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The river Dambovita, which crosses Bucharest city, is characterized by two superposed artificial riverbeds: the lower part, under Dambovita river floor, which is a channel containing sewage from the city and the upper part, which is cleaner and combines with the lower part when exiting Bucharest. This study aims to evaluate the anthropogenic impact on the water quality of the upper canal. Samples were collected from 10 points along the sector, during two sampling campaigns, between January and February 2015. These points were chosen based on the ease of access, the environmental characteristics and any possible human influence. Physico-chemical parameters were measured: the concentration and saturation of dissolved oxygen, temperature, pressure, pH, turbidity, conductivity, amount of ammonium, phosphorus and nitrates. In addition, fluorescence spectroscopy method was used to determine the presence and types of organic substances in water samples. The results showed significant differences between the urban sector of Dambovita and the final sampling point, situated downstream of the Glina wastewater treatment plant. Fluorescence measurements showed that the quantity of humic substances had a continuous increase along the sector. Regarding the microbial fraction, fluorescence spectroscopy revealed a sudden increase at the sample collected from the entrance of the river in Bucharest and at Glina sewage effluent discharge point. Fluorescence results evidenced the anthropogenic impact on the water quality of Dambovita River. In conclusion, the quality of Dambovita waters varies across space and time, depending on human influence affecting the areas from where samples were taken and also reflecting a temporal variation, with a drop in quality during January, caused by weather conditions that lead to the concentration and stagnation of pollutants.

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We studied the fluorescence properties of fulvic acids isolated from streams and rivers receiving predominantly terrestrial sources of organic material and from lakes with microbial sources of organic material. Microbially derived fulvic acids have fluorophores with a more sharply defined emission peak occurring at lower wavelengths than fluorophores in terrestrially derived fulvic acids. We show that the ratio of the emission intensity at a wavelength of 450 nm to that at 500 nm, obtained with an excitation of 370 nm, can serve as a simple index to distinguish sources of isolated aquatic fulvic acids. In our study, this index has a value of ;1.9 for microbially derived fulvic acids and a value of ;1.4 for terrestrially derived fulvic acids. Fulvic acids isolated from four large rivers in the United States have fluorescence index values of 1.4-1.5, consistent with predominantly terrestrial sources. For fulvic acid samples isolated from a river, lakes, and groundwaters in a forested watershed, the fluorescence index varied in a manner suggesting different sources for the seepage and streamfed lakes. Furthermore, we identified these distinctive fluorophores in filtered whole water samples from lakes in a desert oasis in Antarctica and in filtered whole water samples collected during snowmelt from a Rocky Mountain stream. The fluorescence index measure- ment in filtered whole water samples in field studies may augment the interpretation of dissolved organic carbon sources for understanding carbon cycling in aquatic ecosystems.
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The Chillán River in Central Chile plays a fundamental role in local society, as a source of irrigation and drinking water, and as a sink for urban wastewater. In order to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of surface water quality in the watershed, a Water Quality Index (WQI) was calculated from nine physicochemical parameters, periodically measured at 18 sampling sites (January-November 2000). The results indicated a good water quality in the upper and middle parts of the watershed. Downstream of the City of Chillán, water quality conditions were critical during the dry season, mainly due to the effects of the urban wastewater discharge. On the basis of the results from a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), modifications were introduced into the original WQI to reduce the costs associated with its implementation. WQIDIR2 and WQIDIR, which are both based on a laboratory analysis (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and three (pH, temperature and conductivity), respectively, four field measurements (pH, temperature, conductivity and Dissolved Oxygen), adequately reproduce the most important spatial and temporal variations observed with the original index. They are proposed as useful tools for monitoring global water quality trends in this and other, similar agricultural watersheds in the Chilean Central Valley. Possibilities and limitations for the application of the used methodology to watersheds in other parts of the world are discussed.
Wastewater quality is usually assessed using physical, chemical and microbiological tests, which are not suitable for online monitoring, provide unreliable results, or use hazardous chemicals. Hence, there is an urgent need to find a rapid and effective method for the evaluation of water quality in natural and engineered systems and for providing an early warning of pollution events. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been shown to be a valuable technique to characterize and monitor wastewater in surface waters for tracking sources of pollution, and in treatment works for process control and optimization. This paper reviews the current progress in applying fluorescence to assess wastewater quality. Studies have shown that, in general, wastewater presents higher fluorescence intensity compared to natural waters for the components associated with peak T (living and dead cellular material and their exudates) and peak C (microbially reprocessed organic matter). Furthermore, peak T fluorescence is significantly reduced after the biological treatment process and peak C is almost completely removed after the chlorination and reverse osmosis stages. Thus, simple fluorometers with appropriate wavelength selectivity, particularly for peaks T and C could be used for online monitoring in wastewater treatment works. This review also shows that care should be taken in any attempt to identify wastewater pollution sources due to potential overlapping fluorophores. Correlations between fluorescence intensity and water quality parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total organic carbon (TOC) have been developed and dilution of samples, typically up to x10, has been shown to be useful to limit inner filter effect. It has been concluded that the following research gaps need to be filled: lack of studies on the on-line application of fluorescence spectroscopy in wastewater treatment works and lack of data processing tools suitable for rapid correction and extraction of data contained in fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) for real-time studies.
Recently, growing interest has been shown in the study of canal water quality, yet no research using continuous fluorescence monitoring to characterise dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been performed. This paper evaluated DOM characteristics at hourly resolution. A comparison was made between canal and nearby urban river fluorescence spectra, to emphasise the specific nature of canal water DOM. Results showed that canal water had a significant proportion of microbially derived DOM, while the urban river had a greater proportion of terrestrially derived fractions. The microbial character of canal water DOM originated from the low flow of water, the nutrients predominance and continuous DOM processing. Hence, DOM fluorescence is invariant over a timescale of days, and recreational navigation and precipitation events have no major influence on DOM characteristics. Our results are expected to be applicable to future research on highly regulated freshwater systems for DOM quantity estimation or for water quality models.
The isolation, characterization and study of the properties of aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) still represent a challenge because of the heterogeneity, complexity and low concentration of organic material in natural waters. Based on its ability to interact with contaminants and thus to modify their transport and bioavailability, DOM is of interest for environmental purposes. The objective of this work was to better characterize DOM in the Gironde Estuary (southwestern France). The estuary represents an exchange zone between the continent and the Atlantic Ocean and conditions the transfer of organic and inorganic substances from the continental to the oceanic environment. Several samples were collected along the estuary during three cruises in 2002 and 2006. They were analysed using excitation–emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy, a sensitive technique that allows direct analysis of water samples. Fluorescent DOM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) did not behave conservatively in this estuarine system, i.e. the organic material did not undergo simple dilution from the upstream to the downstream part of the estuary. A seasonal variability in DOC content was pointed out, whereas few seasonal variations in DOM fluorescence were observed. DOM sources and processing in the estuary were further evaluated by determining two fluorescence indices – the humification index (HIX) and the index of recent autochthonous contribution (BIX). By applying these indices, the relative degree of humification (HIX) and autotrophic productivity (BIX) could be assessed. Based on the fluorescence and DOC results, the estuary was divided into three zones depending on salinity (S) and characterized by specific DOM: (i) A turbid zone of low salinity (S
This study comprised the development of a new index called the 'universal water quality index (UWQI)'. This index has advantages over pre-existing indices by reflecting the appropriateness of water for specific use, e.g. drinking water supply rather than general supply, and has been developed by studying the supranational standard, i.e. the European Community Standard. Three classification schemes for water quality are proposed for surface water quality assessment. Water qual-ity determinants of the new index are cadmium, cyanide, mercury, selenium, arsenic, fluoride, nitrate-nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, pH and total coliform. The mathematical equations to transform the actual concentration values into quality indices have been formulated. The weighted sum method was proposed to obtain overall index scores based on individual index (sub-index) values. The application of the new index was demonstrated at a sampling station on Tahtali Reservoir in Turkey based on observed water quality data. Results revealed that the overall qual-ity of the surface water falls under the 'excellent' class. On the other hand water quality was strongly affected by agricultural and domestic uses. This technique is believed to assist decision makers in reporting the state of the water quality, as well as investigating spatial and temporal changes. It is also useful to determine the level of acceptability for the individual parameter by referring to the concentration ranges defined in the proposed classification scheme.
The relative fluorescence, normalised on dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and a humification index, based on the location of the fluorescence emission spectra, were used to investigate the possible sources of the increase in dissolved organic matter (DOM) when a soil is dried. From these 2 parameters it could be seen that air drying resulted in a minor increase of more humified material in DOM while the effect of oven drying was mainly due to cell lysis.
Hydrographic systems and water management in Bucharest
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