Conference Paper

Towards Low-Code Adaptive Case Management Solutions with Dynamic Condition Response Graphs, Subprocesses and Data

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This paper reports on Exformatics A/S experiences through the last year using the Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) graphs declarative process notation as the backbone of adaptive case management solutions. Concretely, we show how advanced DCR features such as data, guarded relations, event types, DCR Forms and sub-processes allow for programming advanced adaptive case management solutions with forms and data without a single line of traditional code. Based on the experiences we propose future directions of work and possible extensions to the DCR notation for making the descriptions less complex.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Moreover, we could demonstrate that these models, when being used with a constraint-based approach for planning and scheduling process activities, can help organizations to improve their business processes (e.g., substantial reductions of the duration of patient stays). Furthermore, although there are some real-world process scenario modelled in a declarative way (e.g., (Debois and Slaats, 2015;Strømsted et al., 2018)), to the best of our knowledge, this is the first sophisticated real-world process scenario with complex temporal constraints as well as cross-instance constraints modelled in a declarative way. ...
Article
This work has been motivated by the needs we discovered when analyzing real-world processes from the healthcare domain that have revealed high flexibility demands and complex temporal constraints. When trying to model these processes with existing languages, we learned that none of the latter was able to fully address these needs. This motivated us to design TConDec-R, a declarative process modeling language enabling the specification of complex temporal constraints. Enacting business processes based on declarative process models, however, introduces a high complexity due to the required optimization of objective functions, the handling of various temporal constraints, the concurrent execution of multiple process instances, the management of cross-instance constraints, and complex resource allocations. Consequently, advanced user support through optimized schedules is required when executing the instances of such models. In previous work, we suggested a method for generating an optimized enactment plan for a given set of process instances created from a TConDec-R model. However, this approach was not applicable to scenarios with uncertain demands in which the enactment of newly created process instances starts continuously over time, as in the considered healthcare scenarios. Here, the process instances to be planned within a specific timeframe cannot be considered in isolation from the ones planned for future timeframes. To be able to support such scenarios, this article significantly extends our previous work by generating optimized enactment plans under a rolling planning horizon. We evaluate the approach by applying it to a particularly challenging healthcare process scenario, i.e., the diagnostic procedures required for treating patients with ovarian carcinoma in a Woman Hospital. The application of the approach to this sophisticated scenario allows avoiding constraint violations and effectively managing shared resources, which contributes to reduce the length of patient stays in the hospital.
... Some researchers indicate that the time spent by programmers to write the code is the most complex part of the development process. That is why this approach is considered to be time-consuming ( Not only professional developers would take the advantage of developing applications, beginners became able to develop an application without needing experience or knowledge about any programming languages or complex engineering activities (Metrôlho et al., 2019;Strømsted et al., 2018). The application will be developed by dragging and dropping the components and the code will be generated in the background (Adrian, Hinrichsen & Nikolenko, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Low-code development platforms were introduced as a solution to the dilemma of the gap between the high demand for applications and the low number of developers available to meet this demand. The low-code development platforms help the developers to build fast, efficient, and scalable applications with a minimal need for coding, which introduced the concept of citizen developers in the field of application development. This study explores the factors that attract the developers and programmers to utilize LCDP and discusses some of the problems and challenges that prevent other programmers and developers from using it. An online survey was conducted in Saudi Arabia among 49 respondents of professional developers from different departments of Information Technology in several kinds of businesses as well as students from the Computing and Information Technology faculties to understand the developers’ motivations to adopt low-code development platforms. A total of 19 respondents were using LCDP, while the other 30 were not. The paper also highlights the reasons why some developers are not interested in moving toward low-code and commit to the traditional programming approach. The results of this study explain the factors and advantages that prompt developers to use LCDP and identifies the concerns that prevent them from using it. Reducing development time is considered as an advantage by the majority of the sample that used LCDP. Additionally, the Minimum coding needed reduces the development time and make the application development much easier. On the other hand, some of the reasons for not using LCDP by the developers were the low level of scalability in these platforms, and a lack of knowledge about these platforms and how to deal with them.
Conference Paper
When done right, the use of low code development promises a significant competitive advantage in the software development process for organizations. Thus, multiple vendors have created low code development platforms to ease the use of low code development. However, current research on low code development platforms mainly focuses on the technological aspects of the platforms but not on their adoption. Hence, it remains unclear what drives and inhibits the adoption of low code development platforms. We conducted a literature review and identified thirteen factors that inhibit the adoption and seven factors that drive it. We structure these factors along with the diffusion of innovation framework that helps to disentangle drivers and inhibitors. As a result, we provide an initial explanation of the adoption of low code development platforms. Nevertheless, we conclude that existing research on the adoption of low code development platforms is not specific enough to understand the phenomenon substantially. Further, for some factors (e.g., cost), there is a disagreement in the academic literature on whether they are drivers or inhibitors. Hence, we identify gaps and derive avenues for future research.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports preliminary experiences using the Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) graphs declarative process notation to specify dynamic evaluation forms, and using an execution engine for that notation to subsequently "run" the form. The DCR notation was able to express all the patterns of behaviour necessary for a real case: a post-hoc evaluation form for a Danish arbitration court, "Voldgift-snaevnet for Anlaeg og Byggeri". However, some patterns were somewhat cumbersome to express.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Modern form-based end-user interfaces are highly variable and need to adapt to the choices made by the user. To describe such adaptations programmatically is time and resource intensive and therefore more generic approaches are preferable. Form-based UIs are often very flexible: one usually has a large degree of freedom in the order in which fields are filled out and is able of changing previous values on the fly without needing to redo intermediate steps. Such flexible behaviour can be efficiently captured using a declarative process model, where the declarative rules define for each form element whether they are visible, editable and/or mandatory. In addition complex data-based constraints can be supported, so that the behaviour of a field depends on the values entered into the form. In this session we will show: How to express complex, variable forms as declarative processes, How to express such form processes in the DCR formalism, How to model and execute such forms on the dcrgraphs.net process portal, How we applied this approach to the grant application system of a Danish foundation.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We report on a recent industrial project carried out by Exformatics A/S in which the company used the declarative DCR Graphs notation to model and implement the grant application process of a Danish foundation. We present the process and discuss the advantages of the approach and challenges faced both while modelling and implementing the process. Finally, we discuss current work on extensions to the DCR Graphs notation aiming to address the challenges raised by the case study and to support the declarative, agile approach.
Article
Full-text available
We present Dynamic Condition Response Graphs (DCR Graphs) as a declarative, event-based process model inspired by the workflow language employed by our industrial partner and conservatively generalizing prime event structures. A dynamic condition response graph is a directed graph with nodes representing the events that can happen and arrows representing four relations between events: condition, response, include, and exclude. Distributed DCR Graphs is then obtained by assigning roles to events and principals. We give a graphical notation inspired by related work by van der Aalst et al. We exemplify the use of distributed DCR Graphs on a simple workflow taken from a field study at a Danish hospital, pointing out their flexibility compared to imperative workflow models. Finally we provide a mapping from DCR Graphs to Buchi-automata.
The DCR Workbench: Declarative Choreographies for Collaborative Processes
  • S Debois
  • T Hildebrandt
S. Debois and T. Hildebrandt, "The DCR Workbench: Declarative Choreographies for Collaborative Processes," in Behavioural Types: from Theory to Tools. River Publishers, Jun. 2017, pp. 99-124.