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β-Glucans: An Important Bioactive Molecule of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms

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Edible mushrooms are important for their dietary value and their biologically active and health promoting compounds such as polysaccharides, polysaccharopeptides and polysaccharide-protein complexes. Mushroom β-glucans such as β-glucan, Schizophyllan, Ganoderan, Lentinan and Pleuran are the components of the cell wall. They consist of glucopyranose molecules linked through β (1→3), β (1→4) or β (1→6) linkages. The mushroom β-glucans are not digested in human gastrointestinal tract and are thus considered as a potential source of prebiotics. β-glucans possess profound health promoting properties like speeding up the transit of bowel contents, increasing fecal bulk and frequency, consequently protecting the body from colon cancer, diverticular diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. They stimulate the immune system by having immunomodulatory, antitumour, antioxidant activities and are identified as biological response modifiers. Mushroom β-glucans differ in their nutraceutical effect due to the difference in their molecular masses, solubility, degree of polymerization, their structures and helical conformation. Various mushroom β-glucans are available as pure extracts in the market which are used as therapeutic agents, however, no commercialized functional products are available which have been enriched with mushroom β-glucans. Furthermore, it has a great potential to be used as an ingredient in the near future in various food industries, such as breakfast cereals, sport nutrition products, dairy products, bakery such as biscuits and breads, salad dressings and fat replacer. The aim of this review is to present information on β-glucans of edible and medicinal mushrooms, emphasize their benefits and the usage potential in the functional food and nutraceuticals.
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1. INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND DESIGN SYMPOSIUM
27-29 June 2018 - Giresun/TURKEY
β-Glucans: An Important Bioactive Molecule of Edible and Medicinal
Mushrooms
Sanem BULAM1*, Nebahat Şule ÜSTÜN2, Aysun PEKŞEN3
1Giresun University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food Engineering, Giresun, Turkey;
sanem.bulam@giresun.edu.tr
2Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food Engineering, Samsun, Turkey;
sustun@omu.edu.tr
3Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, Samsun, Turkey;
aysunp@omu.edu.tr
* Corresponding Author: sanem.bulam@giresun.edu.tr
Abstract
Edible mushrooms are important for their dietary value and their biologically active and health promoting
compounds such as polysaccharides, polysaccharopeptides and polysaccharide-protein complexes. Mushroom β-
glucans such as β-glucan, Schizophyllan, Ganoderan, Lentinan and Pleuran are the components of the cell wall.
They consist of glucopyranose molecules linked through β (1→3), β (1→4) or β (1→6) linkages. The mushroom
β-glucans are not digested in human gastrointestinal tract and are thus considered as a potential source of
prebiotics. β-glucans possess profound health promoting properties like speeding up the transit of bowel
contents, increasing fecal bulk and frequency, consequently protecting the body from colon cancer, diverticular
diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. They stimulate the immune system by having immunomodulatory,
antitumour, antioxidant activities and are identified as biological response modifiers. Mushroom β-glucans differ
in their nutraceutical effect due to the difference in their molecular masses, solubility, degree of polymerization,
their structures and helical conformation. Various mushroom β-glucans are available as pure extracts in the
market which are used as therapeutic agents, however, no commercialized functional products are available
which have been enriched with mushroom β-glucans. Furthermore, it has a great potential to be used as an
ingredient in the near future in various food industries, such as breakfast cereals, sport nutrition products, dairy
products, bakery such as biscuits and breads, salad dressings and fat replacer. The aim of this review is to present
information on β-glucans of edible and medicinal mushrooms, emphasize their benefits and the usage potential
in the functional food and nutraceuticals.
Keywords: Mushrooms, β-glucan, bioactivity, functional, nutraceutical, food industry.
1. INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND DESIGN SYMPOSIUM
27-29 June 2018 - Giresun/TURKEY
1. Introduction
β-glucans are polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked through β-glycosidic
bonds. The structures of β-glucans and chemically modified β-glucans were given in Figure 1.
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
(e) (f)
Figure 1. The structures of β-glucans and chemically modified β-glucans. (a) (1→3) β-glucans with
ramifications β (1→6); (b) (1→3) β-glucans with ramifications β (1→4); (c) CM β-glucan;
(d) Sulfated β-glucan; (e) Aminated β-glucan; (f) Cyclic glucan (Zhu et al., 2016).
As a kind of dietary fiber (DF), β-glucan could be found in a variety of natural sources
such as yeast, mushrooms, bacteria, algae, barley and oat (Zhu et al., 2015). β-glucan exhibits
a broad spectrum of biological activities including antitumour, immune-modulating (Rieder
and Samuelsen, 2012), antiaging, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties.
β-glucans have attracted attention because of their physical and chemical properties over the
years. β-glucans from different sources and with different molecular weights have different
biological activities (Du and Xu, 2014). Fungal β-glucan has been shown to be effective as an
immune system booster and an antitumour substance (Du et al., 2015). The results of clinical
1. INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND DESIGN SYMPOSIUM
27-29 June 2018 - Giresun/TURKEY
research indicate that the presence of β-glucan is linked to the production and activation of
macrophages, NK-cells, T-cells, B-cells from the body’s natural defense system (Lindequist
et al., 2005).
2. Mushroom β-glucans
Mushroom β-glucan is a carbohydrate polymer derived from the cell wall of
mushrooms. β-glucan is known as biological response modifier (BRM), which refers to the
ability to up-regulate and down-regulate the response of biological systems (Brown and
Gordon, 2003; Novak and Vetvicka, 2009).
Mushroom β-glucans such as Schizophyllan, Ganoderan, Lentinan and Pleuran are the
components of the cell wall. They consist of glucopyranose molecules linked through β
(1→3), β (1→4) or β (1→6) linkages. Especially in Japan and China, Pleuran from Pleurotus
ostreatus, Lentinan from Lentinula edodes, Schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune,
Grifolan (MD-fraction) from Grifola frondosa and Krestin from Trametes versicolor (PSK
and PSP) in addition to the major cancer therapies like surgical operation, radiotherapy and
chemotherapy are in clinical use for the adjuvant tumour therapy (immunotherapy)
(Lindequist et al., 2005; Chan et al., 2009; Novak and Vetvicka, 2009).
β-glucans are also present in many other mushrooms such as Auricularia auricula,
Calocybe indica (Calocyban), Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum (Ganoderan/
Ganopoly), Grifola frondosa, and Pleurotus abalones (Lindequist et al., 2005; Villares et al.,
2012; Zhu et al., 2015).
2.1. β-glucan Amounts in Mushrooms
Important medical mushrooms containing β-glucan as bioactive compound are seen in
Table 1. The β-glucan contents of the mushrooms vary between 0.22 and 0.53 g/100 g on dry
weight basis. According to Manzi and Pizzoferrato (2000), Pleurotus pulmunarius seemed to
be the richest source of fungal β-glucans and it has been reported that L. edodes contains high
levels of β-glucans in the soluble fraction. Camelini et al. (2005) found that Agaricus
brasiliensis had higher (1→6)-β-glucan ratio and (1→3)-β-glucan increased with the
maturation of fruiting bodies.
1. INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND DESIGN SYMPOSIUM
27-29 June 2018 - Giresun/TURKEY
Table 1. Important medicinal mushrooms with β-glucans as bioactive components (Chan et al., 2009).
Mushroom species
Common name
β-glucan structure
Type of β-glucan
Agaricus blazei
Brazilian sun-mushroom,
Himematsutake
mushroom
Protein bound β-1,6-
glucan
Agaricus polysaccharides
Coprinus comatus
Shaggy ink cap, lawyer's
wig, or shaggy mane
β-1,3-glucan
Coprinus polysaccharides
Coriolus versicolor
Yun Zhi
Protein bound β-
1,3;1,6-glucan
PSP (polysaccharide
peptide) PSK
(polysaccharide-Kureha or
polysaccharide-K, krestin)
Ganoderma lucidum
Lingzhi, Reishi
β-1,3;1,6-glucan
Ganoderma
polysaccharides, Ganopoly
Grifola frondosa
Maitake mushroom
β-1,3;1,6-glucan with
xylose and mannose
Maitake D-Fraction
Lentinula edodes
Shiitake mushroom
β-1,3;1,6-glucan
Lentinan
Pleurotus ostreatus
Oyster mushroom, píng
β-1,3-glucan with
galactose and mannose
Pleuran
Schizophyllan commune
Brazilian mushroom
β-1,3;1,6-glucan
Schizophyllan (SPG) or
sizofiran
It was determined that Bracket fungi Trametes versicolor, Piptoporus betulinus or
Phlebia tremellosa contained more than 50% β-glucans and in Boletus edulis (Bull. ex Fr.,
stipe part) or Piptoporus betulinus (Bull. ex Fr.) Karst. the amount was more than 50 g/100 g
dw. In most of the wild mushrooms analysed, the β-glucan contents were significantly higher
in stipes than in caps (Sari et al., 2017). Özcan and Ertan (2018) have determined that Boletus
edulis is the highest β-glucan containing wild mushroom (13.93%). It was followed by
Cantharellus cibarius and Hydnum repandum with 12.89 and 12.84% contents, respectively.
Synytsya et al. (2008) working with Pleurotus spp. mushrooms found that the β-glucan
content of the pilei was between 20.4-39.2% and the content of the stems was between 35.5-
50.0%. The results of a study comparing the β-glucan content of some wild mushrooms (Sari
et al., 2017) is presented in Table 2.
Table 2. β-glucan content of some wild mushrooms (not dividable in cap and stipe parts).
Dry matter
(%)
β-glucans
(g/100g dm)
% β-glucans/
all glucans
91.276
41.755±4.644
99.096
86.122
22.495±2.329
90.186
92.783
25.991±3.643
83.761
89.627
47.006±6.517
89.345
96.547
53.555±2.452
98.572
90.825
51.801±4.024
95.659
87.892
60.788±11.795
99.337
1. INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND DESIGN SYMPOSIUM
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2.2. Bioactive Properties of β-glucans in Mushrooms
Mushrooms polysaccharides having β-linkage have been demonstrated a boost in the
human immune system and the modulation of the immunological response under certain
conditions, thus they are commonly termed as biological response modifiers (BRM). As the
result of the activation of the host’s immune system, these polysaccharides show significant
antitumour, antiviral and antimicrobial activities besides their other effects (Villares et al.,
2012). A number of studies have been carried out on β-glucans that have a health-enhancing
effect in various important ways such as antitumour and immunomodulatory (Table 3),
antitumour, antiviral (Borchers et al., 2004; Moradali et al., 2007), cardiovascular (Wasser
and Weis, 1999), liver protective, antiinflammatory (Lindequist et al., 2005), radioprotective
(Pillai and Devi, 2013), antidiabetic (Kim et al., 2005), antioxidant (Deng et al., 2012),
antibacterial (Beattie et al., 2010), and antiobesity activities (Zhang et al., 2013). Antitumour
activity (Deng et al., 2012; Ren et al., 2012) and immunemodulating activity (Wasser, 2002)
of mushroom β-glucans have been documented in the previous reviews. Basically, their
health-promoting abilities are influenced by the molecular mass, branching configuration,
conformation, and chemical modification of the polysaccharides (Ren et al., 2012). In terms
of biological activity, β-1,3-D-glucans and β-1,6-D-glucans contained in oyster, shiitake, split
gill, and himematsutake mushrooms, as well as other Basidiomycetes, are considered to be the
most effective (Rop et al., 2009).
Table 3. Some mushroom β-glucans with antitumour and immunomodulatory activities (Zhang et al.,
2007; Novak and Vetvicka, 2008; Kothari et al., 2018).
Mushroom species
Type of β-glucan
Character of polymer
Degree of branching
Agaricus blazei
β-glucomannan
Branched
-
Dictyophora indusiata
T-4-N, T-5-N
Branched
-
Ganoderma lucidum
Ganoderan
Branched
-
Grifola frondosa
Grifolan
Branched
0.31-0.36
Inonotus obliquus
Xylogalactoglucan
Branched
-
Laminaria spp.
Laminaran
Linear
-
Lentinula edodes
Lentinan
Branched
0.23-0.33
Pleurotus ostreatus
Pleuran (HA-glucan)
Branched
0.25
Poria cocos
Pachymaran
Linear
0.015-0.020
Schizophyllum commune
Schizophyllan
Branched
0.33
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Sclerotinan (SSG)
Branched
0.50
2.3. Extraction and Production of Mushroom β-glucans
The methods used to extract and produce β-glucans from various edible/medicinal
mushrooms are given in Table 4.
1. INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND DESIGN SYMPOSIUM
27-29 June 2018 - Giresun/TURKEY
Table 4. Production/extraction process of β-glucans from various edible/medicinal mushrooms.
Mushroom species
Production/Extraction process
References
Agaricus bisporus
Ultrasonic-assisted extraction, precipitation with
ethanol, centrifugation
Lyophilization, milled and submitted to successive cold
and hot aqueous extraction
Tian et al., 2012
Smiderle et al., 2013
Agaricus brasiliensis
Sequentially extracted with 350 ml water, concentrated,
dialyzed and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography
Lyophilization, milled and submitted to successive cold
and hot aqueous extraction
Camelini et al., 2005
Smiderle et al., 2013
Astraeus hygrometricus
Aqueous extraction, DEAE cellulose bag and Sepharose
6B column
Chakraborty et al.,
2004
Boletus edulis
The estimation of non-starch glucans was based on the
difference between glucose contents after total acidic
hydrolysis of glucans and specific enzymatic hydrolysis
of α-1,4-glucans
Özcan and Ertan, 2018
Boletus erythropus
Water extraction, centrifugation, DEAE Trisacryl M
column and S 400 HR column
Chauveau et al., 1996
Botryosphaeria rhodina
β-glucan production were monitored in a stirred-tank
bioreactor
Crognale et al., 2007
Cantharellus cibarius
The estimation of non-starch glucans was based on the
difference between glucose contents after total acidic
hydrolysis of glucans and specific enzymatic hydrolysis
of α-1,4-glucans
Özcan and Ertan, 2018
Flammulina velutipes
Successive hot extraction with water and KOH and
submitted to freeze-drying
Smiderle et al., 2006
Ganoderma lucidum
Extraction using dilute NaOH solution and Sephadex
G-15 gel-filtration chromatography
Kao et al., 2012; Nie et
al., 2013
Paenibacillus polymyxa
Seed culture was supplemented with carbon source to
induce glucan production
Jung et al., 2007
Pleurotus eryngii
The estimation of non-starch glucans was based on the
difference between glucose contents after total acidic
hydrolysis of glucans and specific enzymatic hydrolysis
of α-1,4-glucans
Washing with ethanol and distilled water, extraction
with boiling water, incubation with α-amylase, chemical
deproteinization, dialization and lyophilization
Synytsya et al., 2008
Synytsya et al., 2009
Pleurotus ostreatus
The estimation of non-starch glucans was based on the
difference between glucose contents after total acidic
hydrolysis of glucans and specific enzymatic hydrolysis
of α-1,4-glucans
Washing with ethanol and distilled water, extraction
with boiling water, incubation with α-amylase, chemical
deproteinization, dialization and lyophilization
Lyophilization, using of methanolic extraction, cold
water, hot water, hot aqueous NaOH solutions, enzyme
protease, and ethanol precipitation
Synytsya et al., 2008
Synytsya et al., 2009
Palacios et al., 2012
Ramaria botrytis
Hot water extraction followed by treating NaOH
Bhanja et al., 2014
Schizophyllum commune
Seed culture preparation, optimization of fermentation
medium and schizophyllan production
Kumari et al., 2008
Termitomyces eurhizus
Hot alkaline extraction, centrifugation, DEAE cellulose
bag and freeze dry
Chakraborty et al.,
2006
The detection methods of β-glucan from mushrooms are summarized as: (1) enzymic
method or McCleary method (Megazyme kit), (2) enzymelinked immunosorbent assay
1. INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND DESIGN SYMPOSIUM
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(ELISA) method, (3) fluorimetric method with aniline blue, and (4) colorimetric method with
Congo red (Zhu et al., 2015).
2.3.1 Extraction and Production of β-glucans from Fruiting Bodies of Mushrooms
Kim et al. (2005) extracted β-glucan from the fruiting bodies of Agaricus blazei using
hot water for 3 h. Bhanja et al. (2014) extracted and isolated two water-insoluble glucans from
fruiting bodies of Ramaria botrytis. Extraction in hot or boiling water is the most common
and convenient method for extracting water-soluble fungal polysaccharides (Yan et al., 2014).
Liu et al. (2014) obtained a purified β-glucan by precipitating a hot-water extract from fruiting
bodies of G. lucidum with 20% (V/V) ethanol. The total carbohydrate content was 95.9% in
prepared β-glucan.
2.3.2. Extraction and Production of β-glucans from the Mycelia of Mushrooms
Kim et al. (2009) provided a method for mass production of β-glucan from S. commune,
comprising subjecting mycelia of S. commune to liquid culture with an addition of a synthetic
adsorbent. In another study, a neutral polysaccharide, GLSA50-1B, was isolated from
sporoderm-broken spores of G. lucidum, by hot-water extraction, graded ethanol precipitation,
anion-exchange chromatography, and gel permeation chromatography (Dong et al., 2012).
Kim et al. (2013) demonstrated generation of high β-glucan producing mutant strains of
Sparassis crispa, additional culture optimization further increased β-glucan productivity of
the mutant strains. Recently, Park et al. (2014) enhanced the β-glucan content in the sawdust-
based cultivation of cauliflower mushroom (Sparassis latifolia) using three kinds of enzymes
(chitinase, β-glucuronidase, and lysing enzyme complex) as elicitors.
2.4. Chemical Modification and Purification of Mushroom β-glucans
β-glucan is an important bioactive compound for human health, but its low solubility
has led to the development of chemical modification technologies to improve bioavailability.
Several methods to modify β-glucan are laid out to improve their functional and technological
properties via physical and chemical crosslinking reactions (Ahmad et al., 2015). In this
respect, β-glucans can be chemically modified to obtain various derivatives with potential
industrial or medicinal importance (Synytsya and Novak, 2013).
1. INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND DESIGN SYMPOSIUM
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Ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatograph are the most common
and convenient methods for purifying polysaccharide. In general, the crude polysaccharide
extracts were further applied to a Sephadex column and eluted with water (Zhu et al., 2015).
3. Studies on Mushroom β-glucan for Food and Nutraceutical Applications
3.1. Food Applications and Some Patents
There have been some studies previously conducted by enriching a product with the
mushroom β-glucan agglomerated as food additive. β-glucans from P. ostreatus and L. edodes
have been demonstrated satisfactory results when they were added to yogurt (Hozova et al.,
2004) were used in the production of extruded snack products with low glycemic index
(Brennan et al., 2013). Also chicken burgers were enriched with P. sajor-caju, fiber and β-
glucans (Wan Rosli et al., 2011) as well as P. ostreatus was incorporated into sausages in an
effort to lower their fat content (Chockchaisawasdee et al., 2010). In a study to produce a
novel high-fibre and low-calorie functional food, Kim et al. (2011) used β-glucans from L.
edodes as a wheat flour substitute in baked foods. These glucans improved the pasting
properties of wheat flour and increased batter viscosity and shear-thinning elasticity without
any adverse effect on air holding capacity or hardness. β-glucans of Ganoderma amboinense,
Agaricus or Fomes yucatensis, or mixed mushrooms have also been tested for encapsulation
of pickling liquid to be released in soups or sauces during cooking (Watanabe, 2005).
3.2. Nutraceutical Applications, Some Clinical Studies and Patents
“Mushroom nutraceuticals” is nowadays a relatively common term which refers to a
refined polysaccharide, or a partially refined fruit body extract, or the dried biomass from
mycelium or the fruiting body of a mushroom, which is consumed in the form of capsules,
tablets, powder, syrups, solutions as a dietary supplement with some therapeutic properties
(Giavasis, 2014). Camelini et al. (2005) investigated the β-glucans of A. brasiliensis in
different stages of fruiting body maturity and their use in nutraceutical products. The results
showed that because of their important glucan contents, mature fruiting bodies of A.
brasiliensis should be used for nutraceutical products. Cap-opened, more fragile mature
fruiting bodies of A. brasiliensis should be selected over immature ones for the production of
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nutraceuticals. Synytsya et al. (2008) reported that the stems of Pleurotus eryngii and P.
ostreatus could be used for the preparation of biologically active polysaccharide complexes as
food supplements. Schizophyllan, produced by S. commune ATCC 38548 has attracted
attention as immunomodulatory and anti-neoplastic agent in pharmaceutical industry in the
recent years (Kumari et al., 2008). Akiyama et al. (2011) studied the effects of agaritine, a
hydrazine-derivative from hot-water extract of A. blazei Murrill on human leukemic
monocyte lymphoma (U937) cells. Agaritine induced DNA fragmentation, annexin V
expression, and cytochrome C release. Caspase-3, 8 and 9 activities were gradually increased
after agaritine treatment. A. blazei has been used as an adjuvant in cancer chemotherapy and
various types of anti-leukemic bioactive components have been extracted from it (Patel and
Goyal, 2012). It was proposed to mix β-glucan from mushroom with one or two substances
such as ubiquinone Q10 and ferments leading to a biologically active additive for food with a
wide range of action (Bragintseva et al., 2002). Suga et al. (2005) suggested converting
lentinan into superfine particles, improving absorption through mucosa.
In animal experiments, β-glucans have been shown to have varying activity against
sarcomas, mammary cancer, some chemically induced cancers, adenocarcinoma, colon cancer
and some leukemias. Lentinan has already been shown effective in gastric carcinomas
(Taguchi et al., 1985; Jeannin, et al., 1988). Furthermore, lentinan was reported to induce
apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cell-lines (Gu and Belury, 2005). Even if mushrooms and
especially β-glucans have been used in Chinese medicine for decades, mechanisms need to be
elucidated. However, lot of these substances have already been patented for antitumour
treatments. Among them, β-glucan extracted from Agaricus mushroom was proposed,
together with fucoidan (Hosokawa, 2003). The use of Grifola frondosa extract has also been
patented, mixed with fucoidan and organic germanium (Sogabe, 1998).
Extracts of L. edodes markedly inhibited the growth of Sarcoma 180 (a retrovirus,
similar to HIV which uses reverse transcriptase for its tumourpromoting activity) (Chihara et
al., 1987). According to clinical studies, lentinan produces specific T-helper cell stimulation
in healthy humans as well as animals. It has also been recognized to stimulate lymphokine
activated killer activity in combination with Interleukin-2 (Suzuki et al., 1990). Other patents
concerning direct utilisation of -D-glucans such as G. frondosa extract (Sogabe, 1996) for
treating AIDS have been rare.
In 2003, an original application has been patented, proposing to use -glucan as a gene
carrier (Sakurai et al., 2003). In this patent, a hydrogen-bonding polymer with a triple-helix
structure (such as schizophyllan, curdlan, lentinan, scleroglucan) was used for binding to a
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nucleic acid. Thus, a nucleic acid-polymer complex was obtained and could be applied as a
vector. Moreover, this complex was also resistant to nuclease, allowing its use as a nucleic
acid-protecting agent. PSP derived from Coriolus versicolor (syn. Trametes versicolor), a
Chinese product commercially available since 1987 (Cui and Chisti, 2003), has been
documented to improve the quality of life in cancer patients by providing substantial pain
relief and enhancing immune status in 70-97% of patients with stomach, esophagus, lung,
ovary and cervical cancers. Both PSK and PSP boosted immune cell production, ameliorated
chemotherapy symptoms and enhanced tumour infiltration by dendritic and cytotoxic T-cells
(Kidd, 2000). From a commercial standpoint, pleuran from oyster (P. ostreatus) mushrooms
and lentinan from Shiitake (L. edodes) mushrooms are currently the most frequently used β-
glucans. Both of them show positive effects on the intestines. They increase the resistance of
intestinal mucosa to inflammation (Zeman et al., 2001) and inhibit the development of
intestinal ulcers (Nosalova et al., 2001). Lentinan also shows a positive effect on peristalsis
(Van Nevel et al., 2003).
3.3. Industrial Food Applications of Mushroom β-glucan in Functional Foods and
Dietary Supplements
According to literature data, β-glucan has the potential to perform functions in the food
industry such as thickening, water-holding, or oil-binding, gelling, film-making and
encapsulation agent, and emulsifying stabilizer (Ahmad et al., 2012a, b; Giavasis, 2013; Zhu
et al., 2016). Today, mushroom-glucans are found in the market more in the form of capsules
or tablets as food supplements and to a lesser extent as ingredients in the food products
(Eleftherios et al., 2014). In addition to food, β-glucans have potential applications in
medicine and pharmacy, cosmetic and chemical industries, in veterinary medicine and feed
production (Laroche and Michaud, 2007; Zhu et al., 2016). Besides, various mushroom β-
glucans are available as pure extracts in the market which are used as therapeutic agents. S.
commune glucan manufactured by Bioland Technology Co. Ltd. is commercially available in
the market (Zhu et al., 2016). There have been two patents on production technology of β-
glucan from S. commune, today (Kim et al., 2008; 2009). Polysachharides such as lentinan,
schizophyllan from shiitake and Schizophyllan mushrooms, PSK and PSP, the protein bound
polysachharides from turkey tail mushroom, have been developed as anticancer agents in
Japan and are now available worldwide (Lull, et al., 2005). There has also been a patent on
application on β-glucan process, additive and food product (Cahill et al., 2003). Although
1. INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND DESIGN SYMPOSIUM
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some of the most studied polysaccharides produced by mushrooms (e.g. schizophyllan and
lentinan) are already available and marketed as nutraceuticals (pharmaceutical formulation),
their addition to food in their purified form has not been commercialized, yet (Giavasis,
2013). Nevertheless, β-glucan has a great potential to be used as an ingredient in the near
future in various food industries, such as breakfast cereals, prebiotic sausage formulations,
sport nutrition products, dairy products such as yogurts, bakery products such as biscuits,
breads, cakes and ready-to-eat snacks, beverages, salad dressings and fat replacer that have
some functionalities such as noticeable effect on physical and sensory properties, calorie-
reducing and cholesterol-lowering actions and faster proteolysis, lower release of large
peptides and a higher proportion of free amino acids, the glycemic response manipulation,
controlling food intake and reducing 24 h energy intake and having good quality
characteristics (Zhu et al., 2016).
The polysaccharides extracted from A. brasiliensis, C. sinensis, G. lucidum, G.
frondosa, L. edodes, and T. versicolor are used to produce tablets for inhibiting the growth of
tumours and improving the immunity (Rai et al., 2005). Several mushroom products, mainly
polysaccharides such as β‐D‐glucans, have also proceeded successfully through clinical trials
and are used as drugs to treat cancer and chronic diseases (Morris et al., 2016).
Today, it is possible to find commercial dietary supplements originated from various
mushroom β-glucans in the form of powdered extracts, tablets, capsules, teas and syrups on
the market. Imunoglukan P4H® from P. ostreatus, LentinanXP in USA/Lentinex® in Europe
and Shiitake Gold and Pure Shiitake™ from L. edodes, Ganopoland Immulink MBG®
from G. lucidum, D-fraction, MD fraction, MaitakeGold 404® nutraceutical extract and Pure
Maitake™ from G. frondosa, Pure Turkey Tail™ from T. versicolor and Immune Assist™
from A. blazei, C. sinensis, G. lucidum, G. frondosa, L. edodes and T. versicolor can be given
as example (Point Institute, 2013; Morris et al., 2016; Reis et al., 2017; URL-1, 2018).
McCleary and Draga (2016) developed a robust and reliable method for the measurement of
β-glucan in mushroom and mycelial products. In the literature, there have also been some
clinical studies on pharmacological benefits and safe doses of these mushroom β-glucan
derived dietary supplements such as Lentinex® (Gaullier et al., 2011) and Imunoglukan
P4H® (Jesenak et al., 2012). A scientific documentation was published to carry out the
additional safety assessment for Lentinex®, an aqueous mycelial extract of L. edodes, as a
novel food ingredient (EFSA, 2010). On the other hand, Gründemann et al. (2015) have
reported that the standardisation of shiitake preparations is difficult because even preparations
with similar polysaccharide and β-glucan contents have different immunological properties.
1. INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND DESIGN SYMPOSIUM
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4. β-glucan Market by Food & Beverage Applications and Regions
The industries are adopting β-glucan to fortify foodstuff with high dietary fibres as
consumer interests in the nutraceutical products is on escalation. Furthermore β-glucan
actively impacts the metabolic parameters and help curing the chronic diseases. The
worldwide development of policies for inclusion of functional ingredients in industrial
products boosts the global β-glucan market. According to application segmentation, food and
beverage segment was accounted more than 25% value share in 2016. Increasing demand for
fibrous intake and concerns over blood cholesterol levels majorly drives the β-glucan market
in food and beverage applications. In addition, β-glucan allows food product manufacturers to
attract attention heart health claims in functional foods such as heart healthy biscuits, dairy
products, snack bars etc., which in turn aids in driving the global β-glucan market (URL-2,
2018).
Geographically, the Europe accounted major share in the global β-glucan market in
2016. Approval of health claims by EU, related to heart health, blood glucose, cholesterol
control and digestive health will be fueling the growth for β-glucan market in the region over
the forecast period. In Asia Pacific, the government initiatives for awareness on cancer,
women heart and maternal health are expected to drive the sales revenue of β-glucan during
the forecast period of 2017-2025 (URL-2, 2018).
5. Conclusion
Although there are many findings related to the biological effects of β-glucans in vitro
and in vivo, there are still some questions about structure activity and dose activity
relationships. Moreover, β-glucan content of mushroom products has not been standardised,
yet. To make better use of β-glucan, food manufacturers and processors must bring attention
not only to ensure sufficient concentration of β-glucan in the raw material but also to the
processing methods and physicochemical properties of β-glucan, decreasing mechanical and
enzymatic breakdown of the β-glucans in end-product and optimizing processing conditions.
Mushroom β-glucans have potential nutraceutical properties that could be explored in the
food and the pharmaceutical fields and might present different functional properties upon
modification through suitable means and continuity of detailed clinical studies for the
convinience of consumers.
1. INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND DESIGN SYMPOSIUM
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Macrofungi production and economic value have been increasing globally. The demand for macrofungi has expanded rapidly owing to their popularity among consumers, pleasant taste, and unique flavors. The presence of high quality proteins, polysaccharides, unsaturated fatty acids, minerals, triterpene sterols, and secondary metabolites makes macrofungi an important commodity. Macrofungi are well known for their ability to protect from or cure various health problems, such as immunodeficiency, cancer, inflammation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity. Many studies have demonstrated their medicinal properties, supported by both in vivo and in vitro experimental studies, as well as clinical trials. Numerous bioactive compounds isolated from mushrooms, such as polysaccharides, proteins, fats, phenolic compounds, and vitamins, possess strong bioactivities. Consequently, they can be considered as an important source of nutraceuticals. Numerous edible mushrooms have been studied for their bioactivities, but only a few species have made it to the market. Many species remain to be explored. The converging trends and popularity of eastern herbal medicines, natural/organic food product preference, gut-healthy products, and positive outlook towards sports nutrition are supporting the growth in the medicinal mushroom market. The consumption of medicinal mushrooms as functional food or dietary supplement is expected to markedly increase in the future. The global medicinal mushroom market size is projected to increase by USD 13.88 billion from 2018 to 2022. The global market values of promising bioactive compounds, such as lentinan and lovastatin, are also expected to rise. With such a market growth, mushroom nutraceuticals hold to be very promising in the years to come.
... Furthermore, previous studies showed that the β-glucans in mushroom could not be digested in the human gastrointestinal tract and were thus considered as a potential source of prebiotics. Mushroom β-glucans possess profound health promoting properties like speeding up the transit of bowel contents, increasing fecal bulk and frequency, consequently protecting the body from colon cancer, diverticular diseases and irritable bowel syndrome [27]. Although many studies on the SCPs have been carried out, data on the fermentation characteristics of SCPs and their effects on the intestinal microbes in mice are limited and the underlying mechanism of the effects of SCPs on intestinal microbes are still largely unclear. ...
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Background Sparassis crispa polysaccharides (SCPs) have multiple pharmacological activities. Fermentation characteristics of SCPs and its effects on the intestinal microbes in mice remain inconclusive. Results In this study, SCPs were fermented by the human feces and used to administer the Kunming mice to explore the fermentation characteristics of SCPs in the intestinal tract and the effects on the intestinal microbes in mice. Results from in vitro experiments revealed that SCPs were utilized by intestinal microbiota to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The specific monosaccharide composition of SCPs determines which SCFAs are produced. Furthermore, the colon index and villi length of the SCPs-treated mice were significantly higher compared with the control group. In addition, SCPs exhibited beneficial effect on the relative abundance and diversity of dominant bacteria in the intestinal tract, such as increasing Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and up-regulating SCFA-producing bacteria, including Bacteroidales_S24-7_group , Alloprevotella, Alistipes , Bacteroides , Butyricimonas , Parabacteroides , Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group and Oscillibacter . SCPs increased the abundance of genes in carbohydrate, amino acid, and energy metabolism. Conclusion Our results indicate SCPs can improve the physiological indices of the colon in mice, which is likely to be associated with the increase in the relative abundance and diversity of SCFA-producing bacteria and SCFAs level produced by intestinal microbiota. Graphic abstract
... Mushroom β-glucans are fibres that have been reported to possess various biological functions [33]. β-Glucans exhibit numerous types of biological activity such as antioxidant, anti-tumour, anti-ageing, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and many more [34,35], and thus can be exploited in a wide variety of industrial applications. The glucan content of hot-and cold-water extracts of the four selected edible mushrooms is reported in Table 2. Similar to the phenolic and polysaccharide content, large variability can be observed in the mushroom species. ...
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... The incorporation of dried cultivated P. ostreatus into processed foods such as wheat bread (Ndung'u et al., 2015;Oyetayo and Oyedeji, 2018), yoghurt (Pelaes et al., 2015), meatball (Süfer et al., 2016), and chips (Doğan et al., 2017) as an additive has been reported to enhance sensory, nutritional, nutraceutical or functional characteristics, in addition, the bioactive compound bioavailability of the products enriched with P. ostreatus was studied (Regula et al., 2016). In recent years, some dietary supplements derived from P. ostreatus have also been produced and these are commercially available in the market (Reis et al., 2017;Bulam et al., 2018;Üstün et al., 2018). Hence, besides conventional extraction methods, advanced green technologies have also been used to produce higher recoveries of diverse P. ostreatus bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds, ergothioneine, β-glucans, and other polysaccharides, recently . ...
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... ostreatus was studied (Regula et al., 2016). In recent years, some dietary supplements derived from P. ostreatus have also been produced and these are commercially available in the market (Reis et al., 2017;Bulam et al., 2018;Üstün et al., 2018). Hence, besides conventional extraction methods, advanced green technologies have also been used to produce higher recoveries of diverse P. ostreatus biocompounds such as phenolic compounds, ergothioneine, β-glucans, and other polysaccharides, recently . ...
Conference Paper
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Because of its high nutritional value and pharmaceutical effects, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm.) is collected from nature and cultivated in large scale. This therapeutic mushroom is consumed as a functional food or food additive in soups, cereal and dairy products and commercially used in nutraceuticals and dietary supplements. The mycochemicals including polysaccharides (crude fiber and β-glucans), essential amino acids, ergothioneine, peptides, (glyco)proteins, lectins, phenolic compounds, polyketides (lovastatin), (tri)terpenoids, and enzymes are naturally found in the fruiting bodies and mycelial biomass of P. ostreatus. The major bioactive compounds concentration of this mushroom may be increased by modification of the substrate composition and cultivation or postharvest conditions. The goal of this review is to evaluate the results of the studies about the biochemical composition and medicinal properties of edible wild and cultivated P. ostreatus. Furthermore, the advanced novel cultivation techniques, biotechnological processes, and postharvest treatments were given in order to increase its nutritional and nutraceutical values.
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Mushrooms are becoming a vital component of the human diet for the prevention and treatment of various diseases. The use of mushrooms for developing functional foods, drugs, and nutraceuticals is reviewed in this chapter, with emphasis on present or potential medical implications. As functional foods, mushrooms represent a paradigm of integrating tradition and novelty, due to their wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. Their bioactive components can be extracted or concentrated as nutraceuticals, and/or a diverse class of dietary supplements. Functional foods and nutraceuticals, particularly mushrooms, are immunoceuticals with antitumor and immunomodulatory effects which target and modulate biological processes that foster the development of diseases. Several mushroom products, mainly polysaccharides such as β‐D‐glucans, have proceeded successfully through clinical trials and are used as drugs to treat cancer and chronic diseases. In sum, the present status and future prospects open new avenues for upgrading mushroom species from functional food to translational mushroom medicine.
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A robust and reliable method has been developed for the measurement of β-glucan in mushroom and mycelial products. Total glucan (plus free glucose and glucose from sucrose) was measured using controlled acid hydrolysis with H2SO4 and the glucose released specifically was measured using glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent. α-Glucan (starch/glycogen) plus free glucose and glucose from sucrose were specifically measured after hydrolysis of starch/glycogen to glucose with glucoamylase and sucrose to glucose plus fructose with invertase and the glucose specifically measured with GOPOD reagent. β-Glucan was determined by the difference. Several acid and enzyme-based methods for the hydrolysis of the β-glucan were compared, and the best option was the method using H2SO4. For most samples, similar β-glucan values were obtained with both the optimized HCl and H2SO4 procedures. However, in the case of certain samples, specifically Ganoderma lucidum and Poria cocus, the H2SO4 procedure resulted in significantly higher values. Hydrolysis with 2 N trifluoroacetic acid at 120°C was found to be much less effective than either of the other two acids evaluated. Assays based totally on enzymatic hydrolysis, in general, yielded much lower values than those obtained with the H2SO4 procedure.
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The optical and textural properties of chicken patty formulated with different level of grey oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) at 0, 25 or 50% to replace chicken meat were investigated. The addition of up to 50% oyster mushroom to chicken patty formulations did not change colour a* (redness), compared with the control patty. Chicken patties containing oyster mushroom had lower L* value ranging from 51.02 - 52.65 compared to that of the control patty (57.86). All oyster mushroom-based patties had lower colour b* (yellowness) value compared to chicken patty without mushroom. The hardness of chicken patty decreased proportionally with the level of oyster mushroom. On the other hand, oyster mushroom-based patties were springier than the control patty. Chicken which was replaced with 25% of fresh mushroom, recorded the highest moisture retention (77.19%) and cooking yield (80.71%), respectively. However, replacement of 25% of oyster mushroom with chicken breast in chicken patty formulation was not change the moisture retention, fat retention and cooking yield compared to control patty. Chicken patty added with 50% ground oyster mushroom the highest concentration of total dietary fibre (TDF) at 4.90 g/100 g compared to chicken patty containing 25% of mushroom (3.40 g/100 g) and control (1.90 g/100 g). In summary, the addition of oyster mushroom in chicken patties has decreased the lightness, yellowness, hardness and chewiness while no changes were noted in the redness of the patties.
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Background Due to an aging population and illnesses related to current lifestyles, health-related concerns are becoming increasingly more important. Moreover, today's society is more aware of the potential side effects of medicines and is looking for innovative therapeutic alternatives. Hence, the use of natural compounds in the prevention of various diseases and health maintenance has been studied. Among the natural products studied are mushrooms, which are well known for their nutritional value and health-promoting properties. These have been considered as both functional foods and a source of nutraceuticals. Scope and approach The present review is aimed at collecting and critically examining current data on the bioactive properties of mushrooms as well as their classification as functional foods and source of nutraceuticals. It also intended to describe the state of the art regarding mushroom formulations currently available on the market, and to highlight what could be done to improve this market in order to make a variety of quality and duly-certified products that promote human well-being available. Key findings and conclusions Mushrooms are natural matrices of excellence. Their bioactivity has been proved and therefore, their incorporation in foods has been studied. However, these new food products have not yet gone to market and most of the mushrooms and their compounds are mainly consumed in their natural form or in dietary supplements. Despite interest in such products having grown over the years, in Western countries, mushroom products are not as common as in Asia and legislation needs to be implemented to permit an increase in their consumption.
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Many edible mushrooms are considered as “functional” foods having immunomodulatory and anticancer properties. The ability of mushrooms to exert biological effects and modulate immune functions is due to the presence of bioactive compounds with most important the polysaccharides β-glucans. B-glucans are found in bacteria, fungi and plants and act on several immune cell receptors resulting in both innate and adaptive response. The incorporation of β-glucans in various foods and animal feed has the potential of creating novel “functional” food products, with many health benefits to human and animal nutrition.
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Mushrooms have unique sensory properties and nutritional values as well as health benefits due to their bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Well-known edible and medicinal mushroom species as well as uncommon or unknown species representing interesting sources of bioactive beta-glucans have been widely studied. Commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms were analysed for their beta-glucan contents. Enzymatic determinations of all glucans, alpha-glucans and beta-glucans in 39 mushrooms species were performed, leading to very remarkable results. Many wild growing species present high beta-glucan contents, especially Bracket fungi. The well-known cultivated species Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Cantharellus cibarius as well as most screened wild growing species show higher glucan contents in their stipes than caps.
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The objective of the model experiment was to examine the microbiological (yeasts, moulds, coliform bacteria) and sensory (appearance, colour, consistency, taste) qualities as well as the lifetime of white and fruit yoghurts enriched with different additions of two types of hydrogels of beta-D-glucan, namely pleuran (from Pleurotus ostreatus) and lentinan (from Lentinus edodes). The yoghurts were stored for 30 days under the refrigerator conditions (5degreesC +/- 2degreesC), the sampling being done on the 1(st), 15(th) and 30(th) day of the storage. The results obtained by the analyses of yoghurts with the addition of pleuran and lentinan showed that the fermentation ability of white and fruit yoghurts was not inhibited by the addition of hydrogels before this process; the acid equivalent (degreesSH) and pH of samples showed values typical for this kind of product during a month-lasting storage; the groups of microorganisms followed (coliform bacteria, yeasts and moulds) did not appear during the whole storage period (< 1 CFU/g); the application of both hydrogels added to yoghurts had no negative influence on the sensory acceptability of the products; all samples maintained a very good quality during the whole storage period and did not differ significantly from one another in the individual parameters evaluated.