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This book addresses the challenges and opportunities faced by parents in digital times taking into account multiple levels of digital penetration among families from different social classes and regions across the world. The 20 chapters that follow engage with evidence drawn from a wide range of methods for data collection and analysis: Surveys administered to both children and parents, allowing a comparison of the answers; longitudinal observation of families and child-parent relations, showing changes and continuities in time; in-depth interviews with parents and young people; ethnographic research, including auto-ethnographies; discourse analysis of online discussions on sensitive topics. This plurality of methods and the identification of knowledge gaps should prove inspiring for future research and interventions. The book is organized along three sections: Digital parenting in context; Parental mediation in practice; and Challenges, risks and opportunities of digital media for parents and children.
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... While digital games have great potential for helping children to develop learning and thinking skills, they also have the likelihood of containing harmful content, and their overuse could cause some problems like addiction and meeting malicious people, which stand as side-effects of digital games. Due to these issues, parents are often faced with the question of how to ensure that their children are gaining the benefits of digital games without being exposed to the harmful side effects of these games (Mascheroni, Ponte, & Jorge, 2018). To this end, this study attempts to reveal the parental practices of families toward digital games. ...
... In the digital age, 'parenting' has gained more responsibility for the digital lives of their children in addition to traditional roles. Being digital parents in today's society requires mastering digital technologies at the basic level in order to protect their children against the risks of digital environments (Huang, Li, Chen, & Straubhaar, 2018;Mascheroni, Ponte, & Jorge, 2018). According to Lim (2018), in digitally connecting family, parents must develop a positive attitudes towards digital technologies, create a home enveloped by digital media and allow children to access digital technologies always keep track of their children's digital activities, and mediate their children even they are not with them. ...
... Dijital çağda, 'ebeveynlik' geleneksel rollere ek olarak çocuklarının dijital yaşamları için daha fazla sorumluluk kazanmıştır. Günümüz toplumunda dijital ebeveyn olmak, çocuklarını dijital ortamlardaki risklere karşı korumak için dijital teknolojilere temel düzeyde hâkim olmayı gerektirir (Huang, Li, Chen, & Straubhaar, 2018;Livingstone & Helsper, 2008;Mascheroni, Ponte, & Jorge, 2018). Lim'e (2018) göre, dijital olarak bağlı bir ailede, ebeveynler dijital teknolojilere karşı olumlu bir tutum geliştirmeli, dijital ortamla çevrelenmiş bir ev yaratmalı ve çocukların dijital teknolojilere erişmesine izin vermeli, hatta çocuklarının yanlarında olmadıklarında bile dijital etkinliklerini her zaman takip etmeli ve çocuklarına aracılık etmelidirler. ...
... While digital games have great potential for helping children to develop learning and thinking skills, they also have the likelihood of containing harmful content, and their overuse could cause some problems like addiction and meeting malicious people, which stand as side-effects of digital games. Due to these issues, parents are often faced with the question of how to ensure that their children are gaining the benefits of digital games without being exposed to the harmful side effects of these games (Mascheroni, Ponte, & Jorge, 2018). To this end, this study attempts to reveal the parental practices of families toward digital games. ...
... In the digital age, 'parenting' has gained more responsibility for the digital lives of their children in addition to traditional roles. Being digital parents in today's society requires mastering digital technologies at the basic level in order to protect their children against the risks of digital environments (Huang, Li, Chen, & Straubhaar, 2018;Mascheroni, Ponte, & Jorge, 2018). According to Lim (2018), in digitally connecting family, parents must develop a positive attitudes towards digital technologies, create a home enveloped by digital media and allow children to access digital technologies always keep track of their children's digital activities, and mediate their children even they are not with them. ...
... Dijital çağda, 'ebeveynlik' geleneksel rollere ek olarak çocuklarının dijital yaşamları için daha fazla sorumluluk kazanmıştır. Günümüz toplumunda dijital ebeveyn olmak, çocuklarını dijital ortamlardaki risklere karşı korumak için dijital teknolojilere temel düzeyde hâkim olmayı gerektirir (Huang, Li, Chen, & Straubhaar, 2018;Livingstone & Helsper, 2008;Mascheroni, Ponte, & Jorge, 2018). Lim'e (2018) göre, dijital olarak bağlı bir ailede, ebeveynler dijital teknolojilere karşı olumlu bir tutum geliştirmeli, dijital ortamla çevrelenmiş bir ev yaratmalı ve çocukların dijital teknolojilere erişmesine izin vermeli, hatta çocuklarının yanlarında olmadıklarında bile dijital etkinliklerini her zaman takip etmeli ve çocuklarına aracılık etmelidirler. ...
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This article aims to understand the attitudes, mediating and monitoring behaviors of parents related to the digital games played by their children. For this qualitative research, 30 parents answered 14 open-ended questions. Data analyzed descriptively. The data were analyzed with respect to the research questions and the analysis showed that the findings could be grouped into three themes: attitudes, monitoring, and mediating. The findings of the study demonstrated that parents thought that educational games developed their children mentally, developed their critical thinking skills, enabled them to follow up on how to benefit of those games, and developed their imagination. The research findings revealed that parents limited the time that their children spent with digital games; tried to be careful with regard to their children's choices of digital games; and had positive attitudes toward educational games, but not others. The results implicated that parents need to raise their digital parenting approach. It should be noted that digital parenting does not mean parents to play more digital games. Instead of that it provides them to teach their children the risks and gains that may face in digital games. Article history: Received Revised Accepted 05.05.21 22.07.21 29.09.21 Bu çalışma, ebeveynlerin çocuklarının bilgisayar oyunları oynamalarıyla ilgili tutum, izleme ve arabuluculuk davranışlarını anlamayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu nitel durum çalışmasında, 30 ebeveyn 14 açık uçlu soruyu cevaplamıştır. Veriler betimsel analiz yaklaşımına göre analiz edildiğinde bulgular tutum, izleme ve arabuluculuk olmak üzere üç ana başlıkta temalandırılmıştır. Araştırmada, ebeveynlerin özellikle eğitsel oyunların çocuklarını zihinsel açıdan geliştirdiğini ve eleştirel düşünme becerilerini artırdığını, genel olarak dijital oyunların ise teknoloji kullanımını takip etme kolaylığı sağladığını ve hayal gücünü geliştirdiğini düşündüğü belirlenmiştir. Ebeveynlerin çocuklarının dijital oyun oynama sürelerini kısıtladığını, dijital oyun seçiminde daha dikkatli olmaya çalıştıklarını, eğitsel oyunlara yönelik olumlu ancak diğer dijital oyunlara yönelik ise olumsuz tutum sergiledikleri ortaya çıkmıştır. Sonuçlar, ebeveynlerin dijital ebeveynlik yaklaşımlarını yeniden gözden geçirmeleri gerektiğini göstermektedir. Dijital ebeveynlik, ebeveynlerin daha fazla dijital oyun oynaması anlamına gelmemektedir. Bunun yerine çocuklarına dijital oyunlarda karşılaşabilecekleri riskleri ve kazanımları öğretmeleridir. Bu çalışma, çocukların deneyimlerini ebeveynlerin bakış açısından incelemiş ve çocuğun dijital yaşamı açısından çocuk ile ebeveyn arasında ne kadar etkileşim olduğunu göstermiştir.
... The notion of parental mediation indicates the varied practices that parents adopt to manage and regulate their children's engagement with the media (Mascheroni, Ponte and Jorge, 2018), whereas mediation means the management of the relation between child and media (Livingstone and Helsper, 2008, p. 581). Parental mediation can be done actively, by talking to children about how to use the internet, what activities the internet contains, what are the pros and cons of the internet and through technical monitoring, i.e., through parental control software (Smahel et al., 2020). ...
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This paper aims to explore the use of, experiences with, and risks of internet among children in Kosovo. This country has never been involved in the European project called Kids Online. Through a survey based on the Kids Online questionnaire, 437 children aged 11-16 were surveyed in 34 schools across the country. The results show that over 90% of children of this age stay online from one to six hours; YouTube and Instagram are the most preferred platforms; over 90% of them own smartphones. Conversely, many parents have admitted to being less knowledgeable about technology than their children. Parental mediation and schooling remain important, and the paper recommends the introduction of Media Literacy as a separate subject in pre-university education in Kosovo.
... Dies ermöglicht automatisierte und algorithmische Analysen, die in der Entstehung von Nutzungsprofilen, automatisierten Empfehlungen und personalisierten Newsfeeds bzw. personalisierter Werbung münden (Brüggen et al. 2019;Mascheroni, Ponte, und Jorge 2018;Mascheroni 2018;Wagner, Gebel, und Lampert 2013). Sie bergen damit ein hohes Potenzial für Manipulationen -insbesondere da die Plattformgestaltung weder Einsicht in noch Einfluss auf diese Prozesse zulässt (Wagner, Gebel, und Lampert 2013 (Gräf, Lahmann, und Otto 2018;Cap 2017;Brüggen et al. 2019). ...
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Für Jugendliche sind (digitale) Bilder omnipräsent. Dabei werden sie auch mit sexualisiertem visuellem Material konfrontiert, welches in besonderer Weise einen kompetenten, sicheren und selbstbestimmten Umgang erfordert. Der Beitrag geht vor diesem Hintergrund der Frage nach, wie Jugendliche diese Handlungszusammenhänge wahrnehmen und welche Faktoren zu einer souveränen Praxis im Zuge ihres Sozialisationsprozesses beitragen. Nach einer thematischen Hinführung zum Feld der medienpädagogischen Jugendforschung werden hierzu die Ansätze der visuellen Kompetenz und der Digitalen Souveränität erläutert. Anschliessend wird anhand empirischen Datenmaterials aus einer explorativen Gruppendiskussions-Studie mit 7- und 8-Klässlerinnen und -klässlern illustriert, dass eine theoretische Sensibilisierung in diese beiden Richtungen fruchtbar ist, um das jugendliche Agieren in visualisierten, sexualisierten und datafizierten Medienumgebungen zu verstehen. Das Potenzial der konzeptionellen Verknüpfung visueller Kompetenz und Digitaler Souveränität wird abschliessend reflektiert und hierbei für ein Theorieverständnis plädiert, das sowohl bildtheoretische Prämissen als auch die Relationalität der Theoriebildung integriert. Ziel des Beitrags ist, auf empirischer und theoretischer Ebene ein Verständnis für das Aufwachsen in einer tiefgreifend mediatisierten Gesellschaft zu entwickeln, wobei vor dem Hintergrund der beschriebenen Relevanzen der Umgang mit Visualität und Sexualität in Social-Media-Kontexten im Zentrum steht.
... The concept of digital parenting refers to both parental mediation and the way mothers and fathers use the Internet for various parenting purposes (Mascheroni et al., 2018). ...
Article
Global economic and social transformations, as well as technological progress, require people to modify used methods of communication. Traditional forms of information exchange have given way to the so-called new media enabling trouble-free communication using the Internet. These changes also affected family life. Digitization, appearing at each stage of the functioning of the family system, is to some extent based on remote communication processes, allowing its individual members to carry out their development tasks. According to the theory of social learning, parents constitute the basic pattern of behavior that children derive from and reproduce. Therefore, parental functioning in the virtual world is important for the later adaptive use of the Web by representatives of the younger generation. In addition, online communication acts as a source of information and a normalizer of social relations, fosters building interpersonal competencies and identity, and modifies the way of fulfilling the parental role. Based on the above-mentioned aspects, this article characterizes the process of digitization of motherhood and fatherhood, showing the basic ways and consequences of using the Internet by parents, and systematizing the knowledge about communication functions in the context of mothers and fathers online activity.
... Others use display as a form of marking and making families, for example, by posting and sharing family photos (Finch, 2007;Lambert, 2015). Particularly, what today is often called sharenting has become an issue of debate, bringing forward the discussions if it is ethical to post photos on your children online without consent (Blum-Ross & Livingstone, 2017;Mascheroni et al., 2018). However, the present study is not concerned with publicly making family, in the sense that we do not focus on how public display is used in order to show family relations to the world, or at least (extended) social media networks. ...
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Abstract Traditionally, family intimacy has been seen as depending on spatial proximity and physical closeness. However, due to individualization and globalization, many families live apart and/or spend their days away from each other. Moreover, a shift in family communication from household-to-household to person-to-person has occurred in the context of so-called networked individualism. These changes make it imperative to investigate how contemporary families communicate to create and maintain intimacy in and across households. Drawing on the concept of doing intimate family work, this study investigates the small acts performed in everyday life to do family intimacy through ICT in the context of networked individualism. We conducted interviews with 6 multigenerational families – spread across 18 households in Sweden and the US. Results show how responsibilities and practices of family communication become part of doing intimate family work, through personalized technology, with consequences for each individual family member. We explore the various affordances family members realize through actions in order to support family intimacy and how these practices reinforce the importance of the family home as a physical base for cross-household family communication.
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Introduction. The article presents the results of an empirical study, aimed at revealing the peculiarities of parent position concerning the use of gadgets by preschool children on a Russian sample. Objective. The article focuses on the phenomenon of parents’ inconsistent position concerning the use of digital devices by preschoolers. Methods. The study was conducted in February-April, 2021. The questionnaire, elaborated by the authors of the study, was disseminated in social networks. 6376 parents of preschoolers aged from 2 to 7 from Russian Federation participated in the study. The collected data was analyzed with the help of quantitative and qualitative methods. Results and conclusions. The results of the study testify that most Russian parents demonstrate a coherent position in relation to accessibility of digital media to their children — they either give their children limited access to gadgets (66,1%), or completely ban it (5%). A big group of parents (28,9%) give rather controversial answers to questions concerning the accessibility of digital devices to their children, which testifies that they have no coherent strategy. The research demonstrates that many Russian parents face difficulties in organizing their children’s interaction with gadgets and testifies that it is important to organize parents’ counselling and education in relation to these challenges.
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p>La enseñanza inclusiva implica que los docentes reconozcan las capacidades, la diversidad y los limites de cada unos de sus estudiantes. Desde el inicio de la contingencia del COVID-19 se pidió inmediatamente a los docentes que pusieran en práctica modalidades de educación a distancia, a menudo sin suficiente orientación, capacitación o recursos. Bajo este contexto, el objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar los retos docentes en educación inclusiva como el teletrabajo docente y el reto de atender en conjunto con los padres los aprendizajes de sus alumnos a nivel de educación básica. Para ello, se diseñó y se aplicó una encuesta sobre dichos retos en la educación inclusiva en México. Enseguida se comentan los principales hallazgos en la sección de resultados. Finalmente, se presenta las conclusiones y trabajos futuros de la presente investigación.</p
Chapter
The discussion about media literacy today goes far beyond the traditional understanding of media competence. At the same time, very different meanings are attributed to the term. This book brings together 14 contributions on different dimensions of media literacy: in addition to definitions of terms, it addresses media and information literacy in dealing with journalistic content; it discusses media literacy in the contexts of social media, organisations and in specific roles; and sheds light on technological, social and aesthetic aspects of media literacy. These contributions build a bridge between the findings of media and communication research, educational science and the concept of media literacy. With contributions by Othmar Baeriswyl, Davide Cino, Urs Dahinden, Caroline Dalmus, Mark Eisenegger, Noemi Festic, Brigitte Gasser, Laura Gründler, Julia Grundisch, Anastasija Grynko, Uwe Hasebrink, Martin Hermida, Markus Hodel, Angelica Hüsser, Kiran Kappeler, Guido Keel, Carmen Koch, Franziska Kohler, Nadine Klopfenstein, Michael Latzer, Franziska Oehmer, Stefano Pedrazzi, Nicole Rosenberger, Colette Schneider, Jörg Schneider, Pascal Schneiders, Lisa Schwaiger, Antonia Steigerwald and Christine Trültzsch-Wijnen.
Chapter
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For many families, ICTs have become an indispensable part of family life. Smartphones and other digital communication technologies help them to keep up with each other during school/work hours; organizing family gatherings can be coordinated in chat-groups created specifically for that purpose; and keeping up with grandparents overseas has become much more vivid thanks to video-telephony. However, integrating ICTs into families’ everyday lives means new (micro) tasks, new opportunities, but also new troubles.
Technical Report
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This paper gives an insight into safety, security, privacy and societal questions emerging from the rise of the Internet of Toys. These are Internet Connected Toys that constitute, along with the wave of other domestic connected objects, the Internet of Things, which has increased the ubiquity of the ICT within our everyday lives, bringing technology more than ever closer to ourselves and our children. What changes and challenges will 24/7 Internet connected devices, and Connected Toys in particular, bring to our society? What precautionary measures do parents, teachers, health care professionals, and also industry partners and policymakers, need to take in order to protect our children’s play, safety, security, privacy and social life? Based on which considerations? In which timeframe? The paper offers a kaleidoscope of six experts’ views on the Internet of Toys, each exploring the topic and raising questions from a specific angle, as follows: Public and industrial discourse; Safety, security and privacy concerns; Social robot-children interactions; Quantified-self of the Childhood; Nature of Play and, finally, Possible benefits of higher collaboration between research and the Internet Connected Toy Industry.
Thesis
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Ageing population has raised new challenges to Western societies. There are more and more people suffering from one or more chronic conditions during a considerable time of their lives. Society members must get used to living with illness(es) in today’s society. It is very important to support people during the adaptation period as well as their living with chronic illness. Experts are involved and action plans are developed for political changes, whereas communication plays a central role in the formation of values and attitudes. The aim of the dissertation is to explain the factors related to information behaviour supporting or hindering the management of illness-related physical, psychological and social changes during the life with chronic illness on the example of Parkinson’s disease patients. The theoretical frame is based on the social practice theory that opens health and illness communication in a strong relation with a person’s environmental and bodily aspects as well as lifestyle. The findings show that people use different information searching and interpretation strategies depending on the previous media usage habits, existing lifestyle and the duration of the illness. Unlike current information provision system, people expect to get information gradually and situationally in order to adjust their existing habits smoothly. People also wish to discuss some information searched for independently. Future perspectives should involve more assistance and experience counselling through specialized nurses and peer patients.
Chapter
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Much of the current writing on selfies, Instagram, or camera-phone photography in general tends to decontextualize these phenomena and analyze them on their own, without referring to historical precedents. The medium of photography tends to become invisible, while photographs posted on Instagram or other platforms are treated as pure and transparent data, from which conclusions about their makers and their audience are being made. What is still missing, and what we propose to bring back into focus, is more attention to the medium of photography as such. There was photography before mobile phones, and photography was shared socially before Instagram. While the new image-making technologies and image-sharing platforms, no doubt, change our definition of photography, much of what is being interpreted as “new” has roots in photographic practices of earlier decades. We believe that adding such historical perspective would expand our understanding of present-day cultural phenomena and let us analyze them as part of historical continuities. It is time to bring photography back into our discussion about photography in social media. The chapter follows this request by focusing on the phenomenon of “competitive photography” and the anti-selfie genre as a backdrop to explore contemporary and historical dimensions of the selfie as a photographic practice.
Book
This chapter argues that, while parenting has always been inherently future-oriented and, therefore highly uncertain, the conditions of reflexive modernity amplify and individualize the burden of risk such that parents become increasingly anxious both because of their uncertain and risky task and also because of the judgments of others. Based on depth interviews with over 70 London families, we show how parents navigate this situation by tacking back and forth between their memories of their own (non-digital) childhood and their anticipations of their children’s imagined ‘digital’ future in order to narrate for themselves and their children the values, identities and practices that are important to them. These narratives are sometimes romantic and other times instrumental; both narratives are highly agentic, allowing parents’ visions of the future to shape their actions in the present. But, we explain last, it matters that the future is imagined through the lens of the digital.
Chapter
This chapter of this book deals with the connections between social inequality, childhood and media. The first part is dedicated to national contexts of social inequality and to a discussion of social disadvantage in rich Western societies, with the specific examples of Austria and Germany. The second part deals with the connection between inequality and mediatization. One central argument is that a disadvantageous position in a mediatised society often leads to a lack of participation in society (education, job perspectives and so on). In our mediatised Western societies, participation is closely connected to (digital) media, so that socialisation often becomes media socialisation. We will preface a survey of relevant trends in global mediatization with a literature review covering the evidence of the links between social disadvantages and media experiences. To conclude, we will discuss the consequences of mediatization for academic research on young people’s growing up in general and for our study on media socialisation among socially disadvantaged adolescents in particular.
Article
Abstract: Researching the role of media within young people’s socialization requires an integrative approach that understands socialization as a contextual, interlinked process in which children construct their approach to life against the background of ‘developmental tasks’ and of the relevant social contexts. This article presents a praxeological approach that combines subjective and structural components of practice and that has been put into practice by means of a qualitative longitudinal-panel study on children’s socialization. The approach is based on three analytical concepts, options for action, outlines for action, and competences for action, and advances an interlinkage of subjective perception, action-driving orientations, and everyday-life practices against the backdrop of (changing) socio-structural conditions.
Chapter
Family is the first place where a child meets media and learns to live with it. In research studies, parental attempts to prepare their children for a life with media used to be labelled as "parental mediation." The domain of parental mediation has been developing within the past several decades. The goal of this paper is to enunciate the most questionable issues academic researchers encounter when studying parental mediation. Five theoretical and methodological issues are discussed: 1. unclear terminology, 2. multidisciplinarity, 3. multifactoriality, 4. trustfulness of the data sources, 5. long-term and developing character of the phenomenon. The author has identified these issues both on the basis of available reviews of research studies and observations made while realizing a two-year research project, for which the author was responsible.