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How are habits formed: Modeling habit formation in the real world

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Abstract

To investigate the process of habit formation in everyday life, 96 volunteers chose an eating, drinking or activity behaviour to carry out daily in the same context (for example 'after breakfast') for 12 weeks. They completed the self-report habit index (SRHI) each day and recorded whether they carried out the behaviour. The majority (82) of participants provided sufficient data for analysis, and increases in automaticity (calculated with a sub-set of SRHI items) were examined over the study period. Nonlinear regressions fitted an asymptotic curve to each individual's automaticity scores over the 84 days. The model fitted for 62 individuals, of whom 39 showed a good fit. Performing the behaviour more consistently was associated with better model fit. The time it took participants to reach 95% of their asymptote of automaticity ranged from 18 to 254 days; indicating considerable variation in how long it takes people to reach their limit of automaticity and highlighting that it can take a very long time. Missing one opportunity to perform the behaviour did not materially affect the habit formation process. With repetition of a behaviour in a consistent context, automaticity increases following an asymptotic curve which can be modelled at the individual level.

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... When the behavior is abandoned in the second half, habit strength decays proportionally but at lower rate than the habit growth. These basic patterns are consistent with the empirical data from a field study on habit formation where participants reported their habit strength using the SRHI (Lally et al. 2010). In addition to the model by Klein and colleagues, other very similar models of habit formation have been developed over the years and in various application contexts (Miller et al. 2019;Psarra 2016;Tobias 2009). ...
... Besides the implications for behavior prediction and intervention, the parameter estimation procedure used in our studies also has implications for the theoretical understanding of habit formation. The optimal values tuned for the habit gain parameter are very close to the corresponding values of 0.19 obtained through a statistical modeling of the temporal dynamics of self-reported habit strength or behavioral auto-maticity (Lally et al. 2010). However, inconsistent with previous studies that suggested much smaller habit decay parameter (Tobias 2009;Lally et al. 2010), its value was in the same range with the habit gain parameter in our studies. ...
... The optimal values tuned for the habit gain parameter are very close to the corresponding values of 0.19 obtained through a statistical modeling of the temporal dynamics of self-reported habit strength or behavioral auto-maticity (Lally et al. 2010). However, inconsistent with previous studies that suggested much smaller habit decay parameter (Tobias 2009;Lally et al. 2010), its value was in the same range with the habit gain parameter in our studies. In general, these results speak to the theoretical meaningfulness of the computational model of habit strength used for prediction. ...
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Psychological theories of habit posit that when a strong habit is formed through behavioral repetition, it can trigger behavior automatically in the same environment. Given the reciprocal relationship between habit and behavior, changing lifestyle behaviors is largely a task of breaking old habits and creating new and healthy ones. Thus, representing users’ habit strengths can be very useful for behavior change support systems, for example, to predict behavior or to decide when an intervention reaches its intended effect. However, habit strength is not directly observable and existing self-report measures are taxing for users. In this paper, building on recent computational models of habit formation, we propose a method to enable intelligent systems to compute habit strength based on observable behavior. The hypothesized advantage of using computed habit strength for behavior prediction was tested using data from two intervention studies on dental behavior change ( $$N = 36$$ N = 36 and $$N = 75$$ N = 75 ), where we instructed participants to brush their teeth twice a day for three weeks and monitored their behaviors using accelerometers. The results showed that for the task of predicting future brushing behavior, the theory-based model that computed habit strength achieved an accuracy of 68.6% (Study 1) and 76.1% (Study 2), which outperformed the model that relied on self-reported behavioral determinants but showed no advantage over models that relied on past behavior. We discuss the implications of our results for research on behavior change support systems and habit formation.
... Assuming that the participants have not only performed the LiFE activities in the last four weeks as reported in the questionnaire, but already regularly since the seventh session, the activities were performed over a period of more than three months (> 90 days). According to Lally et al, 46 is possible that in our study, gLiFE and LiFE participants may have performed the LiFE activities habitually, at least to a certain extent. The formation of habits depends on various factors, including intra-personal characteristics, the desired behavior and the external circumstances. ...
... The formation of habits depends on various factors, including intra-personal characteristics, the desired behavior and the external circumstances. 46 Previous studies on habit formation found that missing a chance to perform the desired behavior does not have a direct negative effect on the habit formation process. 46 So, if gLiFE and LiFE participants forgot to do a LiFE activity as planned in a certain situation once, habit formation might not have been disrupted. ...
... 46 Previous studies on habit formation found that missing a chance to perform the desired behavior does not have a direct negative effect on the habit formation process. 46 So, if gLiFE and LiFE participants forgot to do a LiFE activity as planned in a certain situation once, habit formation might not have been disrupted. Other studies on basis of the LiFE-is-LiFE trial explore the issue of habit formation in the LiFE intervention in more detail. ...
Article
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Introduction: Lifestyle-integrated Functional Exercise (LiFE) is an effective, individually delivered fall prevention program but comes with substantial resource requirements; hence, a group-format was developed (gLiFE). This study 1) evaluates the program content of two different LiFE formats (group vs individual) and 2) examines the relationship between predictors of training response (dose) and improvements in balance, strength, and physical activity (PA) (response). Material and Methods: The analysis included n = 252 (gLiFE = 126, LiFE = 126) community-dwelling older adults (78.6± 5.2 years). LiFE was administered in seven sessions either in a group (gLiFE: 8– 12 participants) or individually at home (LiFE). Questionnaire-based, descriptive content evaluation (frequency distributions) included reported frequency of practice (days/week, number of activities), activity preferences, safety, intensity, integrability of activities, and acceptance after 6 months of LiFE practice. Predictors (ie, dose [reported frequency and intensity], safety, and integrability of activities) for improvements in balance, strength, and PA were analyzed using radar charts. Results: In both formats, 11.2 activities were practiced on average. Strength activities were more frequently selected than balance. Content evaluation showed some marginal advantages for the LiFE participants for selected aspects. The effects on balance, strength, and PA were nearly similar in both groups. Participants who performed balance activities more frequently (≥ 4 days/week) scored better in the balance and PA domain. Those who performed strength activities more frequently (≥ 4 days/week) performed better in all three outcomes. Higher perceived safety was associated with better performance. Those who reported activities as “not physically exhausting” performed better in all three outcomes. Those who found activities easily integrable into daily routines scored higher in the balance and strength domain. Discussion and Conclusion: Overall, both program formats are comparable with respect to content evaluation and effects. Participants need to perceive the activities as safe, not exhausting, and should practice ≥ 4 days/week to generate a high benefit from the intervention.
... In past habit research, context stability was inferred through instructions to keep it stable (e.g., Lally et al., 2010), multiplied with frequency to obtain a habit measure (Galla and Duckworth, 2015) or defined by location (e.g., Verplanken et al., 2008). The great majority of the habit studies have a cross-sectional design and typically conceptualize context as a mere cue triggering habits and not as a factor with an ongoing influence on behavioral execution. ...
... Longitudinal studies, in which the intentional acquisition of habits is tracked within-person after each habit repetition, are scarce. We identified only five relevant published papers to date (Lally et al., 2010;Fournier et al., 2017;Stojanovic et al., 2020Stojanovic et al., , 2021Van der Weiden et al., 2020) and in none of them context stability has been tested for a possible influence on the habit building process. To fill this gap and add to the scarce longitudinal habit research, we measure perceived context stability in two longitudinal studies (including a context stability manipulation in Study 1), and test the effects of context stability during habit acquisition on automaticity and goal attainment, which are both variables tied to the quality of habit execution. ...
... When investigating habit formation, automaticity is typically the dependent variable, which grows over time by habit repetition (Lally et al., 2010;Stojanovic et al., 2020Stojanovic et al., , 2021. A very automized habit would be considered a strong habit. ...
Article
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In this paper, we investigate the effects of context stability on automaticity and goal attainment in intentional habit building. We used hierarchical growth curve modeling and multilevel mediation to test our hypotheses on two datasets. In Study 1, N = 95 university students ( N = 2,482 habit repetitions) built new study habits over a period of 6 weeks with manipulated context stability. One group was instructed to constantly vary the context of their habit repetitions by changing rooms and times and the other group was instructed to keep the context of habit performance stable. In Study 2, N = 308 habits ( N = 2,368 habit repetitions) from N = 218 users of a published habit building app were analyzed without manipulating but measuring context stability. We found the same pattern in both datasets: Context stability predicted more automaticity and higher habit repetition goal attainment. We also found that the effect of context stability on habit repetition goal attainment was partially mediated by automaticity in both datasets. These results show that context does not only act as a trigger for habit instigation but also has an ongoing effect on habit execution.
... Habits are spontaneous situations that create a whim towards performing behaviours that had been perennially carried out in that setting [50], and this process controls the 'habitual behaviours'. Lally et al. [51] pointed out that habitual behaviour is learned through a process of 'context-dependent repetition'. According to Gardner [49], Lally et al. [51] and Thøgersen [52], habits are formed via repetition of behaviour in a specific circumstance. ...
... Lally et al. [51] pointed out that habitual behaviour is learned through a process of 'context-dependent repetition'. According to Gardner [49], Lally et al. [51] and Thøgersen [52], habits are formed via repetition of behaviour in a specific circumstance. Recently, several research areas have explored the notion of habits to envisage human behaviour in specific contexts. ...
Article
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The bicycle is a forgotten and neglected mode of transport even though it offers numerous individual, social, and environmental benefits over motorised transport. This research seeks to determine the factors influencing students to use bicycles for commuting and focuses on the strategies that encourage bicycling in a university setting. This study proposes the novel model framework by adopting Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour. We modified the theory of planned behaviour by adding two new constructs, perceived barriers and habit. The respondents in this study are 422 students from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia in Selangor, Malaysia. The structural equation model in this study showed that the main attitudinal constructs, namely attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control, have a significant positive and direct influence on the students’ willingness to cycle. In addition, the perceived barriers have a profound negative and indirect impact on behaviour intention through attitude, perceived behavioural control and habit. The perceived barriers did not have a significant influence on the subjective norms. However, habit has a profound positive and direct effect on three main attitudinal constructs (attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control). This element could indirectly influence the behaviour intention of cycling in a university setting. Finally, this study has identified the physical, educational and economic policies for promoting bicycle use on university setting. It also contributes beneficial information that authorities, policymakers, planners and researchers could use to formulate effective strategies for increasing bicycle use on university setting and promote green and sustainable university settings.
... Previous international research has noted that mandating the wearing of protective equipment (such as bicycle helmets) does not necessarily lead to an immediate widespread uptake [15][16][17]. Research suggests that behaviours may become habitual in around one to 3 months [18]. ...
... Wearing a face covering, previously not a common behaviour in the UK, has now become commonplace, increasing social norms (social opportunity). Over the course of the pandemic, there has been ample time for protective behaviours to become routine or even habitual, a process which takes weeks or months [18]. ...
Article
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Background Behaviour is key to suppressing the COVID-19 pandemic. Maintaining behaviour change can be difficult. We investigated engagement with hand cleaning, reducing the number of outings, and wearing a face covering over the course of the pandemic. Methods We used a series of 64 cross-sectional surveys between 10 February 2020 and 20 January 2022 ( n ≈ 2000 per wave). Surveys investigated uptake of hand cleaning behaviours, out of home activity (England only, n ≈ 1700 per wave) and wearing a face covering (England only, restricted to those who reported going out shopping in the last week, n ≈ 1400 per wave). Results Reported hand cleaning has been high throughout the pandemic period (85 to 90% of participants consistently reporting washing their hands thoroughly and regularly with soap and water frequently or very frequently). Out of home activity has mirrored the easing and re-introduction of restrictive measures. Total number of outings were higher in the second national lockdown than in the first and third lockdowns. Wearing a face covering increased steadily between April to August 2020, plateauing until the end of measurement in May 2021, with approximately 80% of those who had been out shopping in the previous week reporting wearing a face covering frequently or very frequently. Conclusions Engagement with protective behaviours increased at the start of the pandemic and has remained high since. The greatest variations in behaviour reflected changes to Government rules. Despite the duration of restrictions, people have continued to adopt personal protective behaviours that were intended to prevent the spread of COVID-19.
... Diary studies asking subjects to report their activities every hour have found that about 43% of human activities are repeated almost every day, in the same way, at the same time, without conscious deliberation (Wood et al., 2002;Lally et al., 2010). The prevalence of habits implies that, for many activities, the answer to why people act the way they do is simply because they are used to it. ...
... High automaticity requires that subjects converge to a stable strategy in part one. The habit formation process takes time (Lally et al., 2010). To account for this, we ignore the first 10 rounds where subjects could potentially still be using trial and error. ...
Preprint
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Many everyday activities are habitual. Among the most common human activities is communication. If people primarily communicate in a common-interests environment, they may form habits of truth-telling and believing messages. If they primarily communicate in a conflicting-interests environment, they may form habits of lying and mistrusting messages. We provide experimental evidence that habits affect strategic communication in an unfamiliar environment. Additionally, we contrast two mechanisms through which habits operate, preference formation and inattention. By varying the frequency of communicating in the unfamiliar environment, we find an effect only when the unfamiliar environment occurs rarely. Our results favor inattention as preference formation would predict an effect irrespective of the frequency of the new environment. Analysis of individual decisions sheds further light on the mechanisms. Our findings highlight the importance of accounting for habits, especially when studying human behavior in infrequent situations.
... While achieving a once-off change in behavior is undoubtedly desirable, recurring behaviors like heating require a more fundamental change in individuals' routines to be sustained over extended periods. Habitual or automated action is worthwhile because it is performed independently of conscious consideration and behavioral intent (Limayem, Hirt, & Cheung, 2007;Verplanken & Aarts, 1999) but orchestrated by environmental triggers and the anticipation of consequences (Lally, Jaarsveld, Potss, & Wardle, 2010). The psychological reference literature and habit research has brought forward several factors that strengthen habit formation: The most prominent factors were the frequent repetition of the behavior to internalize and automate the behavioral sequences and the contingency of the reward or threat associated with concrete action. ...
... While this is of course contingent upon the setting in which a nudge is applied and the target behavior to be performed, in the context of our study, we see no particular reason to assume that cueing a novel behavioral sequence, and its habitualization and automation should follow different routes when using nudges (cf. Verplanken et al., 1999;Lally et al., 2010). ...
Conference Paper
Residential heating is a major source of carbon emissions and, at the same time, represents a significant cost factor for households. Thus, reducing heating costs through sustainable heating behaviors is of great individual and societal interest. However, the consequences of heating behaviors are complex and delayed, so most people are unaware of them. To address this problem, we designed two loss aversion nudges, using (i) a cost salience and (ii) a health risk framing to induce more sustainable heating and ventilation behaviors. We evaluated them against a no-intervention control group in a field experiment at a major German real estate company. While the cost salience nudge was found to improve heating behaviors and became more effective over time, the health risk nudge did not show an effect. Finally, our findings have implications for research on nudging and loss aversion and for practitioners, namely housing providers and more generalized entities aiming to nudge for pro-environmental behaviors.
... Gardner et al. (2012) state the difficulty with breaking habits lies in the fact that they are formed over a longer period. Changing or developing a new habit can happen within 18-254 days, with the average habit development being estimated at 66 days (Lally et al., 2010). ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic caused and still causes unprecedented disruptions in daily lives of billions of people globally. It affects practices and routines across all household consumption domains, including clothing consumption. Drawing on Social Practice Theory, this article explores and compares changes in clothing acquisition practices during COVID-19 across nine countries: the USA, the UK, Finland, Germany, Switzerland, Iran, Czech Republic, India, and Hong Kong SAR. Data was obtained through a standardized survey containing rated and open-ended questions, which were analyzed through descriptive quantitative analysis and inductive qualitative content analysis of open-ended questions. The results of this cross-country research indicate that all forms of fashion consumption, including more sustainable practices, have decreased during the pandemic. The most visible impacts have occurred in the material arrangements associated with fashion acquisition practices (e.g., closed physical shops, shipping disruptions, cancelled events, remote work, etc.). However, changes that result from these disruptions may be shorter-lived that changes that happened as a result of changing meanings associated with fashion consumption and its more sustainable forms and new competencies and skills acquired during the pandemic that could ensure more lasting practicing of more sustainable forms of fashion consumption.
... The module for the intervention group was based on the SCT (Bandura, 2004) (Lally et al., 2010). Therefore, the module was suggested to be conducted over 10 weeks in this study. ...
Article
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Background: The worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged five to 19 years has increased substantially from 4% in 1975 to over 18% in 2016. School is a good setting for implementing childhood obesity interventions through nutrition education and practice, policy and supportive environment as well as physical activity promotion. This paper will discuss the development of a school-based intervention module in reducing overweight and obesity among adolescents.
... This is consistent with findings showing that automaticity of an action increases steadily over time when the action is repeated in a constant setting. [36] Another study that used health promotion as an intervention, not only offered HH education to the caregivers but also used a character (clown) to teach children about HH in an entertaining manner. Although there was no change in handwashing frequency or increase in the use of HH materials, bacterial colonisation was reduced by 31% in the experiment group and the growth rate of bacterial coliforms was reduced as a result of using the correct handwashing technique, as was demonstrated during the intervention. ...
Article
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Background. Proper handwashing can reduce the burden of diseases related to hand hygiene (HH) and so contribute reducing under-5 mortality. Preschoolers can benefit from HH interventions by the burden of disease and absenteeism being reduced. Objective. To perform a scoping review of literature to assess the types and effectiveness of HH interventions at preschools, with a view to providing a guideline for appropriate interventions for South African facilities. Methods. A literature search was conducted through the PubMed database to identify relevant studies. An iterative screening process to focus the review allowed for information on the type and effectiveness of interventions to be collated. An updated PubMed search was conducted to determine whether any interventions related to COVID-19 at preschools could be included. Results. No additional studies relating to COVID-19 were found. Of the 305 studies identified during the initial search, only 12 fitted the specific search criteria. Of these, 10 studies showed improvements in HH-related indicators following the interventions. Only two studies used health education as an intervention, whereas the others included the supply of HH products (to varying extents) as part of the intervention. Conclusion. HH interventions appear successful in reducing diseases spread by poor HH, improving general HH practices and reducing absenteeism among preschoolers. Studies using innovative, entertaining methods of educating children have shown to be successful in improving handwashing techniques and decreasing microbial growth on children’s hands. HH interventions are suggested as an effective measure to improve HH during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Significant increases in total dog-facilitated physical activity were observed at 3-months rather than 1-month follow-up. This is in line with habit formation research which suggests that it takes 18 to 265 days to form a habit [38]. As physical activity behaviour is complex and multidimensional [39], a longer time may be required to change behaviour and for a new habit to be formed. ...
Article
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Background Despite immense benefits of physical activity on health and developmental outcomes, few children achieve recommended daily levels of physical activity. Given more than half of families with children own a dog, we investigated the effect of a mobile health (mHealth) intervention to encourage dog-facilitated physical activity through increased family dog walking and children’s active play with their dog. Methods The PLAYCE PAWS study was a three-armed randomised pilot trial conducted in Perth, Western Australia. Children aged 5-10 years with a family dog were randomised to 4 weeks of either 1) SMS-only intervention, 2) ‘SMS + pedometer’ intervention or 3) ‘usual care’ control. The mHealth intervention involved SMS messages to parents; the ‘SMS + pedometer’ group also received a dog pedometer and personalised dog steps diary. Parent-reported measures were collected at baseline, 1- and 3-months post intervention. The primary outcome was weekly frequency of family dog walking and dog play; secondary outcomes were child attachment to the dog and feasibility of the intervention. Results A total of 150 children were randomised in staggered blocks to SMS-only (n = 50), ‘SMS + pedometer’ (n = 50) or usual care (n = 50). No differences were observed in family dog walking and dog play at 1-month. SMS-only children (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.17, 5.83, P = 0.019) and all intervention children (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.01, 3.86, P = 0.048) were more likely to increase total dog-facilitated physical activity (sum of family dog walking and dog play responses) at 3-months. The positive associations with total dog-facilitated physical activity disappeared (all P > 0.05) after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. Conclusions The PLAYCE PAWS mHealth intervention did not significantly affect dog-facilitated physical activity in children. Given high levels of dog ownership in the community, SMS prompts could be a low-cost intervention to encourage more physical activity in children. Further research is needed to understand how increased interaction with the family dog impacts on children’s overall physical activity and other health and development outcomes. Trial registration ANZCTR, ACTRN12620000288921, retrospectively registered on 4/3/2020.
... Habits are developed over time when one engages in a fixed behaviour through repeated and frequent exposure to contextual or environmental cues. Over time, when a habit is being developed, an individual would automatically engage in the habitual behaviour when encountering the associated contextual and/or environmental cues [27]. For example, an individual might set intentions to improve their overall physical health, by leaving work at 6 pm and going for a run at the end of alternate workdays. ...
Article
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The intention-behaviour gap has been a barrier to health behavioural change. A total of 85 participants (aged 18–56 years) were recruited for a study that examined how two types of planning (Action and Coping) could bridge the intention-behaviour gap and increase physical exercise behaviours. The online study took place over two weeks, with participants completing pre- and post- measures of past exercise habits, intentions to exercise, subsequent physical exercise behaviours, intrinsic motivation levels, and engagement in action and coping planning. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that intentions, past exercise habits and action planning were significant predictors of change in physical exercise behaviours. Positive correlations were observed between participants’ past habits and their exercise behaviours during the study. 71.8% of participants met the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended guidelines for physical activity at the end of the study compared to the initial 58.8%, which evidences a significant increase in participant physical exercise behaviours. Our findings revealed that while intentions are important predictors for behavioural change, cultivating habits to engage in regular exercise seems to outweigh the significance of intentions. Moreover, action planning could be a helpful intervention to bridge the intention-behaviour gap to increase overall physical exercise behaviours. In the long-term, this would improve an individual’s mental and physical wellbeing and potentially alleviate the costly burden on public health services.
... Implementation intentions have been shown to facilitate action and goal achievement (46) by enhancing the mental accessibility of cues (Anchor Moments) and strengthening the link between cues and planned responses (Tiny Behaviors) (48,49). Further, previous studies show that small, simple behaviors are performed more consistently and are more readily formed into habits (47,50), as are behaviors that are pleasurable and intrinsically motivated (43,51). ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has led to diminished sleep and increased stress, anxiety, and burnout for many health professionals and health professions students. One simple approach that may be effective for bolstering personal well-being is consciously cultivating gratitude. Gratitude is positively associated with physical health, psychological health, hope, sleep, and health behavior engagement; and randomized studies indicate that gratitude interventions can improve psychological well-being and sleep. The primary aim of this study was to assess the impact of practicing Tiny Habits® on self-reported gratitude, as measured by the 6-Item Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6). In January 2021, 154 adult participants with GQ-6 <35/42 were randomized to one of 3 groups: Tiny Habits for Gratitude (n = 50), Tiny Habits Control (n = 52), and Inactive Control (n = 52). Both Tiny Habits groups chose 3 Tiny Habits Recipes to practice daily and participated in the free, email-based 5-Day Program with automated daily check-in emails and personalized feedback from a Certified Tiny Habits Coach. The Recipes for the Tiny Habits for Gratitude group focused on cultivating gratitude, while those for the Tiny Habits Control group did not. Post-intervention, the mean change in GQ-6 scores in the Tiny Habits for Gratitude (Δ = ↑6.9 ± 5.6; n = 37/50, 74%; p< 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.85) and Tiny Habits Control (Δ = ↑5.6 ± 4.1; n = 31/52, 60%; p = 0.009, Cohen's d = 0.71) groups were greater than that of the Inactive Control group (Δ = ↑2.5 ± 4.4; N = 42/52, 81%). At 1 month, the mean change in GQ-6 scores in the Tiny Habits for Gratitude group (Δ = ↑7.0 ± 5.3; N = 28/50, 56%) was greater than that of the Inactive Control group (Δ = ↑2.9 ± 5.4; N = 39/52, 72%; p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.78). These findings suggest that practicing Tiny Habits Recipes and participating in the 5-Day Program can significantly increase gratitude in the short term and focusing specifically on gratitude during this process can sustain the increase in gratitude for up to 1 month. Implementation is quick, simple, and free. This has significant implications for healthcare education stakeholders.
... In this sense, personal adaptations to circumvent obstacles to learning and practice, such as those related to the environment and daily life, seem to be key considerations when teaching AT. We believe that using strategies to teach AT that are based on theoretical foundations and empirical literature on habit development [50][51][52][53], such as intention planning [50,54,55] and the repetition of behaviour in the same context-situation [56,57], may have contributed to these adaptations and to participants integrating the practice into their daily routines. ...
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Background Various mind-body practices are used by people living with HIV to promote their general well-being. Among these is autogenic training (AT), a self-guided relaxation technique requiring regular practice for observable benefits. However, little has been written about the process of learning this technique, which is obviously a prerequisite to regular practice. This study therefore aims to describe the process by which people living with HIV learn AT. Methods The study is a descriptive qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and a thematic analysis with a mixed approach. Fourteen participants living with HIV completed sessions to learn autogenic training over a period of 3 months. Results The process of learning AT was approached through three themes: initiating the learning process, taking ownership of the technique, and observing its benefits on wellness. To initiate learning, participants had to express a need to take action on an aspect of their well-being and their openness to complementary approaches to care. Taking ownership of the technique was facilitated by guidance from the nurse researcher, the participants’ personal adaptations to overcome barriers to their practice, regular practice, and rapid observation of its benefits. Finally, the participants reported the observation of benefits on their wellness, including personal development, mainly in terms of the creative self, the essential self, and the coping self. This perception of the technique’s benefits was part of the learning process, as it contributed both to the participants’ ownership of the technique and to reinforcing their AT practice. Conclusions People living with HIV see learning AT as a progressive process, in which wellness is a major outcome and a contributing factor in developing a regular practice.
... Current guidelines for opioid weaning, as described by Manchikanti et al., involve a 10% reduction in opioids per week [26]. Furthermore, evidence from Lally et al. demonstrates that changing behavioral habits requires 12 weeks, with significant variation noted between individuals [27]. These studies indicate that opioid weaning trials can take a minimum of three months to implement, with high levels of relapse and noncompliance. ...
Article
Introduction The prescription opioid epidemic and widespread use of narcotic medications have introduced new challenges when treating patients undergoing spine surgery. Given the ubiquity of preoperative opioid consumption amongst patients undergoing spine surgery, further research is needed to characterize perioperative risks. Our goal is to compare outcomes following primary lumbar decompression, instrumentation, and fusion based on preoperative opioid prescriptions. Methods Patients older than 18 years of age who underwent a primary one- to two-level lumbar decompression, instrumentation, and fusion were included in the study. Patients with known malignancy, surgery involving three or more lumbar levels, current or previous use of neuromodulation, revision surgery, anterior or far lateral interbody fusions, acute fractures, or other concurrent procedures were excluded. Patients were divided into chronic opioid therapy (COT; over six months), acute opioid therapy (AOT; up to six months), and opiate-naïve groups. Opioid prescriptions, demographics, smoking status, readmission rates within one year, and reoperation rates within two years were recorded based on electronic medical record documentation. Results Out of 416 patients identified, 114 patients met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-eight patients (33.3%) were on COT, 38 patients (33.3%) were on AOT, and 38 patients (33.3%) were opioid naïve preoperatively. Readmission rates within one year for COT, AOT, and opioid naïve patients were 34.2%, 26.3%, and 10.5%, respectively (p=0.047). Reoperation rates within two years for COT, AOT, and opioid naïve patients were 34.2%, 15.8%, and 13.2%, respectively (p=0.049). We also found current or former smokers were more likely to be on AOT or COT than never smokers (78.4% vs. 57.1%; p=0.017). Conclusion Long-term opiate use is associated with an increased risk for readmission within one year and revision within two years. Physicians should discuss the increased risks of readmission and revision surgery associated with lumbar decompression and fusion seen in patients on preoperative opioid therapy.
... In a younger population (university students) the median time to forming a habit (e.g., behavior becoming automatic) was 66 days (range 18À254 days). 77 Given the essential role of goals (and sustainable health behaviors) in reablement (and rehabilitation in general), it is important to discern effective BCTs for people in receipt of healthcare. ...
Article
Background Reablement is a team-based person-centered health and social care model, most commonly available for community-dwelling older adults. Understanding the components of reablement and how it is delivered, received, and enacted facilitates best evidence and practice. Determining behavior change techniques (BCTs) or strategies is an important step to operationalize implementation of reablement. Objective We conducted a scoping review of peer-reviewed literature to identify BCTs used within reablement studies. Methods We registered our study with the Joanna Briggs Institute and conducted five database searches. Inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed studies focused on adults and older adults without significant cognitive impairment or dementia receiving reablement, and all study designs, years, and languages. We excluded studies focused on reablement for people with dementia or reablement training programs. The last search was on April 8, 2021. Two authors screened independently at Level 1 (title and abstract) and 2 (full text). Two authors adjudicated BCTs for each study, and a third author confirmed the final list. Results We identified 567 studies (591 publications) and included 21 studies (44 publications) from six global locations. We identified 27 different BCTs across all studies. The three most common BCTs for reablement were goal setting (behavior), social support (unspecified), and instruction on how to perform a behavior. Conclusions We highlight some behavioral components of reablement and encourage detailed reporting to increase transparency and replication of the intervention. Future research should explore effective BCTs (or combinations of) to include within reablement to support health behavior adoption and maintenance.
... If behaviour is initially goal-or information-driven, habit-learning can then 'zero-in' and isolate the invariant features of such (initially) goal-directed behaviour [74], mirroring the so-called transition from 'model-based' to 'model-free' decision-making in reinforcement learning [75,76]. After an agent has engaged in a given behaviour enough, even if that behaviour is initially pursued in a goal-driven manner, a habit can then be formed and become hard to 'unlearn' [77]. This view also supports the idea that, initially, habit-formation can be goal-driven. ...
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The spread of ideas is a fundamental concern of today’s news ecology. Understanding the dynamics of the spread of information and its co-option by interested parties is of critical importance. Research on this topic has shown that individuals tend to cluster in echo-chambers and are driven by confirmation bias. In this paper, we leverage the active inference framework to provide an in silico model of confirmation bias and its effect on echo-chamber formation. We build a model based on active inference, where agents tend to sample information in order to justify their own view of reality, which eventually leads to them to have a high degree of certainty about their own beliefs. We show that, once agents have reached a certain level of certainty about their beliefs, it becomes very difficult to get them to change their views. This system of self-confirming beliefs is upheld and reinforced by the evolving relationship between an agent’s beliefs and observations, which over time will continue to provide evidence for their ingrained ideas about the world. The epistemic communities that are consolidated by these shared beliefs, in turn, tend to produce perceptions of reality that reinforce those shared beliefs. We provide an active inference account of this community formation mechanism. We postulate that agents are driven by the epistemic value that they obtain from sampling or observing the behaviours of other agents. Inspired by digital social networks like Twitter, we build a generative model in which agents generate observable social claims or posts (e.g., ‘tweets’) while reading the socially observable claims of other agents that lend support to one of two mutually exclusive abstract topics. Agents can choose which other agent they pay attention to at each timestep, and crucially who they attend to and what they choose to read influences their beliefs about the world. Agents also assess their local network’s perspective, influencing which kinds of posts they expect to see other agents making. The model was built and simulated using the freely available Python package pymdp. The proposed active inference model can reproduce the formation of echo-chambers over social networks, and gives us insight into the cognitive processes that lead to this phenomenon.
... To speculate, it may be that physical distancing requirements vary from context to context, which means the cues to this behavior may not be sufficiently consistent, necessitating reasoned consideration on the part of the actor when making decisions to act in future. It is also a relatively 'new' behavior for many, so there may have been less opportunity for many to form habits, especially given time to form a habit varies considerably across individuals (Lally, van Jaarsveld, Potts, & Wardle, 2010). Research is needed to explore potential moderators of habit effects in research on physical distancing in the context of COVID-19, such as the extent to which individuals have had the opportunity to practice physical distancing in the same context. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has had unprecedented health, economic, and social consequences worldwide. Although contact reductions and wearing face coverings have reduced infection rates, and vaccines have reduced illness severity, emergence of new variants of the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, and the shift from pandemic to endemic patterns of infection, highlights the importance of ongoing preventive behavior adherence to manage future outbreaks. Research applying social cognition theories may assist in explaining variance in these behaviors and inform the development of efficacious behavior change interventions to promote adherence. In the present article, we summarize research applying these theories to identify modifiable determinants of COVID-19 preventive behaviors and the mechanisms involved, and their utility in informing interventions. We identify limitations of these applications (e.g., overreliance on correlational data, lack of long-term behavioral follow-up), and suggest how they can be addressed. We demonstrate the virtue of augmenting theories with additional constructs (e.g., moral norms, anticipated regret) and processes (e.g., multiple action phases, automatic processes) to provide comprehensive, parsimonious behavioral explanations. We also outline how the theories contribute to testing mechanisms of action of behavioral interventions. Finally, we recommend future studies applying these theories to inform and test interventions to promote COVID-19 preventive behavior adherence.
... Previous studies in psychology suggest that an individual's habits can be formed in about two months (Lally et al., 2010). With that being the case, COVID-19 mitigation strategies that have taken place in restaurants may become important service attributes fulfilling consumers' expectations while ordering from restaurants. ...
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As restaurants are resuming normal operations, COVID-19 mitigation strategies are still in place. An effective COVID-19 mitigation protocol may facilitate a more successful rebound since consumers may perceive a lowered risk to purchase food from the restaurant with protocols in place. However, little is known regarding how consumers evaluate restaurants’ present efforts to contain the transmission of COVID-19. By using a rigorous scale development procedure, this study creates a scale to measure restaurant consumers’ perceptions of COVID-19 mitigation strategies (acronym: PHASE): Protective equipment/technology (P); Health and hygiene (H); Access of purchase/serving (A); Safety measure for customers (S); and Employee safety measure (E). The study further identifies the areas that need to be improved by using importance-performance analysis. Findings of this study provide guidelines for restaurant professionals to potentially reallocate their existing resources to refine their COVID-19 mitigation strategies and to better prepare for the future.
... Or, on peut penser que certains comportements apparus pendant la crise n'auront pas eu le temps de se cristalliser (c'est-à-dire de créer les schémas neuronaux caractéristiques des habitudes), faute d'une répétition suffisamment fréquente dans un contexte stable (Verplanken, 2018). L'installation d'une nouvelle habitude nécessite en effet de quelques semaines à plus de 8 mois d'un individu à l'autre (Lally et al., 2010). On peut également penser que nombre d'entre elles sont intimement liées au contexte de la crise et devraient disparaître avec elle. ...
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La question traitée dans cet article porte sur le monde d’après la pandémie… Représente-t-elle un moment décisif qui va nous faire basculer vers une société plus responsable sur les plans sociaux et environnementaux ? De nouvelles habitudes et de nouveaux comportements responsables vont-ils se mettre en place de manière durable ? Pour répondre à ces enjeux, cet article mobilise des théories plurielles associées aux changements d’habitudes. Des préconisations s’adressant autant aux entreprises, qu’aux décideurs publics ou citoyens sont proposées pour dessiner les contours d’un après-Covid-19 socialement et écologiquement plus acceptable.
... It may be that E-types, by quitting earlier, do not experience significant physiological and psychological benefits of regular PAs over the first 12 weeks [52,53]. Evidence indicates that this period is critical for creating health habits [54] and especially physical exercise habits in gyms [37]. ...
Article
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Purpose Eveningness preference to sleep/wake and perform physical/cognitive activities has been associated with worse health outcomes, when compared to morningness preference. Physical activity is one potential mediator that could explain this relationship; however, most of these evidences come from cross-sectional design studies. Our goal was to assess whether chronotype could predict the risk of dropout of physical exercise programs. Methods We followed 153 newly enrolled volunteers at three different gyms, from both sexes, aged between 18 and 65 years, during 12 weeks. The daily frequency of exercises in the programs was objectively measured (gym’s electronic turnstiles). Using questionnaires, we collected data of variables related to demographic characteristics, health, physical activity, sleep, anthropometric and chronobiological parameters (Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire—MEQ). Two multivariate models were created using Cox regression analysis to test the risk of dropout of physical exercise practice. Both models accounted for age, educational level, civil status, membership plan duration, physical exercise practice frequency during week 1 and chronotype (MEQ score and chronotypes). Results Model 1 results showed that higher MEQ score was associated with a lower chance of quitting the program (HR = 0.98; CI95% 0.95–1.00; p = 0.046). Considering the chronotypes, E-types showed the highest dropout risk compared to that of M-types (HR = 2.22; CI95% 1.09–4.52; p = 0.027). Conclusion Our results suggest that chronotype is another variable to be considered in future studies on promoting PAs in formal environments. Likewise, the practice frequency during week 1 and duration of membership plan also deserve more attention in additional studies.
... Costringere all'azione gli studenti durante le prime tre settimane si basa sulla teoria che ripetere un'azione per ventuno giorni cambia quell'azione in un'abitudine. Ovviamente questo non è vero da un punto di vista scientifico perché la realtà è più complessa, un forte ruolo è giocato dalla motivazione personale e dalla difficoltà intrinseca dell'azione (Lally et al., 2010), ma questo racconto può essere motivante per gli studenti e quindi questa "teoria" viene usata in modo provocatorio, come una sfida. Le altre lezioni sono dedicate al rilievo globale e al disegno tecnico. ...
... This model is in accordance with perceptual decision making [19]. Initial conditions X u ð Þ h ðs ¼ 0Þ are specified by Eq. (11): Parameter l in Eq. (11) denotes the number of times thread alternative h has been chosen previously, and parameter c ! 0 models the effect of repeated choices of the same alternative approaching the asymptotic curve defined in [38]. Recent works have shown convergence to a decision for large number of choices in a modified LCA model [45], but their model is limited to a single agent. ...
Article
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Understanding at microscopic level the generation of contents in an online social network (OSN) is highly desirable for an improved management of the OSN and the prevention of undesirable phenomena, such as online harassment. Content generation, i.e., the decision to post a contributed content in the OSN, can be modeled by neurophysiological approaches on the basis of unbiased semantic analysis of the contents already published in the OSN. This paper proposes a neuro-semantic model composed of (1) an extended leaky competing accumulator (ELCA) as the neural architecture implementing the user concurrent decision process to generate content in a conversation thread of a virtual community of practice, and (2) a semantic modeling based on the topic analysis carried out by a latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) of both users and conversation threads. We use the similarity between the user and thread semantic representations to built up the model of the interest of the user in the thread contents as the stimulus to contribute content in the thread. The semantic interest of users in discussion threads are the external inputs for the ELCA, i.e., the external value assigned to each choice.. We demonstrate the approach on a dataset extracted from a real life web forum devoted to fans of tinkering with musical instruments and related devices. The neuro-semantic model achieves high performance predicting the content posting decisions (average F score 0.61) improving greatly over well known machine learning approaches, namely random forest and support vector machines (average F scores 0.19 and 0.21).
... The spillover effects of second-hand clothing consumption may extend to purchases of other second-hand goods, such as bicycles and books. Additionally, as people are consistent with their behaviours (Lally et al., 2010), the spillover effects of sustainable consumption may impact how they handle their idle items. Therefore, to investigate the spillover effects, two items were added to the questionnaire, including the consumption of other second-hand goods and how these consumers handle their idle goods. ...
Article
Second-hand clothing consumption has grown in popularity in recent decades and has also attracted extensive worldwide efforts to investigate the dynamics behind consumers’ purchase behaviours. However, research regarding this topic is scarce in China, which has also witnessed the rapid growth of the second-hand market in recent years. In this regard, this study analyzed the motivations and barriers to Chinese consumers’ purchase of second-hand clothes as well as their perceived problems with this industry. Specifically, the study conducted a semi-structured online survey with 127 consumers of three second-hand clothing stores in China. Results show that the vast majority (96%) of the investigated consumers are young people born in the 1990s and 2000s, and they are neither significantly driven by economic nor environmental protection motivations. Instead, their purchase is primarily motivated by treasure-hunting fun. Moreover, past overseas shopping experiences are found to be a significant booster to second-hand clothing consumption. Concerns about poverty association and the sanitation conditions of second-hand clothing are the main purchase barriers for the investigated Chinese young consumers. As for the second-hand clothing market, “unregulated industry” (10.29%), “fake identification” (8.09%), and “sanitation concern” (5.88%) are the three most mentioned problems in China. This study provides second-hand retailors and managers with valuable insights into developing successful marketing tactics to attract customers and improve the second-hand industry’s performance in China.
... These statistics are indicative of the challenges of establishing a regular meditation practice and also suggest the potential importance of intervention components that address habit formation. Future research on meditation interventions can focus on identifying factors that contribute to the development of a practice habit that is "automatic" (Lally et al., 2010), but not, contradicting the focus of these interventions, "autopilot." ...
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Objectives Extensive research suggests that short-term meditation interventions may hold therapeutic promise for a wide range of psychosocial outcomes. In response to calls to subject these interventions to more methodologically rigorous tests, a randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of a mindfulness meditation intervention and a compassion meditation intervention against an active control in a demographically diverse sample of medically and psychiatrically healthy adults. Methods Two hundred and four participants completed a battery of questionnaires to assess psychological experience, participated in a laboratory stress test to measure their biological stress reactivity, and wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) to assess daily behaviors before and after an eight-week intervention (mindfulness meditation intervention, compassion meditation intervention, or health education discussion group). Results Neither meditation intervention reliably impacted participants’ subjective psychological experience, biological stress reactivity, or objectively assessed daily behaviors. Furthermore, post hoc moderation analyses found that neither baseline distress nor intervention engagement significantly moderated effects. Conclusions Results from this trial—which was methodologically rigorous and powered to detect all but small effects—were essentially null. These results are an important data point for the body of research about meditation interventions. Implications of these non-significant effects are discussed in the context of prior studies, and future directions for contemplative intervention research are recommended. Clinical Trial Registry Registry Number: NCT01643369.
Technical Report
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This report was written by the adult researchers, with contributions from young people from the country panels. It aims to draw together and reflect upon the learning from the project, as well as signposting to a wider range of project resources. In what follows, we provide an overview of key themes and messages from the study, foregrounding young people’s research and their creative and artistic work. We then go on to examine the role of the PAR within the project and how this shaped the ways in which evidence was produced and analysed. Finally, we present a set of recommendations for three main sets of key stakeholders. When the project started in April 2020, the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic were yet to be tested. Since this time, the research evidence base has grown considerably. It is now well established that the crisis has had significant, far-reaching impacts on young people’s education (Blaskó & Schnepf, 2021, OECD, 2021), their physical and mental health and wellbeing (Carroll et al., 2020; Loades et al., 2020; Duan et al., 2020 Gadermann et al., 2021), and their family lives and peer relationships (Biroli et al, 2020; Branquinho et al, 2020; Lebow et al, 2020; Cluver et al, 2020). There is also stark evidence that it is often young people with pre-existing vulnerabilities, including from families experiencing poverty or violence and young people with special educational needs and disabilities for whom the effects of the crisis have been felt the most (Crawley et al, 2020; Gupta & Jawanda, 2020; Imran et al, 2020; Rosenthal et al, 2020; Thorisdottir et al, 2021).
Article
Research purpose. The study aimed to examine how the cognitive performances of preadolescent sports trainees living and training under a controlled environment are affected during the three different day times. Materials and methods. The research involved 16 male sports trainees from the Jharkhand State Sports Promotion Society, Ranchi, who varied in age from 11 to 14 years and had a minimum of two years of training experience in the same academy. To assess cognitive performance like long-term focused attention, ability to react, logical reasoning, reactive stress tolerance, and visual perception, the TATEENS 2 test set from the Vienna Test System was administered. The percentile ranks of all five tests were compared between three different times of the day. The Friedman test and rANOVA were employed to analyze the data of repetitive measurements. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results. The p-values for statistical comparisons of reactive stress tolerance, visual perception, logical reasoning, reaction abilities (reaction time and motor time), and long-term focused attention at three different times of the day were all more than 0.05. Conclusion. Different day times did not significantly affect the cognitive performances of preadolescent sportspersons who lived and trained under similar conditions.
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Behavioural theories, predictions, and interventions should be relevant to complex, real-world health behaviours and conditions. Habit theory and habit formation interventions show promise for predicting and promoting, respectively, longer-term behaviour change and maintenance than has been attained with theories and interventions focused only on deliberative behavioural factors. However, the concept of habit has largely been treated as uniform across different types of behaviours. In this conceptual review, we contend that the definitional aspects of habit differ at a conceptual level for simple versus more complex behaviours, with ramifications for prediction, promotion, and measurement of habits. Specifically, habits are defined as direct context-response associations learned through repeatedly rewarded responding-but what is meant by "response" and "reward" depends upon the complexity of the behaviour. We review literature that suggests (1) responses in complex habits have separable and substitutable components (vs a single and static, unitary component) and (2) rewards for complex habits are necessarily continued and intrinsic (vs temporary and extrinsic, respectively). We discuss some empirical and theoretical questions raised by these issues around behavioural complexity and habit. Lastly, we outline the ramifications of these issues for habit measurement (habit strength and habit formation) via self-report and objective measures.
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Due to ongoing demographic changes, the need for care is increasing in Germany. The number of outpatient care services is also rising, and with it, the number of employees in outpatient care, who are also continuously becoming older. Workplace health promotion (WHP) becomes relevant in this context, as it can reduce negative strain reactions and promote employees’ health. The aim of this study was (1) to reveal implemented WHP interventions in German outpatient care services; (2) to examine the potential challenges regarding a successful implementation of WHP measures; and (3) to illuminate further requests and needs experienced by outpatient careworkers. In qualitative field research, 30 semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with German caregivers, using the problem-centered interview method. The collected data were deductively and inductively evaluated and interpreted, using qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. Outpatient caregivers reported various WHP measures known from their workplaces, such as the provision of fruit baskets, programmes to increase physical activity, or a subsidy for a personal gym. They further reported WHP, such as back training, known from other care services. However, the respondents spoke of the challenges regarding the implementation or the use of WHP interventions in general. The most frequently named barriers were a lack of time after work and interventions that were only offered in their leisure time. In the same course, the participants still needed offers to increase physical activity, joint activities, or relaxation techniques. However, respondents highlighted that they preferred the interventions to take place during working hours. This way, they would also be more likely to take advantage of the interventions. The results of this study provide an insight into various WHP measures that already exist, or that are desirable for implementation with regard to caregivers’ needs. Subjectively perceived challenges for a successful implementation of WHP measures represent the importance of adjustments in the work organization of caregivers. It becomes clear that WHP is not yet established in the ambulant care sector, although it appears to be imperative for keeping caregivers healthy. Considering the different needs of employees, the results can provide a basis for the development of needs-based health promotion measures for caregivers.
Article
Purpose: This randomized clinical trial tested the efficacy of a 6-week text message program to reduce texting while driving (TWD) for young adults. Methods: Eligible individuals recruited from four emergency departments from December 2019 to June 2021 were aged 18-25 years who reported TWD in the past 2 weeks. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 to intervention:assessment control. The intervention arm (n = 57) received an automated interactive text message program, including weekly queries about TWD for 6 weeks with feedback and goal support to promote cessation of TWD. The assessment control arm (n = 55) received identical weekly TWD queries but no additional feedback. Outcomes were collected via web-based self-assessments at 6- and 12 weeks and analyzed under intent-to-treat models, presented as adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The mean (SD) age was 21.7 (2.1) years, 73 (65%) were female, and 40 (36%) were White. The 6-week follow-up rate was 77.7% (n = 87) and 12-week follow-up rate was 64.3% (n = 72). At 6 weeks, 52.6% (95% CI, 39.0%-66.0%) of intervention participants reported TWD versus 63.6% (95% CI, 49.6%-76.2%) of control participants (adjusted OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.32-1.59). At 12 weeks, 38.2% (95% CI, 22.8%-53.5%) of intervention participants reported TWD versus 69.3% (95% CI, 53.8%-84.7%) of control participants (adjusted OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11-0.80). Discussion: An interactive text message intervention was more effective at reducing self-reported TWD among young adults than assessment control at 12 weeks.
Article
Motivated by the conflict between travelers’ habitual choice behavior and traffic information search behavior, in this paper, a behavioral experiment under different types of traffic information (i.e., per-trip traffic information and en-route traffic information) was designed to obtain data regarding car commuters’ daily route choices. Based on the observed data, participants’ route choices, habit strength, response time, and information search behaviors were analyzed. It is concluded that, in the beginning, the traffic information had a great influence on the habit participants’ route choices, let them think more, and made most of them switch from habit route to the best route (as recommended by traffic information); however, as time went on, the impact of traffic information declined, and several features of habits, such as automatically responding and repeated behavior, would reappear in some participants’ decision-making. Meanwhile, the different way of traffic information search behaviors (i.e., in active performance or in passive reception) could cause different information compliance ratios. These results would help to understand the interrelationship between car commuters’ daily route choice behaviors and traffic information search behaviors in short-term and in long-term, respectively, and provide an interesting starting point for the development of practical traffic information issuing strategies to enhance the impact of traffic information to alleviate traffic congestion during morning commuting.
Article
Commercial buildings account for approximately 35% of total US electricity consumption, of which nearly two-thirds is met by fossil fuels resulting in an adverse impact on the environment. This adverse impact can be mitigated by lowering energy consumption via control of occupant plugload usage in a closed-loop building environment. In this work, we conducted multiple experiments to analyze changes in occupant plugload energy consumption due to incentives and/or visual feedback. The incentives entailed daily monetary values between $5 and $50 administered in a randomized order and the visual feedback consisted of a web-based dashboard aimed at increasing the energy awareness of participants. Experiments were performed in government office and university buildings at NASA Ames Research Park located in Moffett Field, CA. Autoregressive models were constructed to predict expected plugload savings in the presence of exogenous variables. Analysis of the data revealed modulation of plugload energy consumption can be achieved via visual feedback and incentive mechanisms suggesting that occupant-in-the-loop control architectures may be effective in the commercial building environment. Our findings indicate that the mean energy reduction due to visual feedback in office and university environments were ≈9.52% and ≈21.61%, respectively. By augmenting the visual feedback in the university environment with a monetary incentive, the mean energy reduction was found to be ≈24.22%.
Thesis
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La voiture est le mode de transport le plus utilisé pour les déplacements quotidiens (63 % des déplacements quotidiens en France se font en voiture). Néanmoins, l’usage fréquent de la voiture est une source importante d’inactivité physique et est associé à une majeure émission des polluants de l’air et de gaz à effet de serre. Inversement, l’usage quotidien de la mobilité active et durable (le vélo, la marche à pied, les transports en commun et le covoiturage) est associé à une majeure activité physique, à une moindre émission de polluants de l’air et à une moindre empreinte carbone. C’est pour ces raisons qu’une diversité des mesures a été mise en place pour réduire l’usage de la voiture et augmenter l’usage de la mobilité active et durable : des leviers durs ciblant le changement du contexte géographique et économique des individus et des leviers doux ciblant le changement des facteurs principalement psychologiques comme l’intention ou l’attitude vis-à-vis de la mobilité active (des interventions de changement des comportements). La mise en place de ces mesures implique une connaissance approfondie des facteurs influençant la mobilité active et durable. Or, seulement quelques études semblent avoir mobilisé plus d’un cadre disciplinaire pour étudier la mobilité. Par ailleurs, les leviers mis en place dans le passé présentent des limites méthodologiques et théoriques : peu d’études ayant mobilisé des cadres méthodologiques robustes, peu d’études ayant suivi le changement de mobilité au-delà de 6 mois de l’étude, peu d’études mentionnant les théories mobilisées lors du choix des leviers. La question centrale de ce travail doctoral était de mieux comprendre les facteurs associés à la mobilité active et durable afin de proposer un protocole d’étude de changement des comportements de mobilité (vers une mobilité plus active et plus durable) fondée sur les théories scientifiques. Pour cela, cette thèse a combiné des approches psychologiques et géographiques et une diversité de méthodologies (des enquêtes, des entretiens individuels, des focus groups, une étude pilote). Les principaux résultats de ce travail doctoral indiquent que (a) la mobilité active et durable est indépendamment associée à des facteurs géographiques, à des facteurs sociodémographiques et à des facteurs psychologiques, (b) l’association entre certains facteurs géographiques et certains facteurs sociodémographiques et la mobilité active et durable peut être modérée par certains facteurs psychologiques, (c) l’étude ciblant le changement de mobilité (une étude contrôlée randomisée proposant six mois d’accès au transport, des conseils de mobilité personnalisés et des techniques motivationnelles comme la fixation d’objectifs et l’élaboration d’un plan d’action) est réalisable et fidèle lorsqu’elle est implémentée sur le terrain, (d) la formation proposée à l’équipe responsable de l’implémentation de l’étude semble être efficace pour augmenter leur efficacité de soi vis-à-vis de l’implémentation de l’étude et leurs connaissances dans le domaine de la mobilité et de la pollution de l’air. Les résultats de ce travail doctoral soulignent le besoin de combiner des approches interdisciplinaires afin de mieux comprendre la mobilité active et durable et afin de mieux la promouvoir.
Article
This is a pilot study that investigated differences in effectiveness, maintenance of effectiveness, cost-efficiency, satisfaction, and usability of a lottery incentive via mobile devices to promote walking, depending on the chance of winning the lottery, the amount of the prize, and gender. Sixty-six college students (male = 26) were randomly assigned to 3 groups: 10% chance of a big prize (10% + B), 50% chance of a medium prize (50% + M), and 100% chance of a small prize (100% + S). Step counts were collected through mobile devices before and after the intervention, as well as at the 2-month follow-up. The results showed significant increases in the step counts among males after the intervention in the 10% + B and the 50% + M groups, and females in the 100% + S group. Only males in the 50% + M group exhibited maintenance in effectiveness during follow-up. With regard to cost-efficiency, the 10% + B and the 50% + M male groups, which showed significant differences in effectiveness, were compared, and no significant difference was found. With regard to intervention satisfaction, satisfaction of the 10% + B group was lower than that of the 100% + S group. There were no significant interactions or main effects regarding the usability of the intervention. The results suggest that a lottery incentive is effective only for men to promote walking when a medium size prize is given with a 50% of chance of winning the lottery.
Thesis
Background: Urinary tract infection is a leading cause of healthcare associated infection in hospitals with around half of these being attributable to indwelling urinary catheters. Overuse of urinary catheters in healthcare settings is a known problem yet the extent to which it is possible to avoid catheter use is unclear. Urine output monitoring is one of the main indications for short-term catheter use, with acute kidney injury (AKI) and sepsis as key drivers to detect oliguria (low urine output). However, published guidance lacks clarity on when a catheter is needed for urine output monitoring, fueling uncertainty and potential for overuse in clinical practice. Aim: The aim of this research is to explore how and why urine output is monitored in acute medical environments. Methods: A sequential, explanatory mixed methods study was designed. Two approaches to data collection were used: a point prevalence survey of 17 medical wards, using the whole source population as the sample and analysed using descriptive statistics, followed by a focused ethnography in an acute medical unit and a medicine for older people ward using a purposive sample and reflexive thematic analysis. Findings: The prevalence survey identified 107/389 (27.5%) patients had an indwelling urinary catheter. Almost half (n=49/107; 46%) were placed solely for the purpose of urine output monitoring. Most (n=87/107; 81%) catheters had a urine meter attached to enable 1-2 hourly measurements, but only 12% (n=7/60) were utilised for this purpose outside of critical care. The focused ethnography revealed how clinicians were influenced both by clinical and non-clinical rationales when justifying the need for a urinary catheter to monitor urine output. Distrust in the use of non-invasive collection methods was a significant contributing factor to catheter use. Conclusion: Urinary catheters are thought to champion the accuracy of urine output monitoring, but it is debatable whether the drive for accuracy is jeopardising rather than improving patient safety. The redundancy of most urine meters outside of critical care in one hospital reveals considerable potential for reduction in urinary catheters and thereby in catheter-associated infections. However, uncertainty about the reliability and practical application of non-invasive approaches for urine output monitoring is likely to hinder such reduction and requires further investigation.
Article
Physical distancing remains an important initiative to curb COVID‐19 and virus transmission more broadly. This exploratory study investigated how physical distancing behaviour changed during the COVID‐19 pandemic and whether it was associated with identity with virus transmission avoidance and physical distancing habit strength. In a longitudinal, multinational study with fortnightly repeated‐assessments, associations and moderation effects were considered for both overall (person‐level means) and occasion‐specific deviations in habit and identity. Participants (N = 586, M age = 42, 79% female) self‐reported physical distancing behavioural frequency, physical distancing habit strength, and identity with avoiding virus transmission. Physical distancing followed a cubic trajectory, with initial high engagement decreasing rapidly before increasing again near study end. Physical distancing was associated with both overall and occasion‐specific virus transmission avoidant identity and physical distancing habit strength. People with strong virus transmission avoidant identity engaged in physical distancing frequently regardless of fluctuations in habit strength. However, for those with weaker virus transmission avoidant identity, physical distancing was strongly aligned with fluctuations in habit strength. To enhance engagement in physical distancing, public health messaging might fruitfully target greater or more salient virus‐transmission avoidance identity and stronger physical distancing habit.
Article
Background High automaticity in healthy nutrition behaviors is related to long-term maintenance of these behaviors. Drawing upon theoretical frameworks of habit formation, proposed antecedents such as intrinsic reward, anticipated regret, and self-efficacy are important correlates of automaticity, but not much is known about their day-by-day relationships with automaticity in healthy nutrition behaviors. This study tested previous-day within-person (i.e., from one day to the next) and same-day within-person associations of intrinsic reward, anticipated regret, and self-efficacy with automaticity of a healthy nutrition behavior, for which participants attempted to form a new habit. Methods Secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial with two planning intervention conditions including a longitudinal sample of n = 135 participants (age: M = 24.82 years; SD = 7.27) are reported. Participants formed a plan on a self-selected healthy nutrition behavior to become a new habit and were followed up over 12 weeks assessing daily levels of plan-specific intrinsic reward, anticipated regret, self-efficacy, and automaticity. Lagged multilevel models with 84 study days nested in participants estimated previous-day within-person, same-day within-person, and between-person relationships of intrinsic reward, anticipated regret, and self-efficacy with automaticity. Findings Regarding within-level relationships, higher-than-usual levels of intrinsic reward, anticipated regret, and self-efficacy of the same day but not of the previous day were associated with higher within-person automaticity. With respect to between-level relationships, higher between-levels (i.e., higher person mean levels across the study period) of intrinsic reward, anticipated regret, and self-efficacy were linked with higher automaticity. Discussion Findings point towards the potential to intervene on intrinsic reward, anticipated regret, and self-efficacy when aiming to promote a new healthy nutrition habit.
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Entre las dificultades de aprendizaje se encuentra la discalculia bastante desconocida entre los docentes que tampoco disponen de actividades de libre acceso necesarias para ayudar a compensar la dificultad. Este vacío nos ha llevado a buscar la forma de poder contribuir en la compensación de esta dificultad de aprendizaje en estudiantes de tercer ciclo de primaria, preparando, para ello, una serie de ejercicios estructurados de manera que respondan a las necesidades y potencialidades del estudiante. Esta lista de actividades está pensada para ser usada directamente por las personas afectadas de discalculia y también por docentes que pueden adaptarlas a cada caso particular en función del estudiante y del currículum de la escuela. \bigskip Los ejercicios propuestos en este libro, han sido preparados en base al análisis de la documentación teórica existente sobre discalculia, las investigaciones sobre el tema por nuestra parte y del seguimiento de la evolución de los casos que hemos detectado de estudiantes de quinto y sexto de primaria con discalculia no diagnosticados con anterioridad, a los que se les ha aplicado la propuesta. \bigskip Este libro est\'a estructurado en tres partes, una primera en la que se explica en que consiste la discalculia, cuales son sus señales de alerta a las que se debe estar atento para, si es el caso, conseguir una detección lo más temprana posible de la dificultad; también en dicho capítulo, se hace hincapié en la importancia de la rutina en la realización de las actividades, para conseguir mejores resultados; de hecho, establecer una rutina es clave para lograr el éxito no solo en los niños con problemas de aprendizaje sino a todos en general, ya que les ayuda a ser conscientes del tiempo y a enfocar la atención en lo que están haciendo. La segunda parte contiene una colección de actividades agrupadas por semanas, para facilitar la rutina de hacer dichas actividades. La tercera parte del libro está constituido por una colección de actividades clasificadas por temas para poder seguir seleccionando ejercicios para más semanas. De hecho algunos temas podrían agruparse en un solo tema pero los matices que se desean potenciar hace que sea mejor estar separados. La mayoría de las imágenes que aparecen en el texto son originales y algunas han sido adaptadas de imágenes obtenidas de pinterest con licencia Creative Commons
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The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak, has disrupted routines in education, work, exercise, and dining habits. To prevent viral spread, communal spaces including offices, schools, restaurants, and gyms have closed or drastically limited their capacity. Additionally, government-mandated lockdown orders have forced people to spend more time at home. Studies have shown that these COVID-19 restrictions have led to unhealthier eating patterns, increased sedentary behaviors, and decreased physical activity, leading to weight gain, dysglycemia, and increased metabolic risk. While strict social distancing measures have been necessary to curb the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, people have been forced to adapt by altering their daily routines. Based on existing literature, a model is proposed for intentionally creating daily routines to ensure healthy habits, minimize weight gain, and prevent worsening dysglycemia.
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Purpose COVID-19 preventive measures disrupted the media and entertainment business ecosystem, increased over the top (OTT) consumption, brought new OTT players, thus increased competition, and shaped consumer behaviour and habits. Despite this knowledge, in-depth insights into OTT's consumer behaviour, new usage habit and strategies used by subscription-based OTT platforms to maintain resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic are unknown. This paper aims to fill the two gaps in the extant OTT literature. Design/methodology/approach This study used Eisenhardt's multiple case studies approach to derive the strategies used by the top-performing subscription-based OTT platforms in India. Moreover, a purposive semi-structured Google survey was used to explore consumers' OTT experience during the pandemic. This study analysed data using NVivo 12 (survey) and MS Excel 2010 (case studies). Findings This study derived seven resilient OTT strategies; competitive low pricing, enhancing customer experience, launching innovative service plans, content localisation, strategic collaboration, flexibility in technology adoption and proactive sales promotion. Consequent to adopting these strategies, consumers' usage of OTT evolved from occasional to habitual. Convenience, ease of accessibility, risk of contracting COVID-19, variety and quality of content, online reviews and affordability drive consumer preference for OTT. Also, this study revealed consumers' varied OTT experiences. Originality/value The contribution is two-fold; the derived strategies for maintaining resilience and the in-depth insights into habit formation and consumer behaviour during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study is valuable for media and entertainment stakeholders like streaming service providers, OTT services, cable operators, etc.
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To illustrate the differing thoughts and emotion's involved in guiding habitual and nonhabitual behavior, 2,. diary studies were conducted in which participants provided hourly reports of their ongoing experiences. When participants were engaged in habitual behavior, defined as behavior that had been performed almost daily in stable contexts, they were likely to think about issues unrelated to their behavior, presumably because they did not have to consciously guide their actions. When engaged in nonhabitual behavior,or actions performed less often or :in shifting contexts; participants' thoughts tended to correspond to their behavior, suggesting that thought was necessary to guide action. Furthermore, the self-regulatory, benefits of habits were apparent in the lesser feelings of stress associated with habitual,. than nonhabitual behavior.
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This chapter addresses two questions; how big is the "gap" between intentions and behavior, and what psychological variables might be able to "bridge" the intention-behavior gap? A meta-analysis of meta-analyses is used to quantify the gap and a conceptual analysis of intention-behavior discrepancies is presented. Research is described on the extent to which four groups of variables-behavior type, intention type, properties of intention, and cognitive and personality variables-moderate intention-behavior relations. Finally, the scope of the intention construct is discussed in the light of recent evidence concerning the role of habits and automaticity in human behavior.
Article
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The frequency with which a behavior has been performed in the past is found to account for variance in later behavior independent of intentions. This is often taken as evidence for habituation of behavior and as complementing the reasoned mode of operation assumed by such models as the theory of planned behavior. In this article, I question the idea that the residual effect of past on later behavior can be attributed to habituation. The habituation perspective cannot account for residual effects in the prediction of low-opportunity behaviors performed in unstable contexts, no accepted independent measure of habit is available, and empirical tests of the habituation hypothesis have so far met with little success. A review of existing evidence suggests that the residual impact of past behavior is attenuated when measures of intention and behavior are compatible and vanishes when intentions are strong and well formed, expectations are realistic, and specific plans for intention implementation have been developed.
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We argue that habit is a psychological construct, rather than simply past behavioral frequency. In 4 studies, a 12-item index of habit strength (the Self-Report Habit Index, SRHI) was developed on the basis of features of habit; that is, a history of repetition, automaticity (lack of control and awareness, efficiency), and expressing identity. High internal and test-retest reliabilities were found. The SRHI correlated strongly with past behavioral frequency and the response frequency measure of habit (Verplanken, Aarts, van Knippenberg, & van Knippenberg, 1994). The index discriminated between behaviors varying in frequency, and also between daily vs. weekly habits. The SRHI may be useful as a dependent variable, or to determine or monitor habit strength without measuring behavioral frequency.
Article
Full-text available
To illustrate the differing thoughts and emotions involved in guiding habitual and nonhabitual behavior, 2 diary studies were conducted in which participants provided hourly reports of their ongoing experiences. When participants were engaged in habitual behavior, defined as behavior that had been performed almost daily in stable contexts, they were likely to think about issues unrelated to their behavior, presumably because they did not have to consciously guide their actions. When engaged in nonhabitual behavior, or actions performed less often or in shifting contexts, participants' thoughts tended to correspond to their behavior, suggesting that thought was necessary to guide action. Furthermore, the self-regulatory benefits of habits were apparent in the lesser feelings of stress associated with habitual than nonhabitual behavior.
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The present research investigated the mechanisms guiding habitual behavior, specifically, the stimulus cues that trigger habit performance. When usual contexts for performance change, habits cannot be cued by recurring stimuli, and performance should be disrupted. Thus, the exercising, newspaper reading, and TV watching habits of students transferring to a new university were found to survive the transfer only when aspects of the performance context did not change (e.g., participants continued to read the paper with others). In some cases, the disruption in habits also placed behavior under intentional control so that participants acted on their current intentions. Changes in circumstances also affected the favorability of intentions, but changes in intentions alone could not explain the disruption of habits. Furthermore, regardless of whether contexts changed, nonhabitual behavior was guided by intentions.
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The present study examined moderating effects of mindfulness on the intention-behavior relationship within the theory of planned behavior. Mindfulness describes a quality of consciousness characterized by heightened clarity and awareness of present experiences and functioning. Study 1 showed that mindfulness moderated the intention-behavior relationship in a leisure-time physical activity context such that intentions predicted physical activity among mindful individuals and not among less-mindful individuals. Study 2 measured counterintentional habits relating to binge-drinking and found that habitual binge-drinking obstructed the enactment of physical activity intentions among individuals acting less mindfully but not among individuals acting mindfully. Finally, Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that the effects of mindfulness on physical activity were independent of effects observed for habit and variables contained in the theory of planned behavior. These findings suggest that mindfulness is a useful construct that helps understand the intention-behavior relationship within the theory of planned behavior.
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The present model outlines the mechanisms underlying habitual control of responding and the ways in which habits interface with goals. Habits emerge from the gradual learning of associations between responses and the features of performance contexts that have historically covaried with them (e.g., physical settings, preceding actions). Once a habit is formed, perception of contexts triggers the associated response without a mediating goal. Nonetheless, habits interface with goals. Constraining this interface, habit associations accrue slowly and do not shift appreciably with current goal states or infrequent counterhabitual responses. Given these constraints, goals can (a) direct habits by motivating repetition that leads to habit formation and by promoting exposure to cues that trigger habits, (b) be inferred from habits, and (c) interact with habits in ways that preserve the learned habit associations. Finally, the authors outline the implications of the model for habit change, especially for the self-regulation of habit cuing.
Article
A model of travel mode choice is tested by means of a survey among 199 inhabitants of a village. Car choice behavior for a particular journey is predicted from the attitude toward choosing the car and the attitude toward choosing an alternative mode (i.e., train), on the one hand, and from general car habit, on the other hand. Unlike traditional measures of habit, a script-based measure was used. General habit was measured by travel mode choices in response to very global descriptions of imaginary journeys. In the model, habit is predicted from the degree of involvement with the decision-making about travel mode choice for the particular journey (decisional involvement) and from the degree of competition in a household with respect to car use. The model proves satisfactory. Moreover, as suggested by Triandis (1977), there is a tradeoff between attitude and habit in the prediction of behavior: When habit is strong the attitude-behavior relation is weak, whereas when habit is weak, the attitude-behavior link is strong.
Article
The frequency with which a behavior has been performed in the past is found to account for variance in later behavior independent of intentions. This often taken as evidence for habituation of behavior and as complementing the reasoned mode of operation assumed by such models as the theory of planned behavior. In this article, I question the idea that the residual effect of past on later behavior can be attributed to habituation. The habituation perspective cannot account for residual effects in the prediction of low-opportunity behaviors performed in unstable contexts, no accepted independent measure of habit is available, and empirical tests of them habituation hypothesis have so far met with little success. A review of existing evidence suggests that the residual impact of past behavior is attenuated when measures of intention and behavior are compatible and vanishes when intentions are strong and well formed, expectations are implementation have been developed.
Article
This book provides a foundation to the principles of psychology. It draws upon the natural sciences, avoiding metaphysics, for the basis of its information. According to James, this book, assuming that thoughts and feelings exist and are vehicles of knowledge, thereupon contends that psychology, when it has ascertained the empirical correlation of the various sorts of thought or feeling with definite conditions of the brain, can go no farther as a natural science. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This chapter addresses two questions; how big is the “gap” between intentions and behavior, and what psychological variables might be able to “bridge” the intention–behavior gap? A meta-analysis of meta-analyses is used to quantify the gap and a conceptual analysis of intention–behavior discrepancies is presented. Research is described on the extent to which four groups of variables—behavior type, intention type, properties of intention, and cognitive and personality variables—moderate intention–behavior relations. Finally, the scope of the intention construct is discussed in the light of recent evidence concerning the role of habits and automaticity in human behavior.
Article
Prospective memory situations involve forming intentions and then realizing those intentions at some appropriate time in the future. An interesting feature of most prospective remembering is that recollection of the intended action occurs without an explicit request to attempt retrieval, and we present two views on how this type of remembering can be accomplished. One could strategically monitor the environment for the presence of the target event, or one could rely on anticipated environmental conditions more or less automatically reinstating the intended action. We present data supporting both views and argue that people use multiple approaches for solving the problem of retrieving an intention (prospective memory) after a delay. Moreover, we suggest that the extent to which prospective remembering is supported by relatively automatic processes (versus strategic resource-demanding monitoring) and the probability with which prospective memory is likely to be successful when relying on automatic processes varies as a function of the characteristics of the prospective memory task, target cue, ongoing task, and individual. We argue that the complexity of the empirical findings can best be understood by appealing to this multiprocess view of prospective memory. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
ObjectivesHabit has been an undervalued concept in the behavioral sciences during the past few decades. One reason may be that habit has been equated with behavioral frequency. This leaves out an important characteristic of habits, i.e., the fact that repeated behavior may acquire a degree of automaticity. The present study aimed to demonstrate that exercising habit can be reliably measured, can empirically be distinguished from past frequency of exercising, and can thus be adopted as a meaningful criterion.Design and methodsA longitudinal study was conducted with two measurements one month apart among 111 students. Intentions to exercise, perceived behavioral control of exercising, past exercising frequency, and exercising habit were assessed at both measurements through an internet-based questionnaire. Exercising habit was assessed by the Self-Report Habit Index [Verplanken & Orbell (2003). Reflections on past behaviour: A self-report index of habit strength. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33, 1313–1330]), which breaks down the habit concept in the subjective experience of repetition and automaticity.ResultsThe results showed that exercising habit can be reliably measured, is stable over time, and can be distinguished from mere exercising frequency.ConclusionsIn addition to frequency of behavior, measuring habit provides information about the way behavior is executed. An important element of exercising behavior is the decision to go exercise. It is argued that the habit concept is therefore particularly relevant for the initiation of and adherence to exercising. Implications of distinguishing behavioral frequency and habit for interventions are discussed.
Article
The present study examined if habit strength moderated the influence of intention on fruit consumption in a Dutch adult sample (N = 521, 46.3% males, mean age = 34.50, SD = 10.87), using the theoretical relations of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). TPB variables and habit strength were assessed at baseline. Fruit consumption was assessed with a validated questionnaire five weeks later. Three groups were created: low habit strength (n = 180), medium habit strength (n = 185) and high habit strength (n = 156). Confirmatory factor analyses and multi-group path analyses were performed using AMOS 4.0. A good fit was obtained for the overall measurement model and the structural models. Multi-group path analyses showed that intention was a significant predictor of fruit consumption in the low habit (β = 0.36, p
Article
This study tested the ability of the theory of planned behavior to predict actual participation in physical activity and explored the development of activity habits in a 12-week longitudinal study. People enrolling in a gymnasium (N = 94) completed standard theory of planned behavior measures at baseline and follow-up; behavior was monitored objectively in the intervening period. The data were analyzed by using both standard and repeatable events survival analysis. Results showed that (a) perceived behavioral control was significantly predictive of intentions and actual behavior, (b) stable exercise habits developed in the first 5 weeks of the study, and (c) successful prior performance enhanced perceptions of behavioral control. The implications for developing theory-based interventions that promote the maintenance of health behavior are discussed.
Article
To study predictors of fruit intake in a sample of 627 adults. Potential predictors of fruit intake were assessed at baseline, and fruit intake was assessed at two-week follow-up with self-administered questionnaires distributed by e-mail. The study was conducted among Dutch adult members of an Internet research panel. A random sample of 627 adults aged 18-78. Attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, expected pros and cons, habit strength, intention, and fruit intake. Fruit intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Hierarchical linear and logistic regression analyses. Alpha < .05 was considered statistically significant. Sex, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived pros, different self-efficacy expectations, and habit strength were significantly associated with the intention to eat two or more servings of fruit per day. Age, intentions, and habit strength were significant predictors of consumption of two or more servings of fruit per day. The results confirm that Theory of Planned Behavior constructs predict fruit intake, and that habit strength and different self-efficacy expectations may be additional determinants relevant to fruit intake. Because habitual behavior is considered to be triggered by environmental cues, fruit promotion interventions should further explore environmental change strategies.
Article
Progress in habit theory can be made by distinguishing habit from frequency of occurrence, and using independent measures for these constructs. This proposition was investigated in three studies using a longitudinal, cross-sectional and experimental design on eating, mental habits and word processing, respectively. In Study 1, snacking habit and past snacking frequency independently predicted later snacking behaviour, while controlling for the theory of planned behaviour variables. Habit fully mediated the effect of past on later behaviour. In Study 2, habitual negative self-thinking and past frequency of negative self-thoughts independently predicted self-esteem and the presence of depressive and anxiety symptoms. In Study 3, habit varied as a function of experimentally manipulated task complexity, while behavioural frequency was held constant. Taken together, while repetition is necessary for habits to develop, these studies demonstrate that habit should not be equated with frequency of occurrence, but rather should be considered as a mental construct involving features of automaticity, such as lack of awareness, difficulty to control and mental efficiency.
Article
We studied the contributions of parental fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption, availability and accessibility of F&V in the home, exposure to F&V, and habit, in addition to psychosocial factors, in explaining F&V consumption in 4-12-year-old children. Furthermore, we looked for effect modification by ethnicity and gender. Children's parents (n = 1739) completed a questionnaire assessing psychosocial and additional factors regarding their children's F&V consumption. Consumption was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire. The model explained the children's F&V consumption better when the additional factors were included (R2 = .49 and R2 = .50 for fruit consumption, and R2 = .33 and R2 = .33 for vegetable consumption). Stepwise multi-level regression analyses revealed that habit was the most influential correlate of F&V consumption. It is concluded that nutrition education interventions aimed at stimulating F&V consumption among children should take into account that the consumption of fruit and that of vegetables are clearly different behaviors, with different influencing factors for boys and girls and children of native or non-native background. Furthermore, interventions to increase F&V consumption should include strategies aimed at making these behaviors habitual.
Article
The association between adolescent screen-viewing behaviour (i.e., television viewing and computer use) and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was studied in a Dutch sample of adolescents (N=383) using self-administered questionnaires. In particular, the previously understudied role of habit and perceived parental norms in the execution of these behaviours was investigated. Results showed that screen-viewing behaviour was associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (r=.32). Habit strength of both behaviours correlated with a large effect size (r=.50). The interaction between both behaviours was underlined by the finding that consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was explained by perceived parental norms regarding screen-viewing behaviour (beta=.12; adjusted for the behaviour and perceived parental norm regarding sugar-sweetened beverage consumption). Consequences of the identified role of habit and parental norms in the interplay between sedentary behaviour and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among adolescents are discussed.
Article
Internal reliability, convergent validity, and construct validity of the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) were examined with respect to physical activity (Study 1) and sedentary behavior (Study 2) among children and adolescents. Internal reliabilities of the SRHI proved to be high in both studies. The SRHI correlated significantly with behavioral frequency measures, as well as with known cognitive associates of these behaviors. Moreover, theory-based moderating influences of habit on the attitude-intention and intention-behavior relationships were identified. The study provides early evidence to support the concept of habit as being important in dealing with physical activity in children.
The four horsemen of automaticity: awareness, intention, efficiency, and control in social cognition Handbook of social cognition Hove: Lawrence Erlbaun Associates Publishers Predicting fruit consumption: Cognitions, intention and habits
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Attitudes, decisions, and habits as determinants of repeated behavior
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