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Abstract

Inflammation is the natural reaction of the body to an antigen, this reaction might be continues even after the elimination of the antigen, entering a chronic stage and targets normal cells of the body and causes extensive damage. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Ginger (Zingiber) and Parsley (Baqdounes) extracts as anti-inflammatory on rats paw. A total of thirty male albino rats were divided into six groups (5 rats each) and fed on the basal diet. Groups 1 and 2 were received orally 1 ml/100g of saline solution and kept as positive and standard groups, respectively. Groups 3 and 4 were given orally ginger extract for two weeks at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg of b. wt., respectively. Groups 5 and 6 were given orally parsley extract for two weeks at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg b. wt, respectively. At the end of experimental period (14 days), the second group was given intraperioteneally Feldene (Piroxicam) as anti-inflammatory agent in a dose of 4 mg/kg of body weight. After one hour of the treatment, each rat in all groups was injected with 0.1 ml of formalin 4% in the plantar side of the left hind paw. The paw thickness (inflammation) caused by formalin was measured using skin caliber every two hours until 8 hours after injection. The present results showed that ginger and parsley extract had a significantly positive effect as anti-inflammatory which was more detectable with increasing doses of plant extracts. Results concluded that regular intake of ginger and parsley had anti-inflammatory effect.
Journal of Applied Human Sciences,2 (2), 2016
1
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ginger and Parsley Extracts on Rats Paw
Aml F Elgazar and Amr A Rezq
Nutrition and Food Sciences Department, Faculty of Home Economics, Helwan
University
Abstract
Inflammation is the natural reaction of the body to an antigen, this reaction might be
continues even after the elimination of the antigen, entering a chronic stage and
targets normal cells of the body and causes extensive damage. The present study
was conducted to investigate the effects of Ginger (Zingiber) and Parsley
(Baqdounes) extracts as anti-inflammatory on rats paw. A total of thirty male albino
rats were divided into six groups (5 rats each) and fed on the basal diet. Groups 1
and 2 were received orally 1 ml/100g of saline solution and kept as positive and
standard groups, respectively. Groups 3 and 4 were given orally ginger extract for
two weeks at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg of b. wt., respectively. Groups 5 and 6
were given orally parsley extract for two weeks at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.
wt, respectively. At the end of experimental period (14 days), the second group was
given intraperioteneally Feldene (Piroxicam) as anti-inflammatory agent in a dose
of 4 mg/kg of body weight. After one hour of the treatment, each rat in all groups
was injected with 0.1 ml of formalin 4% in the plantar side of the left hind paw. The
paw thickness (inflammation) caused by formalin was measured using skin caliber
every two hours until 8 hours after injection. The present results showed that ginger
and parsley extract had a significantly positive effect as anti-inflammatory which
was more detectable with increasing doses of plant extracts. Results concluded that
regular intake of ginger and parsley had anti-inflammatory effect.
Keywords: Acute and chronic inflammation Ginger Parsley Rats.
Introduction
Inflammation is a complex immune process defined by the sequential release of
mediators such as pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 (IL-1)
and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) in
Journal of Applied Human Sciences,2 (2), 2016
2
addition to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. These mediators initiate
inflammatory response, recruit and activate other cells to the site of injury and
subsequently resolve inflammatory process. The inhibition of such mediators,
especially pro-inflammatory cytokines may prevent or suppress a variety of
inflammatory diseases (Kim et al., 2003).
Risk factors for inflammation are known and may attack body cells at various
parts of the body causing inflammatory diseases which may be acute or
chronic. Acute inflammation usually takes place first in response to the attack
of the risk factor (s). As soon as the risk factor (s) is removed, the acute
inflammatory response will stop. Visualize, acute inflammation does not lead
to oxidative and nitrosative stress or any serious adverse effect. However, when
the risk factor (s) continues to exist, the acute inflammation will progress to
chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation plays the major role in the
pathogenesis of all inflammatory diseases. If the risk factor (s) continues to
exist, the acute inflammation will progress to chronic inflammation. Chronic
inflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of all inflammatory
diseases (James and Lily, 2007).
In recent years, focus on traditional plants research has increased all over the
world and large evidence has been found to show immense potential of
medicinal plants used in various traditional systems.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been cultivated for thousands of years as a
cooking spice and flavoring agent. It has been used in traditional medicine for
ailments muscholar aches, fever, sore throats, pain, indigestion and vomiting
(Ali et al., 2008) and treat inflammation such as osteoarthritis (Leach and
Kumar, 2008). Ginger is rich source of antioxidant, analgesic and antipyretic
properties (Jana et al., 1999). Ginger is introduced into various tropical
countries where diverse chemo types have been developed (Wichtl, 2004). The
major pungent constituents of ginger are 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol that have
been shown to have many interesting pharmacological effects, such as anti-
oxidant, antitumor promoting and anti-inflammatory effects (Young et al.,
2005).
Journal of Applied Human Sciences,2 (2), 2016
3
Parsley, (Petroselinum Crispum) family Umbelliferae, locally known as
Baqdounes, has been used medicinally for many centuries' in Mediterranean,
European and Asian countries. It is widely used as a salad ingredient, a healthy
garnish, and capable of disguise foul odors (Ghazanfar, 1994). Parsley is used
in medicine for gastrointestinal disorders and to cure jaundice (Kreydiyyeh
et al., 2001) and for flushing the efferent urinary tract, as a diuretic
(Kreydiyyeh and Usta, 2002). The phytochemical screening of parsley leaves
revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, sterol and triterpenes (Al-
Howiriny et al., 2003). Folk medicines are used parsley for menstrual disorder
ailments, as an emmenagogue, galactagogue and stomachic. Results of many
investigations were pointed out to the antioxidant properties of parsley. it
contains flavonoid apigenin as one of the components of parsley plant that
express strong antioxidant effects by increasing the activities of antioxidant
enzymes and decreasing the oxidative damage to tissues. It has potentially
anticancer properties (Mimica-Dukić and Popović, 2007). With these facts,
the present study was planned to find out the possibility of anti-inflammatory
activity of ginger and parsley extracts in male albino rats.
Materials and Methods
Materials:
Plants: Dried powder ginger and fresh parsley was purchased from the Herbs
and Medicinal Plants market, in the local market from Cairo, Egypt.
Animals and diet: Thirty male rats of Sprague-Dawley strain weighing 175 ± 5
g were obtained from the Laboratory Animal Colony, Helwan, egypt. Basal diet
constituents were purchased from El-Gomhorya Company for Pharmaceutical
and Chemical, Cairo, Egypt.
Drugs: Feldene (Piroxicam) is an anti-inflammatory agent was obtained in the
form of ampoules form the local pharmacy in Cairo, Egypt.
Methods:
Preparation of plant: Fresh parsley was washed with tap water and soaked in
a water bath to remove possible potential pathogenic micro-organisms.
Journal of Applied Human Sciences,2 (2), 2016
4
Afterwards, the parsley was dried by cotton cloth to remove the excess liquid
prior to drying. Air drying was achieved at room temperature for 72 hr. Then a
grinder mill and sieves were used to obtain a powder particle size. The dried
ginger and parsley were finely grinded into fine powders and kept for further
use.
Preparation of herbs extract: Dried fine powder of both ginger and parsley
were soaked separately in 90% ethyl alcohol for 5 days. Then extracts were
concentrated at low temperature (50Cº) using a Rotary evaporator apparatus
(manufactured in Basil, Switzerland) until all the ethyl alcohol had been
removed to give an extract sample. Dried extract was dissolved in a mixture of
carboxymethylcellulose and few drops of Tween 80 as a suspending agent to
obtain 10% and 20% concentration liquid extract.
Preparation of basal diet: The basal diet (AIN-93M) was prepared according
to Reeves et al., (1993). It consists of casein 20%, soybean oil 5%, Choline
chloride 0.20%, vitamin mixture 1.0%, mineral mixture 4.0%, fibers 5%, L-
Cystine 0.18%, sucrose 10% and the reminder was corn starch.
Experimental design: Animals were maintained under standard conditions of
humidity, temperature, alternating 12-hour light-dark cycle, fed on the basal
diet and water ad libitum for one week for acclimatization before starting the
experimental. After acclimatization period, all animals (n= 30) were randomly
assigned to six groups (5 rats each) as follows: Groups 1and 2 were feed on the
basal diet only, received orally of saline solution at a dose of 1 ml/100g body
weight (b. wt.) and kept as a positive control and standard groups, respectively.
Groups 3 and 4 feed on the basal diet and given orally ginger extract by tube
feeding for two weeks at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg of b. wt, respectively.
Groups 5 and 6 fed on the basal diet and given orally parsley extract by tube
feeding for two weeks at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg of body weight,
respectively.
Induction of inflammation: Anti-inflammatory study was achieved as
described by Northover and Subramanian, (1962). It depends upon induction
of pedal inflammation in rats paw by 0.1ml of formalin 4%. At the end of
Journal of Applied Human Sciences,2 (2), 2016
5
experimental period (14 days), the second group was given (I/P)
intraperioteneally Feldene (Piroxicam) as anti-inflammatory agent in a dose of
4 mg/kg of b.wt. After one hour of the treatment with extracts and anti-
inflammatory agent, each rat in all groups was injected with 0.1 ml of formalin
4% in the plantar side of the left hind paw. The paw thickness caused by
formalin was measured using skin caliber every two hours till 8 hours after
injection. The difference between subsequent readings gave the actual edema
volume. Anti-inflammatory effect was assessed by the reduction in the
thickness of rat's paw.
Statistical analysis: The results were expressed as mean ± SD and statistical
significance was assessed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test.
Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software (Statistical
Package for the Social Sciences, version 16.00, Chicago, USA).
3- Results
The effect of ginger extract at the two different doses (100 and 200 mg/kg of
body weight) on paw's thickness (edema) of rats showed that rats given anti-
inflammatory agent (standard group) had significant reduction in paw's
thickness compared with positive rats at the 2, 4, 6 and 8 hrs post
administration (Table 1).
Rats treated orally with ginger extract at 100 mg/kg of b. wt. had significantly
reduction at p<0.05 in paw's thickness (mm) at the 2, 4 and 6 hrs post
administration, while at the eight hour post administration, there was no significant
difference, compared with that treated with anti-inflammatory agent as recorded in
Table 1. Tabulated results revealed that rats given orally extract at a dose of
200mg/kg b. wt. had significant decreased (p<0.05) in paw's thickness compared
with that treated with anti-inflammatory agent and those treated with extract at a
dose of 100mg/kg b. wt. at the 2, 4, 6 and 8 hrs post administration.
The effect of parsley extract at the two different doses (100 and 200 mg/kg of
b. wt) on paw's thickness in rats is tabulated in Table 2. It revealed that treated
rats with anti-inflammatory agent had significant reduction at p<0.05 in paw's
Journal of Applied Human Sciences,2 (2), 2016
6
thickness compared to the positive rats, at the 2, 4, 6 and 8 hrs post
administration. Administration of parsley extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg b. wt.
caused significantly reduction (p<0.05) in paw's edema at the 2, 6 and 8 hrs,
post administration, while, at the four hours post administration, there was no
significant differences compared that treated with anti-inflammatory agent. On
the other hand, administration of parsley extract at a dose of 200mg/kg b. wt.
caused significant (p<0.05) decreased in paw's thickness (mm) at the 2, 4, 6
and 8 hrs post administration compared with that treated with anti-
inflammatory agent. The parsley extract at dose 200 mg/kg had significantly
anti-inflammatory effect in reducing paws thickens in treated rats at the 2, 4
and 8 hours post administration more than that treated with extract at dose of
100 mg/kg b. wt.
Table 1: Effect of ginger extract on the paws thickness (mm) after
induction of pedal rat's inflammation
Time after
inflammation
induction
Paw's thickness (mm) as Mean ± SD
Positive
group
Standard
group
Treated group
with
100 mg ̸kg b.wt.
Treated group
with
200 mg ̸kg b.wt.
At the 2 hrs
a
6.82 ± 0.08
b
5.74 ± 0.09
c
5.24 ± 0.09
d
5.04 ± 0.05
At the 4 hrs
a
7.48 ± 0.10
b
5.28 ± 0.20
c
4.92 ± 0.10
d
4.70 ± 0.10
At the 6 hrs
a
7.78 ± 0.13
b
4.86 ±0.13
c
4.34± 0.05
d
4.08 ± 0.08
At the 8 hrs
a
7.46 ± 0.09
b
4.38 ± 0.08
b
4.04 ± 0.05
c
3.92 ± 0.08
Different superscript letters in the same row denotes significant differences at P<0.05
Table 2: Effect of parsley extract on the paws thickness (mm) after
induction of pedal rat's inflammation
Time after
inflammation
induction
Paw's thickness (mm) as Mean ± SD
Positive group
Treated group
with
100 mg ̸ kg b. wt.
Treated group
with
200 mg ̸ kg b.wt.
At the 2 hrs
a
6.82 ± 0.08
c
5.58 ± 0.08
d
5.36 ± 0.05
At the 4 hrs
a
7.48 ± 0.10
b
5.26 ± 0.10
c
4.92 ± 0.10
At the 6 hrs
a
7.78 ± 0.13
c
4.44± 0.20
c
4.52 ± 0.10
At the 8 hrs
a
7.46 ± 0.09
c
4.20 ± 0.07
d
4.06 ± 0.09
Different superscript letters in the same row denotes significant differences at P<0.05
Journal of Applied Human Sciences,2 (2), 2016
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Recorded data in Table 3 demonstrated the comparison of anti-inflammatory
effect between ginger and parsley extracts. It showed that administration of
ginger extract at the two different doses (100 and 200mg/kg b. wt) caused
significant reduction (p<0.05) in rat paw's thickness, compared with parsley
extract at the same doses at the 2, 4, 6 and 8 hrs post administration. The anti-
inflammatory effect of ginger was more detectable with increasing extract
doses as shown in Fig 1and 2.
Table 3: Comparison the effect of ginger and parsley extract on the paws
thickness (mm) after induction of pedal rats inflammation
Groups
Parameters as Mean ± SD of paws thickness (mm) after
induced for:
Two hours
Four hours
Six hours
Eight
hours
Positive control group
a
6.82 ± 0.08
a
7.48 ± 0.08
a
7.78 ± 0.13
a
7.46 ± 0.09
Standard group
b
5.74 ± 0.09
b
5.28 ± 0.16
b
4.86 ± 0.13
b
4.38 ± 0.08
Treated groups with
ginger at dose of:
100 mg ̸ kg b.wt
e
5.24 ± 0.09
c
4.92 ± 0.11
d
4.34 ± 0.05
d
4.04 ± 0.05
200 mg ̸ kg b.wt
f
5.04 ±0.05
d
4.70 ± 0.10
e
4.08 ± 0.08
e
3.92 ± 0.08
Treated groups with
parsley dose of:
100 mg ̸ kg b.wt
c
5.58 ± 0.08
b
5.26 ± 0.05
cd
4.44 ± 0.15
c
4.20 ± 0.07
200 mg ̸ kg b.wt
d
5.36 ± 0.05
c
4.92 ± 0.08
c
4.52 ± 0.08
d
4.06 ± 0.09
Different superscript letters in the same column denotes significant differences at P<0.05
Figure 1: Comparison effect of ginger (GE) and parsley (PE) extract at a dose of
100 mg/ kg of b wt on the rats paws thickness (mm).
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Positive group Standard group GE PE
2 hrs 4 hrs 6 hrs 8 hrs
Journal of Applied Human Sciences,2 (2), 2016
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Fig 2: Comparison effect of ginger (GE) and parsley (PE) extract at a dose of 200
mg/ kg of b wt on the rats paws thickness (mm).
4-Discussion
In an effort to identify the anti-inflammatory effect of ginger and parsley
extracts we performed an experimental study on 30 male albino rats.
Inflammation was induced by formalin comprises an early neurogenic response
mediated by substance P which is secreted by nerves and inflammatory cells
such as macrophages, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and dendritic cells and
bradykinin followed by a tissue mediated response, where histamine, 5-
hydroxytryptamine, prostaglandins and bradykinin are involved (Wheeler-
Aceto and Cowan, 1991). Moreover, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are
formed in both physiological and pathological conditions in mammalian
tissues. The uncontrolled production of free radicals is considered to be an
important factor in tissue damage which can induce pathophysiological
changes. Free radicals also play an important role in inflammation that can
mediate tissue destruction (Kottarapat et al., 2013). The inflammatory process
is itself a pathological process, whereas the natural anti-inflammatory response
that ensues after acute inflammation tends to reverse tissue homeostasis
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Positive group Standard group GE PE
2 hrs 4 hrs 6 hrs 8 hrs
Journal of Applied Human Sciences,2 (2), 2016
9
towards normality and should therefore be regarded as a true defensive reaction
of the affected tissue (Srdan, 2012).
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Ginger (Zingiber)
and Parsley (Baqdounes) extracts as anti-inflammatory on paw rats.
The present study revealed that treated rats with ginger and parsley extracts at
100 and 200 mg/kg of b. wt had significant anti-inflammatory effect as showed
by decreasing signs and paw's thickness (edema), compared with that treated
with anti-inflammatory agent at the 2, 4 and 6 and 8 hrs post administration.
Previous studies founded that ginger (Zingiberofficinale) had anti-
inflammatory effect which was not dose-related (Srivastava and Mustafa,
1992) and decrease inflammation swelling, and pain (Young et al., 2005). In
addition, Minghetti et al., (2007) reported that gingerola (the active constituent
of fresh ginger), dried ginger extract and a dried gingerol-enriched extract
potent anti-inflammatory effects. Lantz et al.,(2007) demonstrated that ginger
has long been used in the world as a popular spice food as well as a medicinal
herb because of its high content of anti-inflammatory properties.
The anti-inflammatory effect of ginger may be related to its constituents. The
main principles constituent in ginger are the series of pungent oleoresin
constituents known as gingerols, with gingerol being the major component.
Gingerols are the most pharmacologically active components (Park and
Pezzuto, 2002). There are more than 50 types of antioxidants are extracted
from ginger rhizome. The major pharmacological activities of ginger are 2 and
6-Gingerol (Shukla and Singh, 2007). Shogoals, gingerol, and are the
ingredients that prevent the biosynthesis of Leukotrienes and Prostaglandins by
inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase and prostaglandin synthesize (Chang et al., 1993).
Ginger can inhibit NF-κB (Nuclear factor κB) activation, TNFα expression and
CRP production (Lantz et al., 2007). Manju and Nalini, (2005) and Kota et
al., (2008) reported that the anti-inflammatory effects of ginger may be related
to its inhibitory affect COX-2, lipoxigenase, NFκB and TNFα activity, which
are caused by reduction of inflammatory factors such as IL6, IL1β, and IL2.
The 6-gingerol have inhibitor influence on the arachidonic acid metabolites
Journal of Applied Human Sciences,2 (2), 2016
10
include lowering formation of Thromboxan B2, Prostaglandin 2D and platelet
aggregation. In addition to, anti-oxidative effects of ginger is related to
glutathione enhancement, SOD activity induction and ROS reduction.
Recently, Kottarapat et al., (2013) founded that the essential oil of ginger
scavenges superoxide, hydroxyl radicals and inhibit tissue lipid peroxidation.
Therefore, it had antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive
properties. Ginger oil displayed strong anti-inflammatory activity in chronic
inflammation model and the mode of action may be due to the inhibition of
prostaglandin release.
On the other hand the present study showed that parsley extract has anti-
inflammatory properties as it appeared in reducing paw's edema in rats with
inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effective of parsley may be related to its
antioxidant properties (Hempel et al., 1999) and decrease oxidative stress
(Nielsen et al., 1999) and scavenge hydroxyl radical in addition to protecting
against ascorbic acid-induced membrane oxidation (Fejes et al., 2000). Al-
Howiriny et al., (2003) mentioned that preliminary qualitative phytochemical
screening of parsley leaves revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, sterols
and/or triterpenes. In addition, the ethanolic extract of parsley was found to
suppress carrageenan-induced rat paw edema significantly at higher doses
(2g/kg) and significantly inhibited the edema formation after 3 h of
administration. Recently, Al-khazraji (2015) showed that parsley effectively
suppressed the edema produced by the histamine, which indicates that the
parsley extract exhibit have anti-inflammatory properties by either the
inhibition of the synthesis, release or action of inflammatory mediators via
histamine, serotonin and prostaglandin that might be involved in the
inflammation.
5- Conclusion
Rats given orally ginger and parsley extracts at 100 and 200mg/kg of b. wt. had
significant anti-inflammatory effect as showed by the reduction in paw's
thickness in treated rats Therefore, the intake of ginger and parsley had anti-
Journal of Applied Human Sciences,2 (2), 2016
11
inflammatory effects by reduceing pain and swelling and can be used in the
treatment, prevention and decreasing the signs of acute inflammations.
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For sixteen years, the American institute of Nutrition Rodent Diets, AIN-76 and AIN-76A, have been used extensively around the world. Because of numerous nutritional and technical problems encountered with the diet during this period, it was revised. Two new formulations were derived: AIN-93G for growth, pregnancy and lactation, and AIN-93M for adult maintenance. Some major differences in the new formulation of AIN-93G compared with AIN-76A are as follows: 7 g soybean oil/100 g diet was substituted for 5 g corn oil/ 100 g diet to increase the amount of linolenic acid; cornstarch was substituted for sucrose; the amount of phosphorus was reduced to help eliminate the problem of kidney calcification in female rats; L-cystine was substituted for DL-methionine as the amino acid supplement for casein, known to be deficient in the sulfur amino acids; manganese concentration was lowered to one-fifth the amount in the old diet; the amounts of vitamin E, vitamin K and vitamin B-12 were increased; and molybdenum, silicon, fluoride, nickel, boron, lithium and vanadium were added to the mineral mix. For the AIN-93M maintenance diet, the amount of fat was lowered to 40 g/kg diet from 70 g/kg diet, and the amount of casein to 140 g/kg from 200 g/kg in the AIN-93G diet. Because of a better balance of essential nutrients, the AIN-93 diets may prove to be a better choice than AIN-76A for long-term as well as short-term studies with laboratory rodents.
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Seven men and seven women participated in a randomized crossover trial to study the effect of intake of parsley (Petroselinum crispum), containing high levels of the flavone apigenin, on the urinary excretion of flavones and on biomarkers for oxidative stress. The subjects received a strictly controlled diet low in flavones and other naturally occurring antioxidants during the 2 weeks of intervention. This basic diet was supplemented with parsley providing 3.73-4.49 mg apigenin/MJ in one of the intervention weeks. Urinary excretion of apigenin was 1.59-409.09 micrograms/MJ per 24 h during intervention with parsley and 0-112.27 micrograms/MJ per 24 h on the basic diet (P < 0.05). The fraction of apigenin intake excreted in the urine was 0.58 (SE 0.16)% during parsley intervention. Erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.1; GR) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1; SOD) activities increased during intervention with parsley (P < 0.005) as compared with the levels on the basic diet, whereas erythrocyte catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) activities did not change. No significant changes were observed in plasma protein 2-adipic semialdehyde residues, a biomarker of plasma protein oxidation. In this short-term investigation, an overall decreasing trend in the activity of antioxidant enzymes was observed during the 2-week study. The decreased activity of SOD was strongly correlated at the individual level with an increased oxidative damage to plasma proteins. However, the intervention with parsley seemed, partly, to overcome this decrease and resulted in increased levels of GR and SOD.
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One of the features of inflammation is increased oxygenation of arachidonic acid which is metabolized by two enzymic pathways--the cyclooxygenase (CO) and the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO)--leading to the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes respectively. Amongst the CO products, PGE2 and amongst the 5-LO products, LTB4 are considered important mediators of inflammation. More than 200 potential drugs ranging from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, gold salts, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, methotrexate, cyclosporine are being tested. None of the drugs has been found safe; all are known to produce from mild to serious side-effects. Ginger is described in Ayurvedic and Tibb systems of medicine to be useful in inflammation and rheumatism. In all 56 patients (28 with rheumatoid arthritis, 18 with osteoarthritis and 10 with muscular discomfort) used powdered ginger against their afflictions. Amongst the arthritis patients more than three-quarters experienced, to varying degrees, relief in pain and swelling. All the patients with muscular discomfort experienced relief in pain. None of the patients reported adverse effects during the period of ginger consumption which ranged from 3 months to 2.5 years. It is suggested that at least one of the mechanisms by which ginger shows its ameliorative effects could be related to inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis, i.e. it works as a dual inhibitor of eicosanoid biosynthesis.
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Botanicals have been used for the treatment of various human diseases throughout history. In addition, botanicals play a role in disease prevention. For example, epidemiologic studies have suggested that a reduced risk of cancer is associated with high consumption of vegetables and fruits. Thus, the cancer chemopreventive potential of naturally occurring phytochemicals is of great interest. In this review, we discuss the cancer chemopreventive activity of cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage and broccoli, Allium vegetables such as garlic and onion, green tea, Citrus fruits, tomatoes, berries, ginger and ginseng, as well as some medicinal plants. In addition, methods for the discovery of active compounds from plant sources are described. Several lead compounds, such as brassinin (from cruciferous vegetables like Chinese cabbage), sulforaphane (from broccoli) and its analog sulforamate, withanolides (from tomatillos), and resveratrol (from grapes and peanuts among other foods), are in preclinical or clinical trials for cancer chemoprevention. Phytochemicals of these types have great potential in the fight against human cancer, and a variety of delivery methods are available as a result of their occurrence in nature.
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Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinalis, one of the most widely used species of the ginger family, is a common condiment for various foods and beverages. Ginger has a long history of medicinal use dating back 2500 years. Ginger has been traditionally used from time immemorial for varied human ailments in different parts of the globe, to aid digestion and treat stomach upset, diarrhoea, and nausea. Some pungent constituents present in ginger and other zingiberaceous plants have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and some of them exhibit cancer preventive activity in experimental carcinogenesis. The anticancer properties of ginger are attributed to the presence of certain pungent vallinoids, viz. [6]-gingerol and [6]-paradol, as well as some other constituents like shogaols, zingerone etc. A number of mechanisms that may be involved in the chemopreventive effects of ginger and its components have been reported from the laboratory studies in a wide range of experimental models.
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In this study the skin permeation and the topical anti-inflammatory properties of ginger extracts were investigated. A commercial ginger dry extract (DE) and a gingerols-enriched dry extract (EDE) were evaluated for their in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. Furthermore, the feasibility of an anti-inflammatory plaster containing DE or EDE was evaluated. Since the in vivo activity was evaluated in mice, the ex vivo skin permeation study was performed by using mouse skin or human epidermis. The DE from the acetonic solution exerted a dose-dependent topical anti-inflammatory activity (ID (50) = 142 microg/cm (2)), not far from that of the potent reference substance indomethacin (ID (50) = 93 microg/cm (2)). Similarly, the EDE induced a dose-dependent oedema reduction though its potency (ID (50) = 181 microg/cm (2)) was slightly lower than that of DE. Increase of the 6-gingerol concentration in the extract did not improve the anti-inflammatory activity. The medicated plasters, containing 1 mg/cm (2) of the commercial DE or EDE, had good technological characteristics and exerted a significant antiphlogistic effect, too. By using the plaster containing EDE, the 6-gingerol amount that permeated through human epidermis was 6.9 microg/cm (2) while the amount that passed through mouse skin was 22.1 microg/cm (2). Nevertheless, the amounts of 6-gingerol permeated through human epidermis and mouse skin in the early period (8h) were comparable (p > 0.3). This preliminary result suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect observed in mice could also be exerted in humans.
Pedal inflammation induced by chemical agents
  • B -Northover
  • G Subramanian
-Northover, B. and Subramanian, G. (1962). Pedal inflammation induced by chemical agents. Br. J. Phramacol; 18:346-349.