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When Fear Kills: The Case of Nuclear Energy (pdf version)

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Abstract

The choice between energy sources – carbon combustion, nuclear and renewables. The need for reliability, anytime and anywhere, low environmental impact, effect on other creatures, resilience in exceptional weather, security of fuel supplies.. The popular fear of nuclear energy is not justified by the evidence or an understanding of biology. Education and discussion of evidence are essental to a better acceptance of nuclear power and a reduction in regulations and costs..
When Fear Kills:
The Case of Nuclear Energy
Wade Allison, Emeritus Professor of Physics
Physics Department and Keble College
wade.allison@physics.ox.ac.uk
12 Nov 2018. At the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford, a
lecture on the choice between energy sources carbon combustion,
nuclear and renewables
Comment on the title slide
The changing climate is likely to dominate our future and
it is essential that we all understand our options.
For this everybody should study the broad scientific
evidence and be alive to the lessons of history.
This suggests that public policy shaped solely by popular
mis-apprehensions is likely to have unfortunate
consequences. I have spent the last 15 years looking
into this question which the Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change has ignored.
[The books Radiation and Reason and Nuclear is for Life
are available on Amazon or from the distributors
http://www.ypdbooks.com/81_wade-allison ]
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Join SONE!
£5 p.a. student membership £25 p.a. general membership
James Lovelock CH FRS is an active Patron
Wade Allison is the Honorary Secretary
Anton van der Merwe is a member of the Committee
We are looking for new members, especially students
Three turning points in history :
i. The domestication of fire, 750,000 years ago;
ii. The Industrial Revolution, 250 years ago;
iii. Climate Change and the need to switch energy
now.
Previously good answers have come from
evidence, thought and initiative;
rather than from fear, flight to safety or regulation.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 4
Energy questions
Plan
1. Previous turning points
2. Nuclear evidence
3. Understanding
4. Discussion
5. Conclusions
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1. Previous turning points
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12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 7
Comment on the previous slide
Men and animals were afraid of fire.
But uniquely man used his brain, studied fire, tamed it
and educated his children to use it safely.
So mankind gained supremacy over other creatures.
Then with wind and water power for ships and mills, he
added to the strength of men and horses alone.
By the safer green route man would still be subsisting in
small numbers in the cold and without cooked food.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 8
Sources of energy
Pre-
industrial,
Renewables water, wind,
solar, biofuels
Energy
density
100-1000
J/kg
Familiar,
accepted
Intermittent.
Huge plants
damage
nature
Industrial
Revolution
Chemical/
carbon
Coal, oil, gas,
wood, candles,
biofuels
Energy
density
24 million
J/kg
Improved
standard of
living
Atmospheric
emission
carbon
dioxide
From now
Nuclear
fission, fusion Uranium,
Thorium
Energy
density
5 million
million J/kg
Compact,
safe, 24/7,
resilient,
harmless to
nature
Feared,
no education
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 9
Comment on the previous slide
Their sources of energy derived indirectly from the
Sun.
But the energy densities were very low with
intermittent delivery.
You can work it out. The energy of a kg of wind,
or of water over a dam.
Less than 1000 joules per kg.
Without vast plants they could only sustain a low
impoverished population
but nature remained unspoilt.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 10
Sources of energy
Pre-
industrial,
Renewables water, wind,
solar, biofuels
Energy
density
100-1000
J/kg
Familiar,
accepted
Intermittent.
Huge plants
damage
nature
Industrial
Revolution
Chemical/
carbon
Coal, oil, gas,
wood, candles,
biofuels
Energy
density
24 million
J/kg
Improved
standard of
living
Atmospheric
emission
carbon
dioxide
From now
Nuclear
fission, fusion Uranium,
Thorium
Energy
density
5 million
million J/kg
Compact,
safe, 24/7,
resilient,
harmless to
nature
Feared,
no education
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 11
Comment on the previous slide
Turning point 2. Industrial revolution brought
coal and steam, oil and gas. 20,000 X the
energy density, available 24/7 anywhere.
Living standards rose. Steel replaced wood.
Industry was powered. Steam replaced sail. But
emissions!
Turning point 3. climate change and ocean
acidification. NO Carbon.
BACK to renewables?
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12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 13
A green field buried by solar panels, Abingdon
Three Gorges, China, 1.3 million people displaced
Comment on the previous slide
Weakness means harvesting on a huge scale,
deeply damaging to nature.
Solar panels shrouding green meadows.
Similar for wind farms.
Vast hydro. 100s miles long, 1.3 million displaced
by Three Gorges Dam in China
Renewables are ill prepared for the extreme
weather that climate change brings.
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Moran et al, in Proc National Academy of Sciences 2 Nov 2018
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2018/11/02/1809426115
https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-46098118
“North American and European countries built many large dams until 1975, after which both
started to abandon a significant part of their installed hydropower because of the
negative social and environmental impacts. However, there has been a recent trend of
new large hydropower dams being built in developing countries, particularly in
megabiodiversity river basins, such as the Amazon, the Congo, and the Mekong. The
socioeconomic and environmental damages in these river systems are even greater than
the early costs in North America and Europe.”
“Large dams seem to be everything that one should not try to build if one cares about
sustainability.”
“3,450 dams have been removed to date in Sweden, Spain, Portugal, the United Kingdom,
Switzerland, and France hundreds of dams were removed in the United States (546 from
2006 to 2014) and Europe at enormous financial cost.”
“The Jirau Dam and Santo Antonio Dam on the Madeira River in the Brazilian Amazon,
completed only 5 years ago, are predicted to produce only a fraction of the 3 GW each
that they were projected to produce because of climate change and the small storage
capacity of run-of-the-river reservoirs.”
“Hydropower is the world’s primary renewable energy resource, but questions have been
raised about its reliability under projected climate change. In Brazil, which depends on
hydropower for up to 67% of its electrical energy (48), this is a crisis waiting to happen.”
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 15
Sources of energy
Pre-
industrial,
Renewables water, wind,
solar, biofuels
Energy
density
100-1000
J/kg
Familiar,
accepted
Intermittent.
Huge plants
damage
nature
Industrial
Revolution
Chemical/
carbon
Coal, oil, gas,
wood, candles,
biofuels
Energy
density
24 million
J/kg
Improved
standard of
living
Atmospheric
emission
carbon
dioxide
From now
Nuclear
fission, fusion
Uranium,
Thorium,
Fusion
Energy
density
5 million
million J/kg
Compact,
safe, 24/7,
resilient,
harmless to
nature
Feared,
no education
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 16
Comment on the previous slide
Nuclear energy:100,000 times the energy density
of coal. Uranium now, Thorium soon, fusion
definitely but later.
100,000 times less fuel, and so 100,000 times
less waste, than carbon fuels.
Plants can be compact, robust, 24/7, build
anywhere, secure fuel supplies, safe, no
environmental impact at all.
In Hurricane Harvey in Texas nuclear kept
running 100% throughout.
But a source of public fear and nobody was
taught about it in school.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 17
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 18
Comment on the previous slide
Data on electricity generation and consumption
(but not all energy) is available in real time for
many countries on the internet, free.
Here is one example for UK, April 2018.
Green=nuclear. Steady. Demand fluctuates.
Blue=gas makes the difference. wind and solar
fluctuate unreliably.
Without gas, excess nuclear could supply
hydrogen/desalination/heating when demand
low.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 19
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 20
A bad day in Britain: almost no solar/wind. Good supply in France and Scandinavia
Comment on the previous slide
International data shows imports/exports, eg the 2
GW undersea UK supply from France.
With its nuclear+hydro generation France does
not use much gas, even for heating.
UK gas supply for electricity and heating is
insecure -- Russia, Middle East, US and North
Sea.
Much of Europe is the same or burning coal or
wood.
Despite the politics Germany still has nuclear.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 21
2. Nuclear Evidence
Is it dangerous?
Chernobyl (1986)
The wasteland, the deaths and the animals
Fukushima (2011)
Goiania (1987)
A century of medical use
Animal (and in vitro) laboratory studies
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 22
Comment on the previous slide
The pervasive cultural apprehension of nuclear is
crucial. The evidence for the effects of radiation
is examined extensively in my books.
Here I talk about Chernobyl, Fukushima, Goiania
and others later.
Chernobyl was the worst incident.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 23
https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-32452085
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 24
Comment on the previous slide
and the following ones
Chernobyl 1986. Everyone was led to expect
thousands deaths and a huge area, which was
evacuated at short notice, to be uninhabitable
for many decades.
Wrong? Or a new Wildlife Park? Pictures taken
by BBC (and others by Discovery Channel)
show animals thriving, radioactive but better off
with no humans than before.
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Comment on the previous slide
Do the animals know something that we don’t?
But they know nothing” Doctor Watson might say.
Quite so” Sherlock Holmes might reply,
but we may know something that isn't true.
Have we got it ALL WRONG about radiation?
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 36
Chernobyl summary
Only 43 human lives lost from radiation.
28 early fireman and 15 thyroid cancer cases.
But huge social damage was caused to evacuees
by the curse “irradiated”, alcoholism,
hopelessness, mental illness (reported by WHO)
And 2000 extra abortion procedures in Greece,
just out of fear. (British Medical Journal)
Yet animals seem unaffected by radiation.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 37
Comment on the previous slide
Evidently the curse that damaged human lives
came from the emergency measures and the
evacuation, not the radiation.
1) We need more evidence to confirm this
2) We need to understand why the expectations
were so wrong.
Nobody corrects this fallacy in public.
Nobody thinks that it is their job.
All the more reason for us to pursue it.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 38
But then the story repeated at Fukushima!
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12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 39
Reassurance
26 Mar 2011
only days later
Comment on the previous slide
Another UN report on Chernobyl was published on
28 Feb 2011 but not read in Japan.
Then on 11 Mar the Fukushima accident occurred.
On 26 Mar I published this reassurance on the
BBC.
However, the world press who preferred fear,
excitement and social destruction - and still do.
Over a year later the UN also reassured, but too
late to avoid the damage to public health
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 40
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills Slide 41
Visit to Chernobyl Sept 2011
Discussion with radiation doctors
Minamisoma General Hospital Sept 2011
Comment on the previous slide
In Sept 2011 I visited the evacuation zone and the
surrounding region.
I talked with doctors in the local hospitals where
they were scanning the public for contamination,
with local schoolmasters and with local mayors
of the communities involved.
Everywhere there was ignorance about radiation,
resulting in a loss of trust in science and in the
competence of the authorities.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 42
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills Slide 43
What happened at Fukushima
1. Major earthquake and tsunami
Cause (natural) radioactivity heating the Earth.
Physical destruction & 18,800 deaths. Natural disaster
3. Local and worldwide panic
caused by excessively cautious safety, lack of plan / education
Displaced people (1600 extra deaths), condemned food,
power stations turned off, imported fossil fuel,
severe economic damage,
reduced trust in society, science and medicine
Self inflicted education failure, not due to radiation
2. Three destroyed nuclear reactors
at Fukushima Daiichi with release of (artificial) radioactivity.
No casualties, none expected in future. No disaster
Comment on the previous slide
The Japanese people learn about earthquakes
and tsunamis, and practice what to do.
They accepted the disastrous loss of 18,800 lives.
But in the radiation accident no life was lost and
there was no disaster.
However the administrative panic, inept
evacuation and suspension of nuclear power
around the world was a socio-economic and
environmental disaster worse than Chernobyl.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 44
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills Slide 45
Many of the deaths from panic evacuation occurred
among the elderly in carehomes as these published data
show.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills slide 46
Comment on the previous slide
Goiania 1987 Radio-therapy unit was stolen from
a disused clinic for scrap. The Cs-137 source
was split open. It gave a pretty blue glow in the
air! Children played with it in the kitchen, it got
on their skin and in their food.
249 were significantly contaminated, >50 internally
4 died in a few weeks. 28 had surgery for burns.
Zero cases of cancer from radiation in 25 years.
Cases of mental health, alcoholism, depression
from the label “Irradiated”.
Despite this two women had normal births.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 47
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills Slide 48
Goiania Whole-body internal Cs-137 activity
compared to Fukushima and K-40
No Whole body activity Persons Deaths Relative
activity
Goiania Cs137 Above 1000 MBq 1 1 ARS death >100,000
Goiania Cs137 100 to 1000 MBq 7 3 ARS death >10,000
Goiania Cs137 10 to 100 MBq 20 No deaths or
cancers in
25 years
>1,000
Goiania Cs137 1 to 10 MBq 23 >100
Goiania Cs137 1/10 to 1 MBq 15 >10
Goiania Cs137 1/100 to 1/10 MBq 11 >1
Fukushima adults
Cs137 At or below 1/100 MBq 32811 Not expected
Less than 1
Everybody natural
K40 4/1000 MBq all --
Fukushima
children Cs137 All below 2/1000 MBq 1491 Not expected
Comment on the previous slide
In this table each line is for a measured Cs-137
internal radioactivity 1/10 of the line above.
Half of the Goiania residents on the first two lines
died of Acute Radiation Syndrome in a few
weeks.
None of the 32,811 Fukushima residents had a
measured activity as much as 1/10,000 of the
lowest casualty at Goiania (4 lines, as shown by
the green arrow).
None of these Fukushima residents could
reasonably be affected.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 49
3. The Understanding
What is going on here?
It is time for some proper science, not just
data and pictures.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 50
Questions of energy
Resting metabolic rate 1 watt/ kg
so set as safe level for MRI and ultrasound.
By definition 1 Gy/second = 1 Sv/second = 1 watt/kg
Actual safe level for ionising radiation
about 1 Sv/year = 30 nano watt/kg
Question: Why so low?
more than 30 million times smaller
than MRI and ultrasound
[Regulation “safe” level, 1000 times lower
typically 1 mSv/year = 0.03 nano watt/kg]
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 51
Comment on the previous slide
Radiation levels are described as “low” or “high”,
with a number and an unfamiliar unit.
(On the previous slide) we compare radiation dose
rates with a high MRI or UltraSound power level
in watts per kg.
Conclusion: you cannot feel a radiation dose rate,
even a lethal one.
But why is such a low power dangerous when a
similar MRI or ultrasound one is not?
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 52
The answer is Quantum Theory:
“Radiation not absorbed uniformly, but as number of local bursts
called Quanta”
(Photoelectric Effect, Einstein 1905)
Each burst can break/ionise a molecule, as oxygen also can.
The immediate damage is linear (physics/chemistry)
But living tissue is alive:
it responds by looking after itself!
When life began, radiation was several times higher than today.
So from the start it needed protection to survive.
The biology had to mend the damage itself
with the resources available.
If there is too much damage, the resources are insufficient and
some damage persists.
Hence there is a threshold and the response is non-linear.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 53
Comment on the previous slide
[Einstein got his Nobel Prize for this explanation of
the absorption of radiation, not for E=mc2]
10 mGy CT scan will ionise 2 for every 5,000
million atoms. These 2 are smashed, but the
others are not damage at all.
Total damage = sum of independent bursts.
So the initial damage is linear in the energy.
Alive: Biology works with the other cells to sense
and remove the damaged one. In 2.5 billion yrs
it evolved several ways to do that, resources
permitting….
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12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 55
Comment on the previous slide
When resources run out, failures begin the
threshold.
The straight line is a naïve misuse of maths. The
Precautionary Principle and the Linear No-
Threshold (LNT) lie behind the over-safe mantra
ALARA, As Low As Reasonably Achievable
LNT is the source of the many predicted deaths at
Chernobyl/Fukushima at low/moderate doses.
Unfortunately it is still used by safety authorities,
with dangerous legal and financial
consequences.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 56
How Biology has designed the survival of life
Create many copies, and some will survive.
Implemented on two separate Darwinian scales
1. Society composed of many individual organisms
compete/communicate, sense/react to macroscale attack
refreshed by replacement on a birth-reproduction-death cycle;
2. Each individual organism composed of many cells
compete/communicate, sense/react to microscale attack
refreshed by replacement on the faster “cell cycle”.
Microscale attack = oxidation by oxidants or radiation.
Countered by antioxidants, repair, suicide, replacement,
adaptation and monitoring by the immune police.
Brilliant, amazing, the protection works!
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 57
Comment on the previous slide
Microscale attacks by oxygen/radiation are too
small to be sensed by the individual organism.
Protection is devolved to cells and groups of cells.
However, giving an individual organism without
any understanding an instrument that detects
microscale attacks simply causes confusion.
The individual tries to gain radiological protection
when he is already fully covered.
The result was seen at Fukushima and Chernobyl.
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12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 59
1. These failure curves are not mathematical and should not be taken too
seriously they vary.
2. Biology does not need/want individuals to worry about a microscale
attack and engage in Radiation Protection for low and moderate
radiation dose rates because that is already fully devolved to the
cellular level.
3. Failure at the cellular level usually alerts the individual by inflammation.
The 3 caveats on the previous slide
1. With exercise and a history of repair, supplies of
enzymes and antioxidants are increased. Then
the threshold for irreversible is increased. This
happens when we take exercise and get fit. So
the curve changes, and is differs depending on
the stress and individual. eg inoculation.
However for attacks by radiation and oxygen
there is a regular call on supplies, keeping the
threshold up within a certain range.
2. This is the punchline.
3. When cells cry to the organism for help
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12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills slide 61
Living, loving and laughing with UV radiation
a positive image with a sensible public safety message
on a free carrier bag from a high street pharmacy
Comment on the previous slide
In the radiation spectrum UV lies near X-rays.
Like nuclear radiation UV ionises. The numbers
differ but the principles are similar and familiar
Cell death and recovery in the short term.
Skin cancer in the long term if immunity fails.
Sensible advice allows people to enjoy family
holidays in the sun. Adaptation, recovery and
timing are taught - without a UN Committee.
With 9000 deaths a year in US, UV is more serious
than nuclear radiation but still not geopolitical.
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Comment on the previous slide
For low and moderate levels of ionising radiation,
the competition to protect is like the race
between the tortoise and the hare.
The hare regulates everybody but provides no
actual protection and is based on 60 years of
radiation protection theory.
The tortoise wins the race providing actual
protection on the basis of 3.5 billion years of
dynamic experience.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 64
4. Discussion
Recovery and chronic irradiation:
clinical radiotherapy fractionation
dial painters and life-long Radium exposure
dogs and life-long doses
and more (books).
How we got here: Cold War and politics (books)
What to do: Nightingale and her diagrams
safety limits and a draft diagram
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 65
Comment on the previous slide
The threshold value? Same for all? No.
But a single conservative safety figure is needed.
What is the effect of chronic irradiation. Recovery
time is less than a month, cell cycle related.
In radiotherapy a treatment dose spread over 5-6
weeks, if given as a single dose is locally fatal.
Evidence for injurious chronic doses is hard to
find. Here are some on 1) Dial Painters and
2) whole-of-life data on dogs.
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12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills slide 67
Lifelong human data: Dial Painters
luminous watches and dials painted with radium paint
Bone cancer usually 1/400. Evidence for threshold: (Rowland 1997)
1339 painters with less than 10,000mGy, 0 cases [3 expected]
191 painters with more than 10,000mGy, 46 cases. [<1 expected]
Comment on the previous slide
From 1914 until 1950 the dials of watches and
instruments were hand-painted with radium so
as to be seen in the dark. The painters licked
the tip of their brushes for the finest work.
The radium was absorbed into their bones like
calcium and remained until they died. In 1926
the cause of the bone cancer was diagnosed
and the licking was stopped. After that there
were no further cases. The threshold at 10,000
mGy, whole of life, is widely agreed.
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12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills slide 69
Mortality of beagle dogs given a whole-of-life
chronic whole-body dose of gamma rays
Comment on the previous slide
Dogs live long enough to compare with humans,
unlike mice. Those fed 100 mGy per month
regularly throughout life show the same
mortality as controls up to 8 years, marked by
the red line at 9000 mGy.
This threshold is similar to the Dial Painter
threshold at 10,000 mGy. It suggests a
threshold chronic rate of 100 mGy per month.
The Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors show a
acute threshold of about 100 mGy.
These and other figures indicate what is needed.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 70
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How to persuade others?
Follow a historical example -
Florence Nightingale tackled
the cultural/political blindness
to infection in military hospitals.
- She studied the evidence
- She reached statistical
conclusions
- She drew coloured diagrams
that all might understand
- She published at her own expense and
got political attention for new standards of nursing
To persuade others we should follow similar methods
Comment on the previous slide
What can we do to persuade others who simply
do not accept necause their minds are closed?
History tells how Florence Nightingale had a
similar problem.
Nobody wanted to hear what happened inside
military hospitals, but she knew the soldiers
were dying from infection not their wounds.
She was an accomplished statistician and used
her skills to force the evidence-blind generals
and politicians of the day to change their policy.
She succeeded.
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12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills slide 73
The example
of Florence
Nightingale
(1858):
- get the data
- draw the
diagrams
- tell the
people
- leave no
doubt
Comment on the previous slide
It is wonderful what you can find on the Web! Here
is one of her original hand-coloured plots.
Perhaps not as helpful as a modern pie diagram,
but it was sufficient to win over the politicians of
the day so that they understood the benefits of
proper nursing.
What can we do to show radiation dose rates in
proportion in a similar without resorting to
numerical doses?
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12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 75
RED dose to a tumour
treated in a course of
radiotherapy;
YELLOW dose
tolerated by healthy
tissue near a treated
rumour;
GREEN dose with
100% recovery record
(also shown
magnified);
BLACK DOT
officially “safe” for
public, 1000 smaller
than green circle (also
shown magnified)
Showing the size of different
monthly radiation doses as
the area of circles
Comment on the previous slide
The area of the overlaid circles describe monthly
radiation dose rates. The RED and YELLOW
are the LOCAL doses received by a tumour and
the nearby tissue in a radiotherapy treatment.
The GREEN circle,100 mGy per month, is a safe
recoverable radiation dose rate as received
by the dogs for 8 years.
This is 1000 times larger than the over-cautious
current recommended public level, the little
black dot on the green circle. [In 1934 the ICRP
recommended a value 60 mGy/month.]
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 76
5. Conclusions
Radiological safety regulations should discard LNT and use a
threshold rate, such as 60 mGy per month (ICRP 1934).
Public health reassurance should be given that lesser rates are not
generally carcinogenic and that previous guidance based on
LNT/ALARA was misjudged and is withdrawn.
The related cost reductions to nuclear technology and health
services should be carried through as soon as possible. Long
term dose records should not be kept for safety purposes.
Safety is a matter of personal understanding, not just compliance:
All children should learn substantially more positive science with
practical attention to radiation, as for fire and UV, for example.
As fast as possible countries should start a major programme in
nuclear power with supporting public education to mitigate
climate change.
12 Nov 2018 Wade Allison: When Fear Kills 77
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Resin in the water treatment system of the Merah-Putih Gamma Irradiator (IGMP) is used as ion exchange. The pool containing demineralized water with low conductivity, less than 10 μS, to prevent metal components installed at the bottom part of the irradiator from corrosion. However, evaporation mainly due to heat from radiation source causes water level is reduced. Raw water from other resources must be added to maintain a demineralized water level. Theoretically, the conductivity depends on the contact area and contact time between the raw water with resin particles. Calculation from such a situation is difficult to be realized. Therefore, the conductivity and pH of the raw water is measured after being the raw water is reacted with the resin particles in the water treatment system. The exchange process is influenced by several factors, including the water flow rate. The purpose of this research is to find out the effect of water flow rate against conductivity so that the right water flow rate caused the ion exchange process runs optimally can be determined. The water treatment system is operated in filling mode. In the filling process, the water filling flow rate is varied in six, 100 liters/hour, 200 liters/hour, 300 liters/hour, 400 liters/hour, 500 liters/hour, and 600 liters/hour, respectively. Each water filling flow rate was observed for conductivity and water pH after passing through cation resin and anion resin. Data is collected every 3 minutes. Based on the datasheet, the optimal water flow rate through the cation resin is 120 m3/hour and the optimal water flow through the anion resin is 60 m3/hour. This research shows if the amount of water flow rate pass resin is closer to the value recommended by the datasheet, it can cause the ion exchange process runs optimally and the expected low conductivity is achieved when the pump was operated at the speed 600 liters/hour which produces 64.3 m3/hour at the point after passing through the resin tank. However, the pump is recommended to be operated at a maximum speed of 300 liters/hour, otherwise the PVC pipe break or burst. To overcome this situation, design engineering is needed, so that the pump can be operated at the recommended speed.
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