
P2 is downstream pressure
Pv is the vapor pressure of the liquid and;
V is the velocity at constriction where cavitation takes place.
Novel hydrodynamic cavitation application in food
industry
Hydrodynamic cavitation phenomenon is of great significance
in food extraction and processing. Various high-acid (pH
4.6) fluid foods have been processed in a hydrodynamic
cavitation reactor for commercial sterility. The mechanisms
responsible for cellular inactivation are the physical stresses
owing to hydrodynamic cavitation, and hence hydrodynamic
cavitation reactors can be readily applied for food
sterilization. (Milly et al. 2007) have investigated the
application of hydrodynamic cavitation reactor for
sterilization of fluid foods such as tomato juice, apple juice
and skim milk. It was reported that hydrodynamic cavitation
induced adequate destructive forces to inactivate vegetative
cells of bacteria, yeast, yeast ascospores and heat-resistant
bacterial spores. The main advantage of using a
hydrodynamic cavitation reactor can be lower operating
temperatures for sterilization, and hence foods such as acidic
fruit juices, salad dressings and milk can be safely processed
at reduced processing temperatures, resulting into superior
product quality. Recently, (Milly et al., 2008) also
investigated the application of shock wave reactor for
inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in apple juice.
With these few examples with actual fluid foods, it indeed
appears that utilizing hydrodynamic cavitation as a processing
technology allows processors to minimally heat treat fluid
foods while extending shelf life of perishable products such as
apple juice. Reducing thermal treatments and thus retaining
heat labile nutrients and flavor components by processing
with hydrodynamic cavitation creates superior products in
today's market where “fresh picked” flavours and
healthy/nutritious products drive consumption trends. Apart
from food industry, hydrodynamic cavitation has found wide
applications in the field of microbial cell disruption
(Balasundaram and Pandit, 2001), water disinfection (Chand
et al., 2007), wastewater treatment (Pradhan and Gogate.,
2010) [47] and sludge decomposition (Hirooka et al., 2009) [22].
Concluding remarks
Trends in the emergence of novel non-thermal processing
technology with improved quality and safety resulted in
innovations in processing techniques. Research and
development in response to consumer preferences gave rise to
HPP, PEF, cold plasma (CP) and hydrodynamic cavitation
(HC) food processing techniques that are purely innovative.
These innovative processsing technologies contributed toward
the enhancement of food quality, safety, feasibility and
bioactivity of functional components. Applicability of novel
and innovative processing techniques is growing widely
because of their health impact and thus resulted in reduced
consumer complaints. In the near future traditional thermal
processing will be completely replaced by innovative food
processing techniques as these techniques are rapidly making
their way into the global market.
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