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Strengthening gamification studies: Current trends and future opportunities of gamification research

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Abstract

Gamification is now a well-established technique in Human-Computer Interaction. However, research on gamification still faces a variety of empirical and theoretical challenges. Firstly, studies of gamified systems typically focus narrowly on understanding individuals. short-term interactions with the system, ignoring more difficult to measure outcomes. Secondly, academic research on gamification has been slow to improve the techniques through which gamified applications are designed. Third, current gamification research lacks a critical lens capable of exploring unintended consequences of designs. The 14 articles published in this special issue face these challenges with great methodological rigor. We summarize them by identifying three main themes: the determination to improve the quality and usefulness of theory in the field of gamification, the improvements in design practice, and the adoption of a critical gaze to uncover side-effects of gamification designs. We conclude by providing an overview of the questions that we feel must be addressed by future work in gamification. Gamification studies would benefit from a wider use of theories to account for the complexity of human behavior, a more thorough exploration of the many opportunities coming from the world of games, and an ethical reflection on the use of game design elements in serious domains.

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... If we take into consideration the practice of diverse, and often unstated, rationale for different gamification designs (Seaborn & Fels, 2015;Dichev & Dicheva, 2017) it is understandable that the designs, methods, and variables that were explored in the studies included in this review vary substantially (Manzano-León et al., 2021). This subjective and unsystematic practice leaves some theories, relevant factors and forms of engagement in gamified learning environment underexplored and without a theory-derived framework to scaffold gamification design (Rapp et al., 2019;Dichev & Dicheva, 2017;Nacke & Deterding, 2017;Seaborn & Fels, 2015;. ...
... Continuous theoretical and rigorous systematic empirical work in varying gamification settings and contexts is a prerequisite for developing a comprehensive practical and methodological understanding of the benefits of GI (Dichev & Dicheva, 2017). Still, Rapp et al. (2019) warn that, so far, very little empirical work has focused on exploring the influence of contextual factors and individual diversities on the effectiveness of gamified systems. Therefore, aside from a mixed-method approach, a detailed description of the game-design process, future studies should involve a detailed description of the context in which they took place. ...
... Among the studies included in this review, primary deficiencies involve sporadic description of game design process/game components, scarce descriptions of study contexts, a lack of mixed-methods approaches, small numbers of participants and short intervention durations. Evidently, gamification is moving away from the typical use of PBLs and, therefore, relies more on established game-design principals (Manzano-León et al., 2021;Rapp et al., 2019). Still, for some reason, it seems that gamification research neglects the full range of game design expertise when designing a system (Rapp et al., 2019). ...
Article
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This systematic review critically explores the intervention design and findings of the experimental studies that were published between January 2012-December 2020 in a number of digital libraries and databases and had the effect of a gamified instruction on students’ learning outcomes in their focus, with the aim of identifying what constitutes success or the lack thereof in the given context. The found effect(s) of gamified instruction on students’ learning engagement and achievement are discussed in relation to the a) intervention design, its flaws and their potential impact on reported outcomes and b) prevalent practice in gamification research. The discussion is structured around data collection sources, sample size, and intervention duration, but also the characteristics of learning technology, learning approach, course content, type of games and game elements. This study proposes a list of categories to be included in the description of a study context so that it is possible to a) systematically organise research findings, b) filter the variety of findings via means of replication studies. c) recognise the variant effect on different sub-populations, and d) suggest the way forward when designing and implementing gamified instruction within specific conditions. Furthermore, the study highlights the necessity of approaching the topic through a mixed-method approach involving a more intensive tracking schedule with new assessment instruments and a larger number of participants that are longitudinal or at least of a longer duration in order to obtain more comprehensive findings.
... Considering all the academic literature around Gamification of education it is possible to conclude that there is still a controversy about the use of the concept. Some authors claim for more empirical research (Dicheva et al., 2015;Khalil et al., 2018;Manzano-León et al., 2021) and for improved methodological rigor (Rapp et al., 2019;Sailer & Homner, 2020;Sailer & Sailer, 2021). Most of the criticism is related to the use of game elements just to increase the extrinsic motivation, which is contrary to what many experts in education sciences claim. ...
... The most mentioned theories were the Self-Determination Theory (SDT), proposed by Ryan and Deci (2000), in 82 review studies and the Flow Theory (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975) in 47 review studies. According to Rapp et al. (2019), SDT is the most referred theory in Gamification research. SDT and the Flow Theory are also considered by Bozkurt and Durak (2018) as two of the most beneficial lenses in Gamification articles. ...
... The ethical use of Gamification, which concerns the ethical use of people's performance, behavior and personality data in gamified settings is getting an increasing interest but needs more research (Rapp et al., 2019;Trinidad et al., 2021) and, therefore, is another line of future research. ...
Chapter
Research into teaching and learning methodologies is intense and demonstrates the academic community's unrelenting need to understand how people learn, in a continuous effort to improve efficiency in the transmission of knowledge. Teachers are dealing with a growing disengagement of students in recent decades. In part, this is due to the increase in the spread of ICT technologies outside the classroom, particularly those supporting social networking and video games. New trends, such as Gamification and Flipped Classroom, are emerging to try to find ways to stimulate increased student engagement and motivation. In this chapter, the authors present a critical reflection and field experiences, around the potential of joint implementation of Gamification with Flipped Classroom, demonstrating possibilities of positive increment of efficiency and effectiveness of teaching and learning processes.
... Despite this progress, gamification research still faces a number of empirical and theoretical issues. First of all, studies of gamified systems continue to be narrowly focused on evaluating and perceiving individuals' short-term interactions with the system [18]. ...
... Despite this progress, gamification research still faces a number of empirical and theoretical issues. First of all, studies of gamified systems continue to be narrowly focused on evaluating and perceiving individuals' short-term interactions with the system [18]. Therefore, it might be critical to determine whether and how different game design elements may influence one another and if there is a design criterion to integrate game elements into online and distance learning programs. ...
... For this reason, it is thought that the effect of gamification on students' achievement (final grades) should be investigated further. According to Rapp et al. [18], studies of gamified systems are still narrowly focused on evaluating and perceiving individuals' short-term interactions with the system. So, it is also important that the length of the course might also has an effect on student achievement. ...
Article
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This study aims to address the issue of low completion and high dropout rates in online and distance learning through play and gamification. The general aim of this study is to provide a set of gamification design principles for researchers and practitioners on how gamification can be used in online and distance learning programs in higher education. More specifically, the study intended to seek the answers whether student participation in the online and distance learning programs can be increased by the use of gamification, how the gamification influences the students' academic performances in the online and distance learning programs and what learners think about integrating gamification into the open and distance learning programs in higher education. The study was designed as a sequential exploratory research, which is one of the mixed research methods. Findings indicate that integrating gamification into the online and distance learning programs has a significant impact on increasing students' visits to the learning environment. In addition, when the pre-gamification and post-gamification scenarios were compared in terms of students accessing to the content in the online and distance learning environment, it was discovered that there was a statistically significant increase. It can be also said that there is significant difference regarding to academic performances for gamified situations. Lastly, gamification is said to be fun by students and to contribute positively to their motivation. According to this, gamification has a positive effect on learners' e-learning behaviors and should be used more in online and distance learning programs.
... "Throughout history, many have advocated the use of play, games, and game-inspired design to improve the human condition" (Nacke and Deterding 2017). With this, gamification has become a popular approach to enriching information technologies in different types of applications, including educational ones Rapp et al., 2019;Koivisto & Hamari, 2019;Bai et al., 2020). An important aspect of gamification is the understanding of which gamification elements are adequate in each context (Orji et al., 014;Koivisto & Hamari, 2019;Santos et al., 2021). ...
... Recent secondary studies (e.g., Böckle et al., 2017;Koivisto & Hamari, 2019; show that not only in studies related to education but in other domains (e.g., Health and Crowdsourcing), in general, personalization focuses on identifying the users' gamer types (or in some cases users' gender) and providing different gamification elements for each profile. This approach is important because, in games studies (base for gamification) (Rapp et al., 2019), the players' types and their preferences regarding the game elements have been investigated for many years (Bartle 1996). However, other aspects can influence the preferences of the participants concerning the gamified systems Böckle et al., 2017;Oliveira & Bittencourt, 2019c). ...
Article
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Gamification refers to the attempt to transform different kinds of systems to be able to better invoke positive experiences such as the flow state. However, the ability of such intervention to invoke flow state is commonly believed to depend on several moderating factors including the user’s traits. Currently, there is a dearth of research on the effect of user traits on the results of gamification. Gamer types (personality traits related to gaming styles and preferences) are considered some of the most relevant factors affecting the individual’s susceptibility to gamification. Therefore, in this study we investigate how gamer types from the BrainHex taxonomy (achiever, conqueror, daredevil, mastermind, seeker, socializer and survivor) moderate the effects of personalized/non-personalized gamification on users’ flow experience (challenge-skill balance, merging of action and awareness, clear goals, feedback, concentration, control, loss of self-consciousness and autotelic experience), enjoyment, perception of gamification and motivation. We conducted a mixed factorial within-subject experiment involving 121 elementary school students comparing a personalized version against a non-personalized version of a gamified education system. There were no main effects between personalization and students’ flow experience, perception of gamification and motivation, and enjoyment. Our results also indicate patterns of characteristics that can lead students to the high flow experience (e.g., those who prefer to play multiplayer have a high flow experience in both personalized and non-personalized versions). Based on our results, we provided recommendations to advance the design of gamifed educational systems.
... Since numerous studies have already proven the effect of gamification Mekler et al., 2017;Sailer, Hense, Mayr, & Mandl, 2017, pp. 795-818), current research is also concerned with investigating which different design approaches are particularly effective in the implementation of gamification (Rapp, Hopfgartner, Hamari, Linehan, & Cena, 2019). An important difference when implementing a game design element is whether the element is designed cooperatively or competitively. ...
... As with most studies in the field of gamification, there is a lack of evaluation of the long-term impact of gamification (Mazarakis, 2021;Rapp et al., 2019;Seaborn & Fels, 2015). The effect investigated was demonstrated in a laboratory setting in which the subjects interacted with the system once and for no longer than half an hour. ...
Article
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Intelligent virtual assistants (IVAs) like Amazon Alexa or Google Assistant have become increasingly popular in recent years, and research into the topic is growing accordingly. A major challenge in designing IVA applications is making them appealing. Gamification as a concept might help to boost motivation when using IVAs. Visual representation of progress and feedback is an essential component of gamification. When using IVAs, however, visual information is generally not available. To this end, this article reports the results of a lab experiment with 81 subjects describing how gamification, utilized entirely by audio, can assist subjects to work faster and improve motivation. Game design elements such as points and levels are integrated within an Alexa Skill via audio output to motivate subjects to complete household tasks. The results show a substantial effect on the subjects. Both their attitude and the processing time of the given tasks were positively influenced by the audio-gamification. The outcomes indicate that audio-gamification has a huge potential in the field of voice assistants. Differences in experimental conditions were also considered, but no statistical significance was found between the cooperative and competitive groups. Finally, we discuss how these insights affect IVA design principles and future research questions.
... Contrary to the fact that in certain video games in which the player always goes through the same levels or in a test with points where players find the same questions repeated, each debate is unique, due to the interaction, competition, and collaboration. Others claim to investigate the application of dynamics that require low technology (Rapp et al., 2019;Zainuddin et al., 2020). This is exactly the case of the competitive debate, in which computer technology is not necessary, so this demand can be tested with competitive debate. ...
... It would be done through an experiment, with a control group and several experimental groups. Through our literature search, we found that the greatest demand is to deepen the human interaction in gamification, as well as work in collaborativecompetitive environments (Burguillo, 2010;Huotari and Hamari, 2011;Rapp et al., 2019;Sailer and Homner, 2019). It is precisely in competitive debate that one competes against the other team, and it is necessary to collaborate within your own team. ...
Article
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Students demand more active and participating teaching innovation methods, and activities such as presentations are not enough to satisfy those demands. In this research, competitive debate is used as inter-team gamification with third year students from a Business School studying the Human Resources Management subject. Out of this experience, qualitative and quantitative data are obtained. Results reinforce the continuation of classroom competitive debate due to the evidence of its motivational, learning, and communication skills improvement, and knowledge acquisition effects. The possibility of application with actual professionals is seriously considered.
... In brief, there exists a need for active resources for training adults and future leaders in communication, with the metaanalysis literature recommending research into gamification use with adults and people over 30 so as to learn whether it can work (Klock et al., 2020). A shift in gamification activities from virtual to physical is required, as well as the promotion of social interaction and collaboration in gamification (Koivisto and Hamari, 2019;Rapp et al., 2019); following this line, several researchers also propose low technology learning environments or even the complete absence of digital resources (Zainuddin et al., 2020). Competitive debate may be a good way of fulfilling all these requirements, but we should first confirm whether, from a conceptual point of view, it can strictly be considered gamification. ...
... Game Experience Rapp et al. (2019) question whether "the system is really producing an enjoyable and engaging experience. . . " when designing gamified systems. ...
Article
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Adult learners demand teaching innovations that are ever more rapid and attractive. As a response to these demands and the challenges of skills training, this article presents a conceptual analysis that introduces competitive debate as an impact training model. The aim is to learn whether debate can be considered to fall within the frame of gamification, so that the full potential of debate as gamification can be exploited. There is a significant research gap regarding competitive debate as a game, with the training mechanics for adult learners remaining practically unexplored. Through a conceptual analysis of game, game experience, and gamification, and their respective characteristics, we conclude that competitive debate is an ideal instrument for gamification.
... However, contradicting results, implementation in different educational levels, the lack of specific assessment tools, the ad hoc use of gaming elements, and the general reports from scholars that more studies are required in this field reveal a gap in the literature. [34], [35]. ...
Article
Currently, one of the main concerns among teachers is to prepare a generation that emulates the knowledge society, and has the ability to keep pace with the renewed global changes; during creating socially interactive and constructivist learning environments such as gamified environments. The implementation of gamification in education needs to be carefully designed, which assures the importance of investigating the factors affect its use in education. Thus, this study aims to identify the factors that influence the success of applying web-based gamification in the educational process using a questionnaire adopted from the GAMEX scale. A total of 249 female English teachers participated in this study. To achieve the aims of this research, the researcher used the analytical descriptive method. The results showed that the most effective factors in the success of applying web-based gamification were entertainment, engagement, comprehension, creative thinking and the absence of a negative effect.
... Gamification in this context can be defined by employing or embedding the features of game elements like virtual currency, leader boards, points, etc., as a set of any specific behavior and processes applied for getting better engagement of its consumers (Bozkurt & Durak, 2018). Gamification is an efficient design strategy that is still developing in recent years for driving game mechanics into existing real-life contexts, especially in e-commerce (Rapp et al., 2019). The interest in gamification in academics and e-commerce is increasing, and it has already been proven. ...
Article
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Gamification is all about using game features in a serious context to encourage people to use products or services. E-commerce has used gamification for marketing determinations to strengthen intent to use. Technology acceptance model is employed in the current study to investigate the intention to use gamified virtual currency in the Indian context. A survey was used to accumulate records from a random sample of relevant virtual currency users in an e-commerce context using a quantitative approach. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is expended for data analysis in this research. This empirical research shows the incremental impact of the users' perceptions of the ease of use and usefulness on intention to use virtual currency. The variable attitude seems to be not mediating significantly. There are also discussions, restrictions, and future research directions mentioned in this study.
... Although these studies provide useful insights into smart cities, some knowledge gaps remain, warranting additional research and review of relevant studies. For example, there is a need to carry out studies on trending issues related to smart cities similar to how it has been done for platform interoperability [19] and gamification [20,21]. ...
Chapter
This study presents a systematic review of dimensions and dominant issues in smart city research. A total of 70 papers obtained from the top eight senior baskets of IS journals and five academic literature databases from 2016 to May 2020 were reviewed. Following the review, various issues were analyzed under five main elements that shape smart city projects, i.e., smart mobility, smart energy, smart living, smart urbanism, and the Internet of Things. Findings from the review showed that smart cities are multi-dimensional, comprising governmental, socioeconomic, and environmental factors, each with unique dynamics and degree of context sensitivity. Information communication and technology serves as the backbone for smart city initiatives. The findings also suggest six main areas for future smart city research; stakeholder collaboration, IS policies governing smart cities, big data, citizen involvement, built environment, and smart healthcare. These future research areas are also necessary for the African research context. Cities that want to embark on sustainable smart city initiatives should involve public authorities, private businesses, and citizens. Future research should also examine the context-based factors that influence smart cities.
... Gamification has been defined by many researchers as the use of game mechanics in nongame contexts. (Deterding, et al., 2011;Huotari and Hamari, 2012;Johnson, et al., 2016;Rapp, et al., 2019). It has been successfully implemented in many platforms in order to enhance user experience and engagement. ...
Conference Paper
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With the changes that can be observed on the labour market, working as a programmer offers a significant guarantee of work and one of the higher earnings. This causes that many people decide to change their current profession, precisely by learning programming. Due to the diverse educational offer related to programming, choosing the right course is not an easy task. The aim of this study is to examine the motivation, attitudes and declared effects of people who have decided to use e-learning methods to learn programming. The possibility of remote learning is an opportunity for those who want to change their profession or improve their financial conditions and at the same time cannot afford to give up their current job. The offer of courses aimed at learning programming also varies in terms of price, from free courses to courses with a job guarantee of around 3500 euros. The survey was carried out online on a group of 480 people who started to learn programming, which was not their basic learned profession. The survey consisted of a socio-demographic survey, a Behavioural Intention questionnaire, which was based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology, and a self-assessment survey measuring the declared learning outcomes. The study included such constructions as: Technology Awareness, Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy, Social Influence, Attitude, Hedonic Motivation, Habit and Facilitating Condition. The aim of the study was to identify the key factors that contribute to the best possible learning outcomes in programming and those that hinder effective education. The participants of the study were persons of Polish citizenship, aged 20 to 56 years. The obtained results indicate a variety of factors, the most important of which are motivation, degree of involvement and the achieved, planned effects. The results obtained in this work are intended to draw attention to the key factors contributing to the success of learning programming, which may provide guidance for both those planning to change their careers and those constructing e-learning programmes.
... The limited set of game elements have been implemented leads to the critique that gamification research and practice are overly simplified and fail to capture the full nature of gamification (Rapp et al., 2019). The gameful experience stems not from a single common element but exists in dynamic forms where more holistic game elements emerge (Morschheuser et al., 2018). ...
Article
Interest in the practice of gamification has grown rapidly in the field of education and training. Organisations implement gamification in various areas to boost employee motivation, including professional training. The present study comprises a systematic literature review on gamified professional training among employees. It was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) 2020 checklist. The articles reviewed were obtained from three large academic databases – Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed, with Google Scholar as a supporting database. The analysis revealed that most studies did not discuss gamified professional training from theoretical perspectives. Three main strategies for gamifying professional training were identified – gamified professional training platform, blended gamified professional training, and face-to-face gamified professional training. It was found that achievement game elements were common in gamified professional training. The most frequent digital game elements were points/levels, leaderboards, challenges, and badges. Real-world rewards were also highly popular. Practical applications and research directions for researchers, instructional designers, and programme developers were then suggested to implement future gamified professional training.
... Despite the growing popularity in the education field, "the theoretical underpinnings of gamification remain poorly understood, which has led to numerous failures and criticisms of the process" (Loughrey & O Broin, 2018). According to several authors (Dicheva et al., 2019;Loughrey & O Broin, 2018;Rapp et al., 2019;Thiebes et al., 2014), evidence on the motivation effects of gamification remains scarce, and there is limited empirical evidence on motivational influences driving students to participate in gamified activities. ...
Article
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Low levels of concern about anthropogenic climate change have been attributed to a range of factors, some of which relate to education. These include people’s lack of understanding and engagement with the multifaceted nature and extent of the problem that it presents to current and future generations. Limited knowledge is also known to be an obstacle to individual behaviour change, with important implications for young people’s perceptions of the urgency to act and awareness of the consequences of their own behaviours. In this study, we explored ways to address low levels of understanding about ocean science dimensions to climate change phenomena, cognisant of a growing awareness that formal education curricula do not adequately engage young people with developing ocean literacy. Participants were a sample of secondary school students (11 to 14 years) in Portugal and the UK. Using a gamified mobile application, it was examined relationships between the use of different game elements such as points, badges and leaderboards, and learning outcomes. Systematic evaluation of each element shows how different game features affected the participants’ learning experience and learning outcomes. Implications for formal and informal marine education, climate education, and how to improve ocean literacy efforts, are also discussed.
... Oyunlaştırılmış sistemlerle ilgili deneysel çalışmalar hala bireylerin sistemle kısa vadeli etkileşimlerini değerlendirmeye ve anlamaya odaklanmaktadır (Rapp, 2019). Açık ve uzaktan öğrenme alanında yerli ve yabancı çalışmaların sentezini içeren, oyunlaştırmanın bu alandaki etkililiğini test eden çalışma sayısının da kısıtlı olduğu görülmüştür. ...
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***English and Turkish versions of the article are available in the PDF***
... However, gamification misuse can also take other forms, such as exhibiting off-task behaviors [5], addiction [5,124,127], the development of a speculative or gambling mindset [124], or obsession with undesirable competitions [5,124]. With these examples in mind, most studies suggest that the loss of intrinsic motivation for learning due to the dominance of extrinsic motivation is the main reason for the misuse of gamification [38,72,96,116]. ...
Preprint
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More and more learning apps like Duolingo are using some form of gamification (e.g., badges, points, and leaderboards) to enhance user learning. However, they are not always successful. Gamification misuse is a phenomenon that occurs when users become too fixated on gamification and get distracted from learning. This undesirable phenomenon wastes users' precious time and negatively impacts their learning performance. However, there has been little research in the literature to understand gamification misuse and inform future gamification designs. Therefore, this paper aims to fill this knowledge gap by conducting the first extensive qualitative research on gamification misuse in a popular learning app called Duolingo. Duolingo is currently the world's most downloaded learning app used to learn languages. This study consists of two phases: (I) a content analysis of data from Duolingo forums (from the past nine years) and (II) semi-structured interviews with 15 international Duolingo users. Our research contributes to the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and Learning at Scale (L@S) research communities in three ways: (1) elaborating the ramifications of gamification misuse on user learning, well-being, and ethics, (2) identifying the most common reasons for gamification misuse (e.g., competitiveness, overindulgence in playfulness, and herding), and (3) providing designers with practical suggestions to prevent (or mitigate) the occurrence of gamification misuse in their future designs of gamified learning apps.
... A non-game context may include, for example, systems to promote fitness, well-being and healthcare (Johnson et al., 2016;Miller et al., 2016;Sardi et al., 2017), school education (Conrad et al., 2010;Dicheva et al., 2015;Dom ınguez et al., 2013;Hanus & Fox, 2015;Majuri et al., 2018), working environments (Huschens et al., 2019;Warmelink et al., 2018) or are designed for special groups like scientists (Feger et al., 2018(Feger et al., , 2019Mazarakis & Br€ auer, 2020a, 2020b or for inclusion of individuals with special needs (Patzer et al., 2018). The concept of gamification is recognized in the field of human-computer interaction (Rapp et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Current gamification research usually examines several game design elements at the same time, which makes it difficult to distinguish how and to what extent individual game design elements increase motivation. We address this research question by individually examining four game design elements (progress bar, narrative, feedback, and badges) in an online experiment. In addition , combinations of game design elements were tested to gain insight about additive effects on motivation. The study included 505 subjects who answered a maximum of 190 different multiple-choice questions. The subjects were told to answer questions only as long as they enjoyed answering them. The results provide statistically significant motivational gains for all individual game design elements. Interestingly, not all game design elements benefit from a combination in the same way. The results of our study indicate that an increase in motivation through gamifica-tion is already possible if only an individual game design element is added.
... This study was designed with gamification principles in mind. Research suggests that gamification can have a positive effect on quality and quantity of responses [19] by incorporating the motivational elements of games [20]. For example, participation can be incentivised by a point system [21] with the option to compare results with other "players" 3 or by an interface design that adopts a gamelike aesthetic as it can be seen in The Clapping Game [22] and Microjam [23]. ...
Preprint
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Sound-shape associations, a subset of cross-modal associations between the auditory and visual domain, have been studied mainly in the context of matching a set of purposefully crafted shapes to sounds. Recent studies have explored how humans represent sound through free-form sketching and how a graphical sketch input could be used for sound production. In this paper, the potential of communicating sound characteristics through these free-form sketches is investigated in a gamified study that was conducted with eighty-two participants at two online exhibition events. The results show that participants managed to recognise sounds at a higher rate than the random baseline would suggest, however it appeared difficult to visually encode nuanced timbral differences.
... A growing number of researchers agree that utilitarian values are inferior to hedonic ones [Koivisto, Hamari, 2019] and companies need to adopt those marketing instruments that will provide hedonic pleasure of experience to consumer. Gamification is exactly that kind of instrument [Mullins, Subherwal, 2020;Rapp et al., 2018;Eisingerich et al., 2019]. ...
Article
Gamification captured the attention of both marketing researchers and practitioners about a decade ago. Despite the established conceptualization of gamification as a driver of intrinsic motivation and a range of empirical research on the topic, there is still uncertainty about its place as a marketing tool. Some researchers argue that gamification acts as a driver of customer engagement, others consider it as an outcome of the process. Such dual nature raises the question of the role which gamification plays in customer relationship management. This study aims to analyze gamification through the lenses of customer engagement theory in order to identify the features of the relationship between these concepts. To achieve that a bibliometric analysis was conducted and the existing knowledge on the topic of customer engagement was systematized. The findings were divided into four clusters and the content of those clusters was analyzed in details. Gamification was compared with the key customer engagement practices. Which allowed to identify four types of customers in terms of engagement in gamification: supporters, spectators, super fans, and fun seekers. The proposed classification may be used by both academics and practitioners for estimating potential outcomes of using gamification for engagement purposes among different types of customers.
... The use of game elements increases by 40 percent the opportunity to learn new skills and contributes to a greater degree of user interaction and enthusiasm for tasks and processes in which they are involved (Giang, 2013). The efficient disposition of gamified learning methods could initiate new breakthroughs in gamification research (Rapp et al., 2019). Gamification, developed based on constructivist learning theory, establishes the necessity for practical learning through collective engagement with the environment and peers (York & deHaan, 2018). ...
Article
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The engagement and motivation of students in drawing activities are of great importance to their learning processes. The decline in attendance and difficulties stimulating the drawing skills of students make it crucial to develop novel methodologies that can overcome these difficulties. In visual art education research, utilizing game elements within a non-gamified setting (gamification) has become of great interest, as it can directly increase motivation to learn drawing and therefore activity in learning to draw. This research implemented gamification for home economics students as an instructional strategy in the teaching and learning of drawing and evaluated its impact on the students’ drawing skills. A quasi-experimental design was implemented and a questionnaire was used to collect data, with a five-point Likert scale. Purposive sampling was used to select the one hundred Senior High School students from Ghana who participated in the study. The respondents’ scores on both non-gamified and gamified tasks were compared using a paired sample test and independent sample t-test. The collected quantitative data were analysed using SPSS version 16.0. The implementation of gamification stimulated the interest of the respondents in drawing, thereby engaging and motivating them to improve their drawing skills. There was a statistically significant difference between gamified and non-gamified approaches for teaching drawing. Gamification positively affected the cognition of the respondents and boosted their motivation to draw and improve upon their drawing skills.
... However, some studies state that, in many cases, the use of gamification in an educational context (especially gamified educational systems) does not necessarily improve students' outcomes (Toda et al., 2017;Koivisto & Hamari, 2019). These results have been drawing the attention of the community to better understand when and how the use of gamification effectively improves students' experience and, hence, propose solutions to providing a better gamification design which might impact positively on learning performance (Hamari et al., 2016;Koivisto & Hamari, 2019;Rapp et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Gamification has been widely used to design better educational systems aiming to increase students’ concentration, motivation, engagement, flow experience, and others positive experiences. With advances in research on gamification in education, over the past few years, many studies have highlighted the need to tailor the gamification design properties to match individual students’ needs, characteristics and preferences. Thus, different studies have been conducted to personalize the gamification in education. However, the results are still contradictory and need to be better understood to advance this field. To provide a complete understanding of this research domain, we conducted a systematic literature review to summarize the results and discussions on studies that cover the field of tailored gamified education. Following a systematic process, we analysed 2108 studies and identified 19 studies to answer our research questions. The results indicate that most of the studies only consider students’ gamer types to tailor the systems, and most of the experiments do not provide sufficient statistical evidence, especially regarding learning performance using tailored gamified systems. Based on the results, we also provided an agenda with different challenges, opportunities, and research directions to improve the literature on tailored gamification in education. Our study contributes to the field of gamification design in education.
... Such a systematic meta-review could provide valuable insights and guidance for better designing adaptive educational gamification systems. In this context, Rapp et al. (2019) also highlighted that many research questions related to gamification have not yet been addressed by HCI researchers, related to the ways of designing more enjoyable and pleasurable gamified systems. Therefore, this study aimed to conduct a systematic meta-review that can extend the current literature by investigating how learners' characteristics affect their experiences toward educational gamification systems. ...
Article
Gamification has gained an increasing attention from researchers and practitioners in various domains including education as it can increase learners’ engagement and motivation. However, little is known about how educational gamification experiences can be influenced by learners’ characteristics. Therefore, this study provides a systematic meta-review of empirical studies related to learners’ characteristics and educational gamification experiences. The obtained results from the meta-analysis of forty related articles are: (a) learners’ psychological and behavioral outcomes were affected by learners’ characteristics in educational gamification systems; (b) quantitative methods, using questionnaires, are the most used method to measure the effect of learners’ characteristics on their learning outcomes in educational gamification systems, and this needs to be changed to the new potential of using educational big data and learning analytics approaches; (c) personality traits is the most investigated characteristic followed by player types, but there is a need to further investigate other important factors of learners’ characteristics, such as working memory capacity and age; and, (d) a set of game design guidelines that should be taken into consideration while designing educational gamification catering individual difference were proposed.
... The fuse of games in the standards of gamifications has driven reception of ideas like prizes, identifications, pioneer sheets and focuses in the use of something similar in the business (Hamari, 2013). The consideration of these components can prompt inspiration which could modify conduct and disposition of shopper by means of the utilization of these gamified components and innovation (Rapp et al., 2019). For instance, the presence of a pioneer board prompts visual and social examination among clients and along these lines making a cutthroat climate through friendly motivations and thus uplifting shoppers to perform better (Schobel et al., 2020). ...
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The purpose to conduct this study is to examine the behaviour of young Indians in via Financial Applications taking into consideration the role of Gamification. As the technology has been rapidly growing and now investment has been made very convenient. The role of gamification has to be known in these financial investments via going through different literature.
... Rapp et al.'s [44] summary of 14 articles determined three central themes of particular relevance in the research area: advances in design practice, the resolve to enhance the quality of theory in the field of gamification and its usefulness, and the adoption of a critical lens to reveal side-effects of gamification designs. It also suggests some of the questions to be addressed by future work-which they argue would benefit from a broader consideration of theories to account for the complexity of human behaviour, detailed investigation of opportunities emanating from the world of games and ethical considerations for using game designs in serious domains. ...
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Gamification’s adoption in the enterprise today is on the rise and provides benefits such as customer loyalty and increased employee engagement. In this article, the use of gamification in the enterprise is assessed in seeking to understand how fully gamified systems differ from related concepts such as toys, playful designs, and serious games. Given the increasing interest in enterprise gamification, it is useful to evaluate how it has evolved and its acceptance via a multidisciplinary lens. It is also critical to assess frameworks and approaches applied in understanding the trend. The current article concludes that a value-oriented approach is needed for a more comprehensive understanding of enterprise gamification acceptance and users’ experience, particularly in today’s workforce that is largely dominated by millennials.
... Since they have been studying for a long time, attending a course becomes a monotonous and repetitious activity that they must take to complete their study. The challenge for future gamification design for final-year students is how gamification can create variable enjoyable experiences for students [81]. Introducing new activities, implementing variable rewards, and increasing the value of the reward, are some of the things that can be done to maintain students' enthusiasm. ...
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Covid-19 pandemic has changed how the education system operated. The shift from face-to-face learning to online learning generated many problems, including decreasing students’ motivation and engagement. Gamification has been used as one of the solutions to overcome the problem of low motivation and engagement in learning. The current study aims to examine the students' behavioral change when using e-learning with gamification, investigate gamification elements that are important to students and how it influences students’ motivation and engagement, and investigate whether population characteristics may influence students’ motivation and engagement. Qualitative methods were employed to gather and analyze the data. The thematic analysis resulted in 6 main themes. The findings revealed that there were behavioral changes in students during gamification implementation, i.e. from negative to positive and from positive to negative. Four gamification elements were found to be the most important gamification elements to students, i.e. points, leaderboard, badges, and gamified test. The mechanism of how these elements influenced motivation and engagement was discussed. The population characteristics of final-year students also had an impact on gamification effectiveness. Despite gamification’s capabilities to influence motivation and engagement, there are some concerns related to negative impacts that must be addressed in the future.
... The studies included also showed very little reliance on underlying theoretical work, such as self-determination theory or theories of engagement. In order to support the understanding of how gamification works in different contexts, it is important to base empirical work on firm theoretical assumptions [43]. ...
Conference Paper
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The landscape of education is experiencing a shift towards active learning approaches as the need for independent, lifelong learning increases. Traditional lecture-based teaching methodologies are not as effective at keeping students motivated enough to engage with content on a deep level. Therefore, approaches such as student-centred learning, self-directed learning, and flipped classrooms are becoming more popular as educators begin to embrace the idea of giving students more autonomy in the classroom. The popularity of gamification and games in education has led to them being used in conjunction with these active learning methods, however this area lacks a high-level view of present and future work. This study aims to bring clarity to this area of education by presenting a systematic review of the use of games and gamification in flipped classrooms. In general, the results show that current implementations have had positive outcomes, especially in terms of academic performance. The data also shows that the in-class component of flipped classrooms is more commonly gamified compared to the out-of-class component, and that achievement affordances and Kahoot! are popular motivational affordances to use. Further research is proposed concerning social affordances and increased reliance on theoretical foundations.
... In 2012, Gartner Research asserted that 80% of gameful interventions will fail 'primarily due to poor design' (Burke, 2014). Specific to this poor design is the lack of articulation of the design approach adopted by serious game developers (Derksen et al., 2020;Rapp et al., 2019); the lack of articulation of the evaluation approach by serious game developers (Farcas & Szamoskozi, 2016); the heterogeneity of study designs (Bodnar et al., 2016); the lack of evidence-base explaining the engagement impact of game elements (Alanne, 2016;Alessandra et al., 2019;Bodnar et al., 2016;Cechetti et al., 2017;da Silva et al., 2019;Edwards et al., 2016;Lau et al., 2017) and the subsequent ad hoc inclusion of game elements by developers of serious games. There is thus an imperative to better understand the design and evaluation strategies embedded in gameful interventions to build an evidence-base for best practice. ...
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Background To overcome the high failure rate of gameful interventions, we need to better understand their design and evaluation strategies to build an evidence-base for best-practice approaches that bring about meaningful change. This systematic review asks: ‘What behavioural and technological design and evaluation theories and approaches are applied in games developed to bring about positive environmental outcomes?’. Method We reviewed 52 papers published between 2015 and 2020 that used gameful interventions to improve behaviour related to environmental outcomes. These papers were analysed to review the behavioural and technical design, and the assessment and evaluation approaches, employed by the intervention designers. Results We found that these publications report on simple aspects of the behavioural and technical design behind the intervention but fail to justify their design choices in terms of theory and evidence. Furthermore, variability across their evaluation approaches and outcomes exists. Discussion This review highlights several systemic flaws in the literature that limit our understanding of gameful interventions in the pro-environmental context. First, based on this review, we cannot be convinced that these interventions were designed according to best practice for intervention design or for technology development. Second, the justification for proposing a gameful intervention is not always clear. Finally, it is unclear whether these interventions are being evaluated based on best practice. Thus, it is not clear that we can draw confident conclusions about evidence-based outcomes of short-term engagement (in structural gamification interventions) or long-term behaviour change (in content gamification and serious game interventions).
... While some users might embrace competition and challenges, other users might instead prefer exploratory gamification elements such as unlockable content or creativity tools [342]. These findings mark a turning point in gamification research -while most gamified systems relied on one-size-fits-all solutions, i.e. using the same set of gamification elements for all users, tailoring the gamified system to the user has gained more and more attention in research [186,281]. To tailor gamified systems, several personal factors have been studied, including demographic factors such as gender or age, personality traits and player types [182]. ...
Thesis
Gamification, the use of game elements in non-game contexts, has been shown to help people reaching their goals, affect people's behavior and enhance the users' experience within interactive systems. However, past research has shown that gamification is not always successful. In fact, literature reviews revealed that almost half of the interventions were only partially successful or even unsuccessful. Therefore, understanding the factors that have an influence on psychological measures and behavioral outcomes of gamified systems is much in need. In this thesis, we contribute to this by considering the context in which gamified systems are applied and by understanding personal factors of users interacting with the system. Guided by Self-Determination Theory, a major theory on human motivation, we investigate gamification and its effects on motivation and behavior in behavior change contexts, provide insights on contextual factors, contribute knowledge on the effect of personal factors on both the perception and effectiveness of gamification elements and lay out ways of utilizing this knowledge to implement personalized gamified systems. Our contribution is manifold: We show that gamification affects motivation through need satisfaction and by evoking positive affective experiences, ultimately leading to changes in people's behavior. Moreover, we show that age, the intention to change behavior, and Hexad user types play an important role in explaining interpersonal differences in the perception of gamification elements and that tailoring gamified systems based on these personal factors has beneficial effects on both psychological and behavioral outcomes. Lastly, we show that Hexad user types can be partially predicted by smartphone data and interaction behavior in gamified systems and that they can be assessed in a gameful way, allowing to utilize our findings in gamification practice. Finally, we propose a conceptual framework to increase motivation in gamified systems, which builds upon our findings and outlines the importance of considering both contextual and personal factors. Based on these contributions, this thesis advances the field of gamification by contributing knowledge to the open questions of how and why gamification works and which factors play a role in this regard.
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In recent decades, the field of human computer interaction has become a popular trending topic in gamification studies. The latest trend in the application of gamification in the world of work, aims to improve the incorporation of game design elements into the workplace, to increase motivation. This study found that the elements used in gamification in the world of work are still very limited, and there are no suitable criteria for use in gamification based on game elements in the world of work by examining and evaluating workers as a team in a contextual context. game environment that replicates real aspects and work environment. This study will comprehensively review related to gamification by analyzing the models and concepts of gamification in empirical research. As well as reviewing previous research and showing the gaps that occur in the literature both theoretically and empirically. This review shows an understanding of the interactions between components in the application of elements present in gamification related to work. The findings in this study will be able to provide insight in the development of further studies to make uniform use of game design in increasing motivation
Chapter
Spielerische Bildung ist eine effektive Methode der Lernunterstützung. Gamification ist eines dieser Formate. Thorsten Kodalle und Prof.in Dr.in Maren Metz geben einen allgemeinen Überblick über digitale Lernszenarien und versuchen Gamification einzuordnen und abzugrenzen. Danach wird das Lernformat Gamification im Detail beschrieben. Insbesondere sollen Gamification‐Elemente gezielte Verhaltensveränderungen bewirken, daher werden seine Wirkmechanismen und der Stand der Grundlagenforschung auch beleuchtet.
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Laboratory courses are extremely important in Physics education in terms of providing a better understanding of the theoretical course subjects by the students. However, since the COVID-19 epidemic caused education to be carried out remotely and digitally all over the world, practical as well as theoretical courses were moved to digital platforms. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of the Gamified Flipped Learning (GFL) method on students’ physics self-efficacy and innovation skills in a virtual physics laboratory course. The study was carried out with true experimental design and the participants were a total of 70 first-year engineering students, which were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group was trained with the GFL method, the control group was trained with Classical Flipped Learning (CFL) method. Data were collected from a physics self-efficacy questionnaire, innovative skills questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews form. The research results showed that GFL method has a positive impact on the innovation skills of students although insignificant improvement was introduced by gamified-flipped learning on students’ self-efficacy. In addition, the interviews with the students revealed a positive perception of gamification, by mentioning some important aspects of the process that were extremely beneficial.
Article
Purpose In this paper, the authors report the findings of an experiment on the effectiveness of gamification on work performance in a real industrial workplace setting with monotonous, repetitive work. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted an experiment with a simple gamification application that the authors added to a given information system and compared the work performance of an experimental group ( n = 16) with a control group ( n = 15) over a period of one month. Findings The results of the authors’ experiment show that gamification of the workplace leads to a measurable improvement of work performance, creates prevailingly positive emotions and increases the motivation of the workers. Research limitations/implications The authors’ findings provide reasons for conducting future research on the contiguity of gamification and the Hawthorne effect or similar phenomena. In this regard, it also seems necessary to take a closer look at who is really affected by a gamified environment and what the boundaries of the gamified environment are. Practical implications The authors demonstrate that gamification is a useful tool for process improvement. Furthermore, our results are helpful for a more successful implementation of gamification. Originality/value Gamification has proven to be effective in a large number of application contexts, such as education, health and crowdsourcing. Despite the generally positive evaluation of its effectiveness, gamification is still thought to work differently in different contexts. Therefore, there is a gap in the literature on this topic with respect to real industrial workplaces. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the authors are among the first to have conducted a gamification experiment in a real industrial context.
Chapter
Das Kapitel zeigt auf, dass die Entwicklung und der Einsatz von Serious Games einer gründlichen Analyse im Vorfeld, eines durchdachten didaktischen Fundaments und der Berücksichtigung lerntheoretischer, mediendidaktischer und medienpsychologischer Erkenntnisse bedarf. Die Autorin legt dar, dass der Erfolg des Lernens mit Serious Games an die individuelle und organisatorische Akzeptanz des Lernangebotes gebunden ist. Wichtig ist ihr, dass sowohl der tradierten Lehr-Lernweise wie auch der Nutzung medialer Angebote eine dem Lerngegenstand entsprechende Bedeutung beigemessen werden muss.
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Gamification seeks to encourage behavior of participants by borrowing elements of games, such as scoring points. Few rigorous studies exist of gamification in software organizations, and several questions have remained unanswered, for example, what might drive developers to partake, and what are the consequences of developer engagement. This article seeks to provide some answers through a rigorous empirical study at one organization that created an internal gamification platform. We develop a theoretical model that seeks to explain why developers may participate, and develop the concept of developer engagement, which we link to job satisfaction. We collected data from two sources that were linked together: developer opinion data collected through a survey, and data from the organization's version control system. We test our theoretical model using structural equation modeling and moderation analysis, and find support for our model. These findings suggest that gamification can be an effective mechanism to engage developers within the organization, and that developer engagement is positively associated with job satisfaction, which is a key outcome that is of great interest to software organizations.
Article
The study reported in this article investigated the use of leaderboards in an English as a foreign language (EFL) course at a Japanese university. The study used self-determination theory as the theoretical foundation to explore how leaderboards affect student performance (i.e., amount of work completed) and foreign language (FL) motivation. It was conducted over a 14-week period with two intact classes of participants; while both classes (i.e., Class 1 and Class 2) were aware of the point system, a leaderboard was used only in Class 1. A quasi-experimental mixed methods research design was utilised to answer two research questions about student performance and motivation. Data showed that a greater number of the participants in Class 2 completed more homework than the weekly point target required, compared to the participants in Class 1. The results of the study suggest that the participants' focus on the extrinsic rewards used by the leaderboard encouraged performance up to the reward threshold but once the threshold had been achieved, performance ceased. They also suggest that the leaderboard's use of points, rank, and forced social comparison to control behaviour resulted in the participants' internally leaning extrinsic motivation shifting to externally grounded extrinsic motivation, undermining intrinsic FL motivation more than supporting it.
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This paper deals with the concept of gamified science and its recent applications to the linguistic field. We argue that, albeit promising, this paradigm still lacks analytical tools to model the effects of the peculiar experimental setting on the results obtained. After a theoretical introduction to the User Engagement and Gaming Literacy constructs, we present two validated Italian translations of scales representing them. Lastly, we test these two gaming variables in a pilot study on the postvocalic realizations of /k t/ in the Florentine variety. Results show that both variables positively condition the production of non-continuants (i.e., emphasized words) but through different underlying mechanisms.
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Gaming has remained a perpetual source of delight and entertainment to young and old alike. However, its dissociation from education is largely due to the conventional teaching set up and the mindset of teachers and educationists that work and play may co-exist, but cannot integrate effectively in the field of education. In spite of standalone game-based activities and classroom techniques, gamification hasn't established itself as a fully developed sub-field of Applied Linguistics. But, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, education had to change sides and opt for the online mode. Therefore, this research paper is aimed at teachers who are yet to come to terms fully with online teaching and gamification. The pivotal point here is the significance of gamification with reference to two softwares-Educandy and Educaplay and how these two softwares can be used mainly in structural gamification in online teaching, and later, in offline teaching. Aim and Scope This paper aims at focusing on the concept of gamification in an online teaching context. The term 'language classroom' in the title does not confine itself to the teaching of grammar, vocabulary, and the basic skills. It also refers to the use of gamification for the teaching of literature, in which the language component is inherent and inseparable. Since gamification tools for e-learning are available in thousands or even more, it would be better to restrict the scope of the paper to two gaming platforms so that readers may implement the same in their classrooms. Further, the paper aims at providing insights on how one can plan and implement online game-based activities in the realm of practical English Language Teaching. Since this paper is intended for teachers who are at the beginner or the intermediate level, the emphasis is more on structural gamification. Research Gap Online teaching is a field about which one can find countless research articles and books. A simple Google search with the term online teaching enclosed in double quotations yields 7.910,000 results. Similarly, the term gamification enclosed in double quotations produces 91,000 results. This is ample proof for the plenitude of literature that abounds in these two areas of language teaching. However, it is difficult to come across articles, which offer in-GEDRAG & ORGANISATIE REVIEW-ISSN:0921-5077 VOLUME 34 : ISSUE 04-2021 http://lemma-tijdschriften.com/ Page No:227 depth information on a particular gamification tool and its relevance in terms of teaching/ learning strategies. This paper seeks to suggest solutions in that direction by attempting to provide insights into online game-based tools and how they can feature in various stages of classroom teaching. However, although thousands of articles have been written on this vast field, not many articles of significance has been written on gamification with reference to specific websites, softwares or platforms. Therefore, this research paper hopes to make headway in that direction of teaching and learning. Contribution to the Study Gamification is an oft-used term, but only a handful of the teaching fraternity/ sorority happens to deploy gamification tools in the language classroom. Further, most teachers shy away from the very idea of gamification because they think that it requires a great deal of technical knowledge and even programming skills. The main purpose of this study is to demonstrate that in order to gamify one's classroom, one does not need specialised knowledge in the field of computers or artificial intelligence. Further, the very idea of gamification is to usher in a suggestopedic element in the language classroom and to make learners feel at ease during the process of learning.
Thesis
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İşyerinde oyunlaştırma uygulamaları, oyunların belirli öğelerini mevcut iş süreçlerine dahil ederek yüksek motivasyon ve süreklilik gerektiren faaliyetlerin etkinlik ve verimlilik esasıyla biçimlendirilmesini ifade etmektedir. Bu çalışmada, son zamanlarda çalışma hayatında sıklıkla yer bulan işyerinde oyunlaştırma uygulamalarının, çalışanlar tarafından benimsenmesinde etkili olan faktörler incelenmiştir. Araştırma grubu olarak çağrı merkezi çalışanları belirlenmiş, işyerinde oyunlaştırma uygulamalarını kabul etmelerinde iş motivasyonu, oyuncu tipi ve algılanan örgütsel desteğin rolünü Birleştirilmiş Teknoloji Kabul ve Kullanım Modeline (BTKKM) göre incelemek amaçlanmıştır. Bu kapsamda işyerinde oyunlaştırma uygulamalarını kabul etmede kullanılabileceği öngörülen iki alternatif model, yapısal eşitlik modellemesi yöntemiyle test edilmiştir. Model I’de yer alan performans beklentisi, çaba beklentisi, sosyal etki ve kolaylaştırıcı şartların, işyerinde oyunlaştırma uygulamalarını kullanım niyetlerini yordadığı görülmüştür. Model II’de yer alan iş motivasyonu, oyuncu tipi ve algılanan örgütsel destek değişkenlerinin ise işyerinde oyunlaştırma uygulamalarını kullanım niyeti üzerinde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir etkiye sahip olmadığı belirlenmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda Model I’in, işyerinde oyunlaştırma uygulamalarında çalışanların kullanmaya olan niyetlerini tahmin etmek için kullanılabileceği, Model II’nin ise güvenilir ancak geçersiz bir model olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında elde edilen bulgular, daha önce gerçekleştirilen çalışmalar ışığında değerlendirilmiş, araştırmacı ve uygulayıcılar için öneri ve fikirlere yer verilmiştir.
Chapter
Games have played an impactful life in our current generation brimming with technological advancement. Not only has it become the main source of entertainment for people to enjoy, but it has also transitioned to becoming a learning experience for others. With our current repetitive standards and methods of teaching and learning in schools, the mind of many students has dulled their creativities as well as developing the extrinsic motivation to study at all. However, the implementation of game learning can be developed into modern-day teaching and be used as a tool for students to grasp their potentials and be motivated to learn level more using games. From the mix mode research conducted, many tertiary students would rather replace their conventional studying methods with a game learning experience. The player will be able to understand, develop listening skills and verbal communication skills towards other people to understand when it is necessary to be assertive in an environment. Moreover, this game will tackle the understanding of real-life decision-making skills that mimic real-life situations for players to adapt to. With that said, JomGear Grind Games aims to help students learn various skills such as creative thinking and interpersonal skills.
Chapter
Higher education globally has utilised e-learning in various formats. More recently, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, e-learning has become more predominant as a means of instruction. Despite this shift, the original challenges pertaining to e-learning around engagement and motivation have not been adequately addressed. In this chapter, the authors argue that the sustainability of e-learning requires approaches that intentionally address engagement and motivation. In this chapter, integrating gamification into e-learning is explored as a potential solution to the challenges associated with e-learning. We discuss how gamification elements motivate students differently based on their motivational drivers. Furthermore, we posit that gamification can be applied at different levels and that demotivated players can be re-engaged. This chapter also outlines the LevelUp framework for gamifying e-learning.
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Gamification is increasingly applied in contexts where personal performance is of importance. However, the psychological nature of their relation has not been thoroughly examined. The authors investigated how achievement-based gamification impacts attitudinal engagement and performance across 6 university courses. The authors created challenges and badges connected to coursework and measured students’ engagement and performance while gamifying the course in 1 year of the 2-year quasi-experiment. In the other year, the authors examined engagement, performance, and would-be-attained achievements were the course gamified. Results show students performed moderately better in gamified condition. Moreover, badges had a guiding effect on students as badge-awarding actions were carried out more in gamified courses. Importantly, the authors found a small mediation effect of engagement in gamification-performance relation. The authors thus conclude badges may be a useful method when gamifying academic performance and that work attitudes are a useful framework to further examine the relation.
Book
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THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS AND WORKFORCE IN SERBIA, Chapter in the book: Ninth International Scientific Conference EMPLOYMENT, EDUCATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP (EEE2020) (editors Zorana Nikitovic, Mirjana Radovic-Markovic) Belgrade, Serbia, 23 October 2020
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Requirements elicitation holds a significant place in developing successful software, thus stands crucial for the success of any software project. There are numerous elicitation techniques present for eliciting requirements from the stakeholders, but these techniques are more textual in nature which give rise not only to problems like ambiguity, inconsistency, incompleteness but also lack of stakeholder’s involvement and interest in the system. If stakeholders are not properly engaged in the process, this could lead to disastrous outcomes. Researchers have worked on new ways of eliciting requirements from the user; one of them is using gamification. Gamification is a ‘young’ yet exciting way of engaging stakeholders to the system. It uses game mechanism and elements in non-gaming context. Several studies have referred its use as ‘the use of non-serious context in a serious context’. In this study, we have presented a systematic literature review based on previous studies focusing on the use of gamification for elicitation of requirements. Although, there are multiple studies on gamification in requirements elicitation, yet none of them targeted the suitable game elements for elicitation, and undesirable features of gamification during elicitation. For this purpose, we have surveyed 525 initial and 48 primary studies. A set of 18 game elements suitable for requirements elicitation except points, badges, leaderboards (PBL) were determined. Also, undesirable features of gamification and the solution to overcome these challenges have also been identified. Furthermore, effect of gamification on verbal communication during elicitation has also been determined. This study effectively contributes to highlighting the role of gamification in eliciting requirements from the users. This study also provides answers to the research questions which will be helpful for practitioners and software development teams while performing elicitation.
Article
Purpose Rather than overstating the favorable effects of gamification on work outcomes, the purpose of this paper is to present a more balanced perspective into the effects a gamified human resource management (HRM) system may have on creativity at work. This conceptual paper explores and delineates how employees' interaction with gamification features within a gamified HRM system enables and particularly undermines employees' motivation for workplace creative performance. Design/methodology/approach The cross-disciplinary nature of this paper necessitates the reliance on theoretical principles, the explanatory and predictive capacities of theories central to human-computer interaction, employee motivation and creativity fields. Thus, the tenets of affordance, self-determination and dynamic componential theory were utilized to analyze the affordance of a gamified HRM system for employees' creative outcomes. Findings It is discovered that augmenting the HRM system with gamification affordance is crucial amid global market change and increasing digitization. However, incorporating game design elements into work systems does not necessarily guarantee an increase in creative outcomes. On the contrary, the system may equally undermine employees' motivation, which in turn hampers their creative outcomes. Originality/value Many gamification papers have more often than not touted the positive effects of such a system on the targeted outcome. Based on the affordance theory which shows that a user's interaction with gamification properties could produce different outcomes (not only favorable ones) and considering the intricacies of employees' motivation and behavioral outcomes at work, this paper takes a more balanced perspective to examine how gamification could generate intended as well as unintended consequences for employees' creativity, which is crucial to overall job performance.
Article
With the emergence and growing use of ICT, educational institutions have tried to adapt to the new standard at an exponential rate. Gamification has the potential to positively impact students' behavior, dedication, and motivation, which can lead to knowledge and skill progress if utilized and integrated appropriately. The purpose of the study is to examine perceptions from undergraduate students concerning the use of Kahoot! in their classrooms. Statistical analysis was performed on the empirical data received from a questionnaire (n = 113). The findings revealed that gamification had a positive impact on the students learning progress. However, gamification did not keep them motivated throughout the entire course. Furthermore, foreign students perceive gamified learning as more useful than their Thai peers. The results of this study have practical implications for practitioners and theoretical implications for educational researchers.
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Information technology is being increasingly employed to harness under-utilized resources via more effective coordination. This progress has manifested in different developments, for instance, crowdsourcing (e.g. Wikipedia, Amazon Mechanical Turk, and Waze), crowdfunding (e.g. Kickstarter, Indiegogo, and RocketHub) or the sharing economy (e.g. Uber, Airbnb, and Didi Chuxing). Since the sustainability of these IT-enabled forms of resource coordination do not commonly rely merely on direct economic benefits of the participants, but also on other non-monetary, intrinsic gratifications, such systems are increasingly gamified that is, designers use features of games to induce enjoyment and general autotelicy of the activity. However, a key problem in gamification design has been whether it is better to use competition-based or cooperation-based designs. We examine this question through a field experiment in a gamified crowdsourcing system, employing three versions of gamification: competitive, cooperative, and inter-team competitive gamification. We study these gamified conditions’ effects on users’ perceived enjoyment and usefulness of the system as well as on their behaviors (system usage, crowdsourcing participation, engagement with the gamification feature, and willingness to recommend the crowdsourcing application). The results reveal that inter-team competitions are most likely to lead to higher enjoyment and crowdsourcing participation, as well as to a higher willingness to recommending a system. Further, the findings indicate that designers should consider cooperative instead of competitive approaches to increase users’ willingness to recommend crowdsourcing systems. These insights add relevant findings to the ongoing discourse on the roles of different types of competitions in gamification designs and suggest that crowdsourcing system designers and operators should implement gamification with competing teams instead of typically used competitions between individuals.
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This article presents a review of the current body of academic literature concerning gamification of production and logistics to understand the status quo and provide suggestions for future research. The findings indicate that the execution and control of production and logistic processes has been addressed most often in the current body of literature, which mostly consists of design research. Objectives and goals, points, achievements, multimedial feedback, metaphorical or fictional representations, and levels and progress are currently the most often employed affordances within this field. Research has focused in the given context on examining or considering motivation, enjoyment and flow, as the main psychological outcomes of gamification, while individual performance and efficiency are the most commonly examined or suggested behavioral and organizational impacts. Future studies should employ more rigorous designs within new subdomains of production and logistics and should firmly ground research designs and discussions in management theory and critical studies.
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Background and Aim: Gamefulness is commonly cited as the primary goal of gamification, a family of approaches employed in education, business, healthcare, government, and elsewhere. However, gamefulness is defined imprecisely across the literature. To address this, we present a theory of gamefulness that splits gamefulness into more specific constructs and outlines their effects in a process model. Method: We integrate extant literature from psychology, human-computer interaction, and other fields to define gameful design, systems, and experiences. Most critically, we argue that gameful experience is the core focal construct of this theory and define it as an interactive state occurring when a person perceives non-trivial achievable goals created externally, is motivated to pursue them under an arbitrary set of behavioral rules, and evaluates that motivation as voluntary. Results: We present six resulting propositions: (1) gameful systems lead to gameful experiences, (2) gameful systems impact psychological characteristics, (3) effective gameful design leads to a gameful system, (4) gameful systems lead to behavioral change, (5) behavioral change causes the distal outcomes gamification designers target, and (6) individual differences moderate the effectiveness of gameful systems. Conclusion: Gameful experience theory provides researchers with a unified foundation to study gamification from any social scientific lens.
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For children to yield greater mental performance abilities in real world settings, training approaches should offer practice in problems which have an affective component requiring social interactions, and be motivating over a sustained period. Current cognitive training games often overlook the important relationship between cognition and emotion, characterised by ‘hot executive function’ and correlated with fundamental academic and life outcomes. Here, we present robust qualitative evidence from a case study which documents the social relationships, motivation and engagement of a class of ten-year-old children who used an active smartphone cognitive training game called BrainQuest in their physical education lessons over a period of 5 weeks. Game design elements which are intended to move beyond simple gamification of cognitive tests are presented, along with a discussion of how these design elements worked in practice. The paper also presents and discusses the impact of the game upon the cognitive and emotional regulatory skills, characterised by executive function skills, based on the findings of this initial work. We conclude with recommendations for the designers of cognitive training games in the future and discussion of appropriate research methods for future gamification studies.