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Case Studies on Environmental Management Strategies and Linkage with Waste Management Hierarchy: A Review

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Case Studies on Environmental Management Strategies and Linkage with
Waste Management Hierarchy: A Review
Worku MA*
Ethiopian Civil Service University, Environment and Climate Change Management Department, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Addis Ababa University, Center for Environmental Science, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
*Corresponding author: Worku MA, Ethiopian Civil Service University, Environment and Climate Change
Management Department, Addis Ababa University, Center for Environmental Science, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia,
Tel: +251 913268047, E-mail: adismite2011@gmail.com
Citation: Worku MA (2018) Case Studies on Environmental Management Strategies and Linkage with Waste
Management Hierarchy: A Review. J Waste Manag Disposal 1: 106
is paper is concerned with a review on various approaches of waste management since pre-industrial period (before 1960’s) up to
date. During pre-industrial period, the waste produced from dierent sources was not beyond the carrying capacity of the environment.
And, hence, industries discharge their waste as it is in to the environment causing not that much serious problem. With increasing
urbanization and industrialization, the waste generated become very diverse and of great quantity. is diverse nature of waste produced
demanded good management. Because of this, strategies were progressed from passive (dilute and disperse) through reactive (end-of-
pipe and on-site approach) to proactive approach (cleaner production). Each of these strategies is also linked with the waste management
hierarchies of Pollution Prevention Act of 1990.
Abstract
Keywords: Pre-Industrial; Waste; Environment; Pollution; Prevention
REVIEW ARTICLE
Introduction
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Open Access
ere was no corporate environmental management prior to the 1960s. e absence of environmental protection legislation
enabled companies to operate without any environmental safeguards and resulted in a wide range of ecological problems. Hence,
the pollution from increasing urbanization and industrialization makes one of the largest environmental challenges faced by today’s
world [1]. Rachel Carsons Silent Spring, a book on the global problems of herbicides and pesticides written in 1962, pregured the
arrival of the environmental era. In 1960s, it was felt that growth and development and protection of the environment could not
go hand in hand [2].
Environmental strategy is a long-term plan of action for resolving problems of natural environment considering particular functions
and activities of organization in order to improve the quality of nature and of its components. e realization of environmental
strategy brings the most desired eects when it is being used for a long period of time therefore it is necessary to realize it regularly
and constantly. Implementation of the environmental strategy fundamentally inuences the living conditions of present and future
generations [3].
A strategy of environmental management has evolved over the years through a series of successive paradigms as presented in
this review paper: passive (dilute and disperse approach), reactive (end-of-pipe and on-site recycling approaches) and proactive
(cleaner production approach) [4]. e passive strategies were ineective and the quality of environment improved only a little.
Apart from dilute and disperse (passive strategy) in 1970’s, reactive approaches of waste management including end-of-pipe
approach and on-site recycling strategy evolved in the history of environmental management. ere were some new solutions
which consider the main challenges of the 21st century. In the Rio Conference (1992), some new bases of pro-ecological education
were created. e managers are to think of and foresee the negative eects of dierent activities, and to make the ecological eects.
e Cleaner Production strategy became the basis of the idea which is to foresee the eects of economic activity and prevent
the waste production at source [3]. erefore, in the next few pages, environmental management strategies with case studies are
presented.
Article history: Received: 04 October 2018, Accepted: 16 October 2018, Published: 17 October 2018
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Environmental Management Strategies with Case Studies
Dilute and Disperse
e waste management practice in 1960s (pre-industrial society) was based only on the assimilative capacity of the natural
environment. Aer the Industrial Revolution, this approach seemed to be adequate for atmospheric emissions and wastewater
discharges. It is a passive environmental strategy or technique where euents from industries were discharged to large bodies of
water, which had the capacity to dilute and disperse wastes. Because of this, seas and oceans had become a huge dumping ground for
the world wastes [5]. eir eect might not pronounce when there were small industries. However, with massive industrialization
and urbanization, heavy metals and other diluted wastes start to cycle and get accumulated in sediments or plant biomass leading
to contamination risks. erefore, this advanced to another preferable waste management approach: reactive strategies [6].
Landlling is the most frequent municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method worldwide, recognized as being an important
option both now and in the near future, especially in low- and middle-income countries. For example, 338 million tonnes of waste
were landlled in most of the countries (Table 1). In the middle- and lower-income countries, they have poorly operated landll
that are likely classied as controlled dumping and 71.5 million tonnes waste were disposed through open dumping [7]. Among
developing Asian (that is, Malaysia, Vietnam, India, ailand and Indonesia), 70 to 90% of the MSW are being disposed in landll
(Table 1).
Case Study One: Municipal Solid Waste Management in Sri Lanka
Solid-waste management is emerging as a major problem for policy makers in developing countries as the quantity of solid waste
generated has increased signicantly and its characteristics have changed as a result of changes in peoples’ lifestyles due to swi
industrialization and urbanization. Rapid population growth and an increase in economic activities combined with a lack of
education in modern solid-waste management practices, complicate eorts to improve the situation in these countries. Compared
to high-income residents in developed countries, the urban residents of developing countries produce less solid waste per-capita.
However, the capacity of developing countries to collect, process, dispose, or reuse the waste in a sustainable manner is highly
limited [8].
Sri Lanka is located o the southeastern coast of India and covers an area of 65,610 km2. e Palk Strait separates Sri Lanka from
India. Sri Lanka has nine provinces, three districts of western province (WP) and nine local authorities in Colombo District. Sri
Lanka’s population was approximately 20 million in 2012 with a per capita gross national product (GNP) of US$1395 and a growth
rate of 7.7%.
Sri Lanka underwent decentralization of its government structure with the setting up of Provincial Councils responsible for
carrying out activities planned by central government ministries and their departments and agencies. e Provincial Councils are
responsible for supervising the functioning of these lower authorities, including their solid-waste management.
e most common method of nal disposal of MSW is an open dumping, which accounts for more than 85% of the collected
waste. ese are non-engineered sites where waste is tipped haphazardly without environmental protection. e majority of open
dumps are in the low-lying areas - marshes and abandoned paddy elds that are lled with solid waste primarily as a means of land
reclamation. Some of the local authorities use a daily topsoil cover to reduce nuisance and allay public opposition. ese dumps are
used to dispose of every type of waste, including industrial, hospital and clinical, and slaughterhouse wastes, together with MSW,
without any proper segregation. None of the open dump sites is engineered to manage the leachate or control pollutants released
from waste decomposition.
Few or no basic operations exist, such as leveling or covering of waste at the site, presumably due to the high costs involved. Soil
cover is applied only at the nal stage when there is a projected use of the land or public pressure. In addition to dumpsites operated
by the relevant authorities, random dumping by private individuals takes place along streets, and on marshes and abandoned paddy
elds. In the central part of the country, waste is mostly disposed of along the roads. Local authorities with regular responsibility
take little control over these malpractices, mainly because of a lack of resources or stringent laws [8].
Parameter MSW disposal by income (million tonnes)
High income Upper middle income Lower middle income Lower income
Landlls 250 80 2.2 6.1
Dumps 0.05 44 0.47 27*
Compost 66 1.3 0.05 1.2
Recycled 129 1.9 0.02 2.9
Incineration 122 0.18 0.05 0.12
Other 21 8.4 0.97 18
Table 1: Municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal by income (million tonnes)
*is value is relatively high due to the inclusion of China (Source: Hoornweg and Bhada-Tata, 2012)
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e city of Solapur is located in Eastern India, south eastern part of Maharashtra state, near Karnataka border with population of
873,009 in 2001. Total waste generated in Solapur corporation area is 420MT/day. e total quantity of solid waste generation is
75,000 Kg/day of which 50% is biodegradable (dry), 25% recyclable 15.3% green (wet) and 9.9% debris and silt. About 51% of the
total solid waste collected from entire city is biodegradable processing the energy potential, if harnessed with anaerobic digestion,
gasication or palletization technologies [9].
e waste is disposed daily to the landll site located on Tuljapur road and Bhogaon. e disposal site is open and gives rise to
contamination and the treatment process is not followed. e landll sites are not well maintained, which create the threat of
groundwater contamination due to leachate percolation. Open dumped garbage serves as breeding ground for disease vector such
as ies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, and rats aect the other pests. Most of the waste remains laying down in open causing pollution
with the odour and smell unless degrades naturally. A treatment plant of anaerobic digestion is in progress to extract energy from
organic waste generating the biogas.
Landll workers are vulnerable to various health hazards including injuries from scarp waste materials and they may also lead
the poisoning from chemical wastes. Sometimes injuries caused by infected sharp metal waste. Further, workers face eye and skin
infections, asthma, tuberculosis (TB) and some respiratory diseases.
From the 1960s onwards, it became obvious that ‘dilute and disperse’ was no longer eective for important point or concentrated
sources. e globalization of environmental problems and the recognition of the planetary eects of pollution, particularly the
eects on climate change and on the stratospheric ozone levels, contribute to the development of clean-up technologies, based on
end-of-pipe approaches [10].
Reactive environmental strategy is compliance strategy, wherein rms rely on pollution reduction through an “end-of-pipe”
approach, oen resisting the enactment and enforcement of environmental legislation. erefore, sustainable industries
determined that conventional end-of-pipe environmental systems are not eective at damage remediation and are costly to operate
and maintain [11].
Although end-of-pipe approach was eective to a certain extent, it generally produces by-products like sludge which has to be
dumped or burned that consequently causes other environmental impact. Furthermore, the system does not reduce the amount
of waste production; it transfers pollution from one medium to another medium; it does not eliminate pollution entirely and had
limitations to solve environmental problems in their whole complexity [6].
e Malaysian palm oil industry is growing rapidly and quickly becoming a signicant agriculture-based industry in this country.
Table 2 shows that the total productions of crude palm oil in 2008 and 2009 are 17,734,441 and 16,044,874 tonnes, respectively
[12,13]. e high production of crude palm oil prompts the palm oil industry to become an important contributor to Malaysia’s
GDP. Export earnings from palm oil, palm kernel oil and relating products in 1998 amounted to almost US$5.6 billion, equivalent
to 5.6% of the GDP. In Malaysia, palm oil is even utilized in the production of biodiesel (palm oil methyl ester or palm oil diesel)
for buses and cars, and a major expansion of Malaysian diesel production with 5% palm oil fuel is expected from 2006 [14].
Malaysia has adopted a wet process for palm oil milling since the dry process, which is used in certain places in the south of
ailand, is unsuitable for use in large-scale production. e number of palm oil mills in Malaysia has increased tremendously,
i.e. from about 10 mills in 1960 to 410 operated mills in 2008, in order to meet the crude palm oil demands both locally and
internationally. However, the production of such large amounts of crude palm oil results in even larger amounts of palm oil mill
euent (POME) in which case in the year 2008 alone, at least 44 million tonnes of POME was generated in Malaysia and the gures
are expected to rise every year. With this alarming gure, the palm oil mill industry in Malaysia is identied as the one generating
the largest pollution load in rivers throughout the country [14].
Ponding system has been employed by most of the palm oil mills as their conventional treatment of POME, in which case more
than 85% of the palm oil mills in Malaysia have adopted this method for POME treatment. Nevertheless, ponding system requires
long retention times and large treatment areas because this system usually consists of a de-oiling tank, acidication, anaerobic and
facultative ponds with respective hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 1, 4, 45 and 16 days. Also, the treated POME using ponding
system sometimes couldn’t meet the discharge standard of 50 mg/l BOD and the removal of nitrogen from POME is usually
unsatisfactory because nitrication is an uncommon phenomenon in the ponding system.
Case Study Two: Municipal Solid Waste Management in Solapur City, Maharashtra, India
End-of-Pipe Approach
Case Study One: Pollution Control Technologies for the Treatment Of Palm Oil Mill Euent (POME)
rough End-of-Pipe Processes in Malaysia
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In Nepal, there were no specic national policies on the waste management till 1996. Nepal has many problems with medical waste
which impact adversely the environment including human health. Nepal Health Research Council in collaboration with Ministry
of Health (MoH) and world health organization (WHO) has developed national health care waste management guidelines and
training manuals for medical professionals. Health Care Foundation of Nepal (HECAF) is another organization which has been
working in the eld of medical waste management since 1999 [15]. ere is a national guideline on medical waste management,
but it has not been implemented. As a result, many hospitals use small scale incinerators, or open burn or dump the waste in
their premises until the garbage pickers comes and dispose in the landll. Most of the incinerators have a problem of quality and
maintenance of equipment. ese issues are not given adequate attention [16].
With the rapid expansion of the palm oil industry and the public’s increased awareness of environmental pollution, the industry is
obliged both socially and aesthetically to treat its euent before discharging it. In 1977, the Malaysian Government proposed and
legalized standards for POME discharge into watercourses. Since then, palm oil mills are required to treat their POME prior to
discharging it into streams and rivers. erefore, instead of pollution control, pollution prevention should be the aim of any policy
intervention.
Incinerator facilities, if properly implemented, not only reduce nal disposal of waste, but also produce electricity and/or heat,
saving (energy) resources. However, incineration plants also contribute to externalities, such as emissions to air and chemical waste
residuals [17]. e situation in Nepal is much worsen because it was not properly built and there are residents who could directly
be aected by emissions resulted from the smoke around the burning equipment [18].
End of pipe methods oen resulted in increased costs with no appreciable benets to industries in terms of enhanced materials
or energy uses; as a result, recycling wastes and resource recovery methods were evolved in 1980s; which were actually better
mechanisms of resource use and waste minimization tactics over the end-of pipe strategy [19].
e importance of waste recycling cannot be overstressed as it leads to the reduction of municipal solid waste treatment and
disposal costs as well as the prolongation of landll life-span and conservation of the environment. Although oen unrealized
and overlooked, as noted by Ruiz (2001), recycling is a method of solid waste management like landlling or incineration but is
environmentally more desirable [20].
Case Study Two: Biomedical Waste Management in Nepal
On-site recycling
Month 2008 (tonnes) 2009 (tonnes)
January 1,424,244 1,330,195
Februar y 1,227,969 1,187,381
March 1,294,710 1,275,822
April 1,327,591 1,281,852
May 1,457,878 1,395,275
June 1,468,921 1,447,926
July 1,560,215 1,492,958
August 1,600,214 1,496,073
September 1,579,442 1,557,764
October 1,652,071 11,984,036
November 1,658,417 1,595,592
December 1,482,769 Data not available
Tot a l 17,734,441 16,044,874
Table 2: Malaysian production of crude palm oil in 2008 and 2009 (Source: MPOB, 2008a; 2009)
Material Packaging Waste Generated (Ton) Total Recyclinga (Ton) Total Recoveryb (Ton) Recycling Waste (%) Recovery Rate (%)
Glass 3,133,377 1,966,000 1,966,000 62.7 62.7
Plastic 2,046,728 460,540 1,167,525 22.5 57.0
Paper/Cardboard 4,283,537 3,721,400 4,124,698 86.9 96.3
Metals 717,684 432,289 437,088 60.2 60.9
Wood 2,641,660 500 673 18.9 25.5
Tot a l 12,822,986 7,080,229 8,368,311 55.2 65.2
Table 3: Recycling and Recovery of Packaging Waste in France in 2009 (Source: Cabral, et al., 2013)
aTotal recycling includes material recycling and other forms of recycling like composting.
bTotal recovery includes total recycling and incineration with energy recovery.
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Finally, the most appropriate waste management strategy to control environmental pollution is cleaner production. In comparison
with the previously discussed strategies, cleaner production is a proactive approach where companies take preventive measure to
reduce waste production at source.
As part of its eort to encourage others to see waste as a valuable resource, Dell formed a partnership with the United Nations
Industrial Development Organization to collaborate on developing recycling models for e-waste in developing countries. is
builds on its work to empower people in Kenya to generate additional income by collecting e-waste, and a roadmap it created for
other organization’s to prosper by recycling waste.
Proactive environmental strategy is going beyond compliance to a focus on prevention, a systemic approach that emphasizes source
reduction and process innovation. e introduction of such environmental technology was focused on the prevention of pollutants
coming into the air, soil or water, but not on the prevention of the ‘production’ of the pollutants themselves. e Pollution Control
approach has been the basis for the perspective that a company environmental policy and programme always cost much money.
From the 1980s, the benets of ‘Pollution Prevention at Source’ have been explored in case studies in the United States and Europe.
e case studies introduced the perspective that ecology and economics can go together [24].
World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) (1987), stressed on the urgency of meeting the needs of present
and future generations in an environmentally sound way [25]. Industrial operationalization of ‘Sustainable Development’ is being
developed via cleaner technologies and products. By sharing responsibilities for the environment at all organizational levels within
companies, by substituting toxic compounds and applying renewable energy and environmentally sound technologies, new
environmental management instruments are developed.
Cleaner Production
Recycling unlike previously mentioned strategies of waste management has its own economic advantage. For example, Cabral et al,
(2013) identied considerable resource recovery in waste package recycling system of France as indicated in (Table 3) [21].
Ondo State Integrated Wastes Recycling and Treatment Project are located along Igbatoro Road, Akure in Ondo state. Akure is
the capital of Ondo State and it is located in South Western Nigeria. e state has eighteen (18) local government areas and a land
area of 13,595km2. e amount of solid waste generated in Akure has increased steadily over time, from an estimated quantity of
60,000 metric tons per year in 1996 to 75,000 metric tons in 2006 because of the increasing population, industrial and economic
development. While the population of Akure was about 283,108 in 1996, it increased to approximately 353,211 in 2006 [22].
e recyclable materials in Akure are organic matters (kitchen, yard waste and animal dings), paper, cardboard, metals, plastics, and
glass. ese recyclable materials are sorted on-site by OSIWRTP employees before they are transferred to various units. Although
Waste separation aer collection is an expensive and dicult process, the employees are well educated on the issue of solid waste
management and source separation [22].
Some recycling activities in Akure include composting (turning waste into organo-mineral fertilizer for agricultural use); recycling
of plastics whereby plastics are shredded to smaller particles and are converted to pellets; scrap metals are turned into ingots by
melting the metal, pouring the liquid metal into moulds, and then removing the moulds when the metal is formed; and turning
landll gases into renewable energy. Important role is played by OSIWRTP in solid waste management and in generation of wealth
for the state. is initiative has not only made Akure environmentally friendly but has created employment for operators [22].
Pollution abatement, energy saving, social benets and economic benets are the primary indices that will measure the advantages
of the waste to wealth activities of OSIWRTP when fully made operational. Organic fertilizer, pelletized plastic, recycled metal
scraps are various sources of income on Akure.
Dell Company, through its “legacy of good” programme, the technology giant has ambitious plans to cut waste, create more eco-
friendly products and inspire its stakeholders to adopt “circular” thinking. In particular, it plans to use 50m pounds (22.7m kg)
of recycled plastic and other sustainable materials by 2020, create 100% recyclable or compostable packaging, and recover 2bn
pounds of electronic waste. In 2014, Dell sourced 4.5m kilos of recycled plastic to build monitors and desktops. It also began
capturing waste materials from customers’ old computers to incorporate in new products [23].
People in 78 countries are already taking advantage of its free take-back programme to recycle end-of-life electronics, with 560m
kilos of e-waste recycled so far. Now, the company is transforming some of the collected plastic waste into new materials for its
OptiPlex 3030 desktop computer, creating the industry’s rst certied “closed loop” recycling system.
Elsewhere, Dell eliminated 20m pounds of packaging between 2008 and 2012, generating more than $18m (£12.3m) in cost
savings. Its intention to reduce packaging waste has seen the company replacing non-biodegradable, oil-based materials with
organic alternatives such as bamboo and mushrooms. Its wheat straw packaging uses 40% less energy and 90% less water than
traditional paper-based cardboard.
Case Study One: Waste To Wealth - Ondo State Integrated Wastes Recycling and Treatment Project, Nigeria
Case Study Two: Electronic Waste (E-Waste) Recycling, Dell Company
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ZEPB allocates RMB 30 million (approx. US$3.7 million) for pollution control projects and the support of certain enterprises
carrying out CP audits and ISO14000 certication. Both on the provincial as well as the local level, the Economic and Trade
Commissions also provide subsidies to those companies that have successfully carried out a CP audit [29].
Despite all the eorts made in order to implement CP, China has encountered signicant challenges in improving, on a large
scale, the environmental performance of its industries. Factors such as the diculty in mainstreaming CP in industries, limited
institutional resources as well as constraints in nancial and technical resources of small and medium-sized enterprises have
hindered the widespread adoption of CP [27].
Schick’s Verona, Virginia facility (formerly American Safety Razor) manufactures a wide variety of blades and tools from steel
stock, for personal care, professional use, and specialty categories such as medical blades. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was used as a
cleaning solvent in both liquid and vapor cleaning/degreasing operations. e bulk of the TCE was recycled onsite through carbon
absorption and distillation; some wastes were generated and shipped osite as hazardous waste (United States Environmental
Protection Agency [USEPA], 2017).
When Schick acquired the facility in 2010, the company’s prior experience with TCE, particularly the potential for contamination
and subsequent remediation, combined with other factors – increasing costs (of TCE, waste disposal, and energy needed for
distillation), and increased regulatory risk -- made TCE elimination a priority. e plant installed aqueous “wash boxes” on
production lines to replace TCE-based cleaning operations, and also uses an alcohol-based cleaner in vapor degreasing as an
eective substitute for TCE. e procedures were rigorously tested to insure equivalent cleaning results, and employees were
trained in their operation. Schick’s prior experience with these technologies facilitated the adoption at the Verona plant [30].
TCE use has been completely eliminated at this plant; the chemical is no longer used in operations and there is no remaining
inventory. Although risk reduction was the key driver for these pollution prevention measures, the plant estimates cost reductions
of $250,000 a year from reduced energy, material and hazardous waste disposal costs.
e Pollution Prevention Act (PPA) of 1990 was enacted to focus industry, government and the public on source reduction
(pollution prevention) rather than upon treatment and disposal. Pollution prevention is the reduction or elimination of wastes and
pollutants at their sources (Figure 1). e Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 explains the hierarchy clearly as follow:
a) Prevention/Source reduction: it is the most desirable option of the hierarchy and the most eective way to reduce risk. Pollution
should be prevented or reduced at the source whenever feasible.
b) Recycling: pollution that cannot be prevented should be recycled in an environmentally safe manner whenever feasible.
c) Treatment: pollution that cannot be prevented or recycled should be treated in an environmentally safe manner whenever
feasible; and
d) Disposal: this is release into the environment should be conducted in an environmentally safe manner.
Cleaner production concepts cover internalization of environmental eects in new management approaches. e term cleaner
production was developed by an expert working group in 1989 as advice for United Nation Environmental Program’s ‘Industry
and Environment Program’ [26].
Cleaner Production (CP), a strategy for addressing the generation of pollution as well as ecient use of resources at all stages
of the production process, is playing an increasingly prominent role in China’s industrial and environmental protection policies
[27]. China started its promotion and implementation of CP in the 1990’s, and its rst CP project began in 1993 with support
from the World Bank and the UNEP (China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development [28]. In
2004, the Sino-German Technical Cooperation Programme ‘‘Environment-oriented Enterprise Consultancy Zhejiang’’ (EECZ), in
cooperation with the Zhejiang Economic Trade Commission (ZETC) and the Zhejiang Environmental Protection Bureau (ZEPB),
provided Environment-oriented Cost Management (EoCM) training to selected enterprises in the province. e objective of this
ongoing project is to improve the implementation of CP among enterprises in Zhejiang Province.
e Zhejiang government has worked consistently to promote CP and develop a circular economy as well as issuing a number
of supporting policies and legislation. e Zhejiang government assisted the establishment of the Zhejiang Cleaner Production
Promotion Center (ZJCPC), and a demonstration project for ten pilot companies to carry out a CP audit in the Taihu area in 2002
[27]. Initiated in 2003, Zhejiang Province establish an eco-province, “Build Green Zhejiang” program which involve the selection
of a further 500 pilot companies for CP implementation and aims to construct 153 ‘‘green’’ enterprises by 2007.
Case study one: Improving cleaner production through the application of environmental management
tools in Zhejiang Province, China
Case study two: Pollution Prevention Accomplishments at Schick Manufacturing in Verona, Virginia
Linkage between environmental management strategies and pollution prevention hierarchy
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Figure 1: Waste management hierarchy (Source: https://www.epa.gov/toxics-release-
inventory-tri-program/pollution-prevention-p2-and-tri)
In order to link the pollution prevention strategies with environmental management strategies, rstly prevention, which is placed
at the top of the hierarchy, is linked with cleaner production environmental management strategy. is mechanism is the best
option in order to reduce any form of waste released to the environment. e risk of pollution here is reduced by means of
prevention/cleaner production.
Secondly, recycling and treatment which are ranked second and third in the pollution prevention hierarchy are related to on-site
recycling and end-of-pipe approaches of environmental management strategies respectively. In any product life cycle process,
waste is generated at every step of the process. It is therefore crucial to safely release these waste so as to overcome pollution
problem. Both recycling and treatment mechanisms are reactive approaches that companies are trying to reduce the amount of
waste that nds its way to landll. rough these approaches waste couldn’t be avoided totally and there is still waste at the end,
waste of waste.
Finally, disposal is linked to dilute and disperse approach. It is a strategy where waste that couldn’t be recycled, reused or treated
can be managed. Disposal is the last option by which waste that is no longer usable is collected, transported and nally dumped
or disposed of. It was practiced since 1960s still today in mainly low- and middle-income countries. It causes serious pollution
problem; water and soil pollution through leachate, air pollution through the emission of mainly methane gas (greenhouse gas).
erefore, when disposal is the only option, it has to be well managed safely operated.
In this paper, environmental management strategies from passive through reactive to proactive supported by case studies were
reviewed. In 1960s when dilute and disperse approach was common option for companies to manage their waste, the environment
was resilient enough to accept and still functioning. But in the course of time, industrialization caused so many problems threatening
the planet earth because of wastes, emissions and pollution. e waste management strategies were progressed from disposal to
treatment, recycling and reuse. ese approaches of waste management were better than disposal but not complete enough in
order to create clean environment. To overcome these problems, cleaner production strategy is the best option to bring about
green growth and ensure sustainable development, where environment and society are equally important as economy. erefore,
countries of the world, whether developed or developing, should invest in this regard to make our planet earth habitable.
Conclusion
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