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Biodiversity of the Sebangau tropical peat swamp forest, Indonesian Borneo

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The importance of Southeast Asia's tropical peat swamp forests for biodiversity is becoming increasingly recognised. Information on species presence within peatland areas is scant, however, limiting our ability to develop species conservation strategies and monitor responses to human activities. We compile species presence records for the Sebangau forest in Indonesian Borneo since 1993 and present the most complete Bornean PSF biodiversity inventory yet published. Including morpho-species that are likely to represent true species, this list comprises 215 tree, 92 non-tree flora, 73 ant, 66 butterfly, 297 spider, 41 dragon/damselfly, 55 fish, 11 amphibian, 46 reptile, 172 bird and 65 mammal taxa. Of these, 46 species are globally threatened and 59 are currently protected in Indonesia; 22 vertebrate species are Borneo endemics. Because our sampling is both biased and incomplete, the true number of species found at this site is likely to be much higher. Little is known about many of these taxa in Sebangau and peat swamp forests elsewhere. Many of these species are considered forest dependent, and the entire community is expected to be important for maintaining the resilience of the peat swamp forest ecosystem and the environmental services that it provides. This highlights the need for urgent conservation of Sebangau and its diverse biological community.
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Mires and Peat, Volume 22 (2018), Article 05, 1–50, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X
© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
1
Biodiversity of the Sebangau tropical peat swamp forest, Indonesian Borneo
S.J. Husson1, S.H. Limin2,3, Adul1,2, N.S. Boyd1, J.J. Brousseau1, S. Collier1,4, S.M. Cheyne1,5,
L.J. D’Arcy1, R.A. Dow6, N.W. Dowds1,4, M.L. Dragiewicz1, D.A. Ehlers Smith1,7, Iwan1,2, Hendri1,2,
P.R. Houlihan1,8, K.A. Jeffers1, B.J.M. Jarrett1,9, I.P. Kulu2, H.C. Morrogh-Bernard1,4, S.E. Page10,
E.D. Perlett1, A. Purwanto1,2, B. Ripoll Capilla1, Salahuddin1,2, Santiano1,2, S.J.J. Schreven1,11,
M.J. Struebig12, S.A. Thornton1,10, C. Tremlett1, Z. Yeen1,2,3 and M.E. Harrison1,10
1Borneo Nature Foundation, Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia;
2UPT CIMTROP, University of Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia; 3Deceased; 4University of Exeter,
Penryn, Cornwall, UK; 5Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK; 6Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The
Netherlands and Sarawak Museum Campus Project, Jabatan Muzium Sarawak, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia; 7Current
address: University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Life Sciences, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; 8Florida
Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA; 9Current address: Department of
Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; 10School of Geography, Geology and the Environment, University
of Leicester, Leicester, UK; 11Plant Ecology and Nature Conservation Group (current address: Laboratory of
Entomology, Plant Sciences Group), Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands; 12Durrell
Institute of Conservation and Ecology, School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK
_______________________________________________________________________________________
SUMMARY
The importance of Southeast Asia’s tropical peat swamp forests for biodiversity is becoming increasingly
recognised. Information on species presence within peatland areas is scant, however, limiting our ability to
develop species conservation strategies and monitor responses to human activities. We compile species
presence records for the Sebangau forest in Indonesian Borneo since 1993 and present the most complete
Bornean PSF biodiversity inventory yet published. Including morpho-species that are likely to represent true
species, this list comprises 215 tree, 92 non-tree flora, 73 ant, 66 butterfly, 297 spider, 41 dragon/damselfly,
55 fish, 11 amphibian, 46 reptile, 172 bird and 65 mammal taxa. Of these, 46 species are globally threatened
and 59 are currently protected in Indonesia; 22 vertebrate species are Borneo endemics. Because our sampling
is both biased and incomplete, the true number of species found at this site is likely to be much higher. Little
is known about many of these taxa in Sebangau and peat swamp forests elsewhere. Many of these species are
considered forest dependent, and the entire community is expected to be important for maintaining the
resilience of the peat swamp forest ecosystem and the environmental services that it provides. This highlights
the need for urgent conservation of Sebangau and its diverse biological community.
KEY WORDS: biodiversity, Central Kalimantan, conservation, Sebangau, species presence
_______________________________________________________________________________________
INTRODUCTION
Indonesia’s tropical peatlands cover 206,950 km2
(Page et al. 2011) yet, with the exception of some
early botanical studies (e.g., Sewandono 1937, 1938;
Anderson 1963, 1976), received relatively little
attention from the scientific and conservation
communities until the end of the 20th century.
Ecologists long regarded tropical peat swamp forest
(PSF) as less interesting than other forest types in the
region, namely the highly biodiverse dryland
dipterocarp forests (Prentice & Parish 1992, Yule
2010). The obvious swampy nature of PSFs, plus
difficulty of access, further dissuaded scientists from
working in these environments. This resulted in an
overall impression that PSFs were neither interesting
nor important, which combined with most PSF areas
not being claimed by local communities, resulted in
most PSFs in Indonesia being designated as
production or agricultural forests by previous
national governments.
Studies over the last twenty years have begun to
reverse this impression, however, and the high value
of Indonesia’s peatlands for carbon sequestration,
storage and emissions is now widely appreciated
(Page et al. 2002, Hooijer et al. 2009, Page et al.
2011). PSFs are also appreciated for their role in
providing other ecosystem services of importance to
local and international communities, such as flood
prevention and provision of non-timber forest
products (Graham 2013, Harrison 2013, Giesen
2015).
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
Mires and Peat, Volume 22 (2018), Article 05, 1–50, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X
© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
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Alongside this increased awareness of PSF
ecosystem functions and services, studies have
revealed that, contrary to earlier beliefs, these forests
are home to a wide variety of flora and fauna (Page
et al. 1997, Yule 2010, Posa et al. 2011). Indeed,
compilation of species records across sites indicates
that at least 1,524 plant, 123 mammal, 268 bird, 75
reptile, 27 amphibian and 219 fish species can be
found in Southeast Asia’s PSFs (Posa et al. 2011),
although this does not necessarily translate into high
levels of habitat endemicity (e.g., plants: Giesen et al.
2018). Studies have also revealed the importance of
these forests - which still cover large areas,
particularly in Indonesia - for conservation of
threatened animal species including primates (Pongo
spp.: Morrogh-Bernard et al. 2003, Wich et al. 2008;
Hylobatidae: Campbell et al. 2008, Cheyne et al.
2008; Presbytis rubicunda: Ehlers Smith & Ehlers
Smith 2013), clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi) and
other felid species (Cheyne et al. 2011, 2013b) and
wetland birds, such as the Storm’s stork (Ciconia
stormi: Cheyne et al. 2014) and white-winged duck
(Asarcornis scutulata: Silvius & Verheugt 1986).
Despite this increased appreciation, Indonesia’s
PSFs remain threatened by human activities
including drainage and subsequent fire, conversion
for agriculture (especially oil palm), plus logging and
wildlife hunting (Morrogh-Bernard et al. 2003,
Struebig et al. 2007, Harrison et al. 2009a, Page et al.
2009b, Miettinen & Liew 2010, Harrison et al.
2011a, Meijaard et al. 2011, Posa et al. 2011,
Miettinen et al. 2012a, Miettinen et al. 2012b). These
threats have led to the loss of 1.8 Mha of PSF in
Borneo, Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia from 2007
to 2015; equivalent to an annual deforestation rate of
4.1 % (Miettinen et al. 2016). Further advancing our
understanding of PSF biodiversity, its distribution
and responses to disturbance is important for
providing the enhanced knowledge base needed to
make better PSF conservation management decisions
and monitor the impacts of management (or lack
thereof) on PSF biodiversity (Harrison et al. 2012).
In this article we present a list of flora and fauna
species documented in the Natural Laboratory of Peat
swamp Forest (NLPSF), Sebangau, in the southern
lowlands of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Building
on earlier preliminary lists for the area (e.g., Page et
al. 1997, Shepherd et al. 1997), we compile 25 years
of records and list the species found, highlighting
records of particular note and making
recommendations for conservation management. We
hope that this research will help stimulate further
studies describing PSF biodiversity in the region,
raise the profile of PSF conservation efforts and
improve our baseline knowledge of this ecosystem,
thus contributing towards better informed and more
successful conservation management.
METHODS
Study site
Species presence records described here were
collected in the 500 km2 NLPSF, part of the
7,347 km2 Sebangau peat dome in Central
Kalimantan, Indonesia (2° 19′ S, 113° 54′ E,
Figure 1). This site has been the focus of intensive
research efforts on many aspects of PSF ecology and
management by the Centre for International
Cooperation in Sustainable Management of Tropical
Peatlands at the University of Palangka Raya (UPT
CIMTROP UPR), the Universities of Nottingham
and Leicester, the Borneo Nature Foundation and
other institutions since 1993. Sebangau is a truly
ombrogenous peat swamp forest; i.e. it receives all its
nutrient influx from aerial sources (rain, aerosols and
dust; Page et al. 1999), with the exception of the
riverine margins which are almost entirely
deforested. Consequently, it is relatively poor in plant
nutrients, which has resulted in fewer forest strata
and a lower canopy height (1525 m) than in forests
on mineral soils (Page et al. 1999).
Borneo’s inland PSFs typically comprise a
number of different habitat sub-types, with the
following occurring in the NLPSF (Page et al. 1999,
Morrogh-Bernard et al. 2003, Cheyne et al. 2008,
Husson et al. 2015; Figure 1):
Mixed swamp forest: found on the shallowest
peat, from the limits of river flooding to 5.5 km
inland from the forest edge. Characterised by
intermediate tree size (1525 m closed canopy
height), species richness and ape population
densities. Contains many commercial timber trees
and consequently suffered relatively high logging
disturbance. Its proximity to forest edge and
greater accessibility leads to relatively high
encroachment and hunting prevalence.
Low pole forest: a relatively stunted, depauperate
forest, found 5.510 km from the forest edge on
peat of 610 m depth. Characterised by small tree
size (1215 m closed canopy), species richness
and ape population densities. Contains few trees
of commercial timber size and has consequently
suffered little from direct logging disturbance.
Tall interior forest: a productive, diverse forest
crowning the top of the dome on peat 1013 m
thick. Characterised by relatively tall trees
(maximum 45 m upper canopy height), high
species richness and ape population densities.
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
Mires and Peat, Volume 22 (2018), Article 05, 1–50, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X
© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
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Figure 1. Map showing the location of Sebangau in Indonesian Borneo (inset), with forest cover (before the
2015 fires, when most of the species records were obtained) and distribution of habitat sub-types within the
Sebangau forest. Peat swamp forest habitat outside the Sebangau forest is not differentiated into sub-types.
White areas are not forested. Adapted from Ehlers Smith & Ehlers Smith (2013).
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
Mires and Peat, Volume 22 (2018), Article 05, 1–50, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X
© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
4
Contains many commercial timber trees and has
consequently suffered relatively high logging
disturbance.
Very low canopy forest: covers ~78 km2 at the
highest point in the catchment. Characterised by
permanently high water table and very large pools
up to 1 m deep, with few trees exceeding 1.5 m in
height. Not sampled during this study, owing to
extreme difficulty of access.
The Sebangau catchment was selectively logged
over a period of ~ 40 years by legal timber
concessions and illegal hand-logging. The latter was
particularly widespread and indiscriminate, but was
stopped in our research area by a locally-led
Community Patrol Team in 2004 (Husson et al.
2015). The timber extraction canals (typically 12 m
wide, 0.31.3 m deep and often extending many
kilometres into the forest) dug into the peat by the
illegal loggers remain, however, causing ongoing
peat drainage, which has resulted in peat subsidence
and a heightened dry-season fire risk (Harrison et al.
2009a). Exploitation of wildlife still occurs for some
species and has occurred until recently for some
others in the area, including fishing (Yulentine et al.
2007), hunting of Pteropus vampyrus fruit bats
(Struebig et al. 2007, Harrison et al. 2011a) and
bearded pigs (Sus barbatus), plus capture of green
leafbirds (Chloropsis spp.) for sale in local markets.
This history of disturbance is typical of that
experienced in most of southern Borneo’s “relatively
intact” PSFs.
Survey methods
Species records were collected between 1993 and
2018. Records for the following species groups are
summarised here: plants, ants, butterflies, spiders,
dragon/damselflies, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds,
mammals. Compilation of species lists for plants,
amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals began in
1993, for butterflies in 2004, dragon/damselflies in
2012, fish in 2014 and spiders in 2015. The data
include records obtained from all habitat sub-types
at the site, but most effort was expended in the
mixed swamp forest habitat sub-type, which is
the site of the NLPSF base camp, has a well-
established camp and trail system, and is subject to
year-round ecological research. Our lists build upon
previously published lists and incorporate taxonomic
changes as necessary. Any dubious records have been
removed.
The variety of survey methods employed across
the different species groups is summarised below. A
brief description of potential sampling bias for each
group is also provided.
Plants: seedling, sapling and mostly “adult” tree
(≥ 6 cm diameter at breast height) plots (Page et
al. 1999), plus ad hoc observations. This list is
strongly biased towards woody plants and trees in
particular, and is very incomplete for other plant
types. High survey effort, with many hectares of
plots sampled by multiple observers for over two
decades.
Ants: 120 honey-baited pitfall traps sampled each
month for a one-year period (Schreven et al. 2014,
2018). This list is heavily biased towards ground-
dwelling ants attracted to sugar baits and is very
incomplete for ants occupying other niches. It also
includes a number of genera or morpho-species
for which species-level identifications could not
be completed.
Butterflies: fruit- and carrion-baited canopy traps,
with additional records obtained through hand
netting and ad hoc observations (Houlihan et al.
2012, Houlihan et al. 2013, Tremlett 2014,
Marchant et al. 2015). High survey effort for fruit-
baited canopy traps, including ≥ 120 trap days per
month continuously since January 2012; total
1,200 canopy-baited trap days. The list is biased
towards species attracted to fruit- and carrion-
baited canopy traps.
Spiders: nocturnal searches within plots from
ground leaf litter to maximum overhead head
level (Hore & Uniyal 2008, Pinto-Leite & Rocha
2012, Dowds 2015) and ad hoc observations.
Records are biased against canopy and diurnal
species and, as for ants, include a large number of
genera or morpho-species for which species-level
identifications could not be completed.
Dragon/damselflies: visual encounter surveys and
hand netting along transects (Dow & Silvius
2014), plus ad hoc observations. One survey day
was completed in June 2012 (Dow & Silvius
2014) and a total of 50 surveys were completed
from April 2017 to October 2017. The species list
is biased towards species that perch from ground
level to just above head height.
Fish: traditionally baited (using tempeh and
fermented shrimp paste) wire traps in rivers,
canals and forest pools; interviews with local
fishermen (species were included only when
commonly mentioned by multiple fishermen); and
ad hoc observations (Page et al. 1997, Ng & Tan
2011, Schindler & Linke 2013, Thornton et al.
2018). Total trapping effort was 1,300 trap nights
in the river and 600 trap nights in the forest. These
trapping methods are biased against smaller fish
and those not attracted to the bait types used.
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
Mires and Peat, Volume 22 (2018), Article 05, 1–50, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X
© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
5
Amphibians: visual encounter and manual
acoustic (calling) surveys along line transects
(Doan 2003, Dorcas et al. 2009), and ad hoc
observations. In total, 314 acoustic surveys were
completed; the total number of visual encounter
surveys was not recorded but represents a fairly
low annual survey effort covering at least a period
from 2001 to the present. This list is biased
towards species easily seen or heard by ground-
based observers, and will be particularly
incomplete for quieter, inconspicuous and
canopy-dwelling species.
Reptiles: visual encounter surveys (Doan 2003);
ad hoc observations. List bias and sampling effort
as for amphibians.
Birds: point counts, transect surveys, camera traps
and ad hoc observations, based on both sight and
sound (Bibby et al. 1998). The total number of
camera trap nights since data collection began in
2008 was > 90,000 at the time of writing. Full
details of all point/transect surveys are no longer
available, but these represent several blocks of
intensive surveys during ornithologist visits, each
of a few months duration. Records may show
some bias against quieter and more discreet
species.
Mammals: visual encounter surveys along line
transects, camera trapping (Cheyne et al. 2010,
Cheyne & MacDonald 2011) and ad hoc
observations. Camera trap survey effort as for
birds; line transect survey effort as for reptiles and
amphibians. Records may show some bias against
quieter and more discreet species. Bats were
sampled by harp trapping over 15 trap nights
(Struebig et al. 2006); these records are limited to
species flying in the forest understorey.
Species were identified with the aid of appropriate
field guides (D'Abrera 1985, Payne & Francis 1985,
D’Abrera 1986, Kottelat et al. 1993, Bolton 1994,
Inger & Stuebing 1997, Liat & Das 1999, Stuebing &
Inger 1999, Deeleman-Reinhold 2001, Otsuka 2001,
Orr 2003, Das 2004, Atack 2006, Myers 2009,
Phillipps & Phillipps 2009, Thomas 2013, Koh & Tzi
Ming 2014) and consultation with external experts
where necessary. Nomenclature follows these
sources, plus APG IV (2016) and the Taxonomic
Name Resolution Service (Boyle et al. 2013) for
angiosperms, Fishbase.org for fish, Wilson & Reeder
(2005) and Duckworth & Pine (2003) for mammals,
and Roos et al. (2014) for primates. Previously
published accounts of species presence in the area
(Page et al. 1997, Shepherd et al. 1997, Page et al.
1999, Struebig et al. 2006, Hamamoto et al. 2007,
Mirmanto 2010, Haryono 2012, Houlihan et al. 2012,
Dow & Silvius 2014, Schreven et al. 2014, Tremlett
2014, Thornton 2017) were cross-checked against the
above and various other published sources along with
our own unpublished records, as well as with external
experts. This resulted in some additions, removals
and alterations to species names provided in
previously published accounts of species presence in
Sebangau.
Records for some groups include morpho-species
within genera, for which species-level identifications
could not be confirmed. These are included within
our dataset to provide a rough indication of the
potential number of species in these groups. We
consider this preferable to completely omitting these
records or only presenting figures for species with
identification to species level confirmed beyond
doubt, which would under-estimate the true number
of species. Furthermore, all of our lists are very likely
to be incomplete owing to the various sampling
biases outlined above. All IUCN threat status
assessments were current at the time of writing, and
Indonesian protected status assessments were based
on the newly updated government protected species
list (MENLHK 2018).
RESULTS
A summary of the total number of species recorded
across all groups is provided in Table 1, and group-
by-group Tables of all species recorded, conservation
listings and pertinent notes are provided in Tables
A1A10 in the Appendix. These lists include 46
species which are considered to be globally
threatened by the IUCN, 59 species listed as legally
protected in Indonesia, and 22 vertebrate species that
are endemic to the island of Borneo.
DISCUSSION
To our knowledge, these lists represent the most
complete account of Bornean PSF biodiversity
currently available and thus make a major
contribution towards our understanding of this
unique and important ecosystem. This account builds
upon previous records from the Sebangau NLPSF by
increasing the number of species recorded and
providing data for additional taxonomic groups
(Table 1). It also builds upon previously published
tree species lists for other (neighbouring and distant)
parts of the Sebangau PSF, which documented 100
(Anderson 1976) and 152 (Widjaja et al. 2007) tree
species, compared to the 215 recorded in our study.
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
Mires and Peat, Volume 22 (2018), Article 05, 1–50, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X
© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
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Table 1. Summary of total number of species recorded in the NLPSF, Sebangau by taxonomic group and
comparison to previous published data for the area. “Threatened” species are those considered Vulnerable
(VU), Endangered (EN) or Critically Endangered (CR) by the IUCN.
Taxa
THIS STUDY
PAST
STUDY
Total3
Total1
Min. % of
total for
SEA PSF2
Protected in
Indonesia
Borneo
endemics
Trees
215 (111)
-
2
-
104
Non-tree flora
92 (14)
-
0
-
2
Ants
73 (24)4
-
0
-
-
Butterflies
66 (63)5
-
0
0
-
Spiders
297 (29)
-
0
-
-
Dragon/damselflies
41 (37)
-
0
11
14
Freshwater fish
55 (51)6
25
0
10
35
Amphibians
11 (10)
37
0
0
-
Reptiles
46 (41)
55
3
2
-
Birds
172 (172)7
64
35
4
150
Mammals
65 (65)8
52
19
6
35
1 Expected total number of species, assuming that morpho-species and species with uncertain species designations (“/” in
Species columns in Tables A1A10) represent distinct true species. Figures in parentheses indicate numbers of
definitively identified species. Note that these totals incorporate species records from previously published lists (see
Methods).
2 Minimum percentage of the total Southeast Asian PSF species complement occurring in the Sebangau NLPSF, based on
the numbers of definitively identified species in our datasets and the total numbers of species in South-east Asian PSF
estimated by Posa et al. (2011). Not calculated for trees, ants, butterflies, spiders and dragon/damselflies owing to lack
of comparable data in Posa et al. (2011); nor for non-tree plants, owing to high incompleteness of the list we provide in
Table A1.
3 Tree species numbers from Shepherd et al. (1997); fauna species numbers from Page et al. (1997), with the exception
of dragon/damselflies (Dow & Silvius 2014). Numbers for freshwater fish from Page et al. (1997) plus Haryono (2012).
Mirmanto (2010) also studied tree species at the site, but their study is excluded because the tree species totals in different
parts of the publication are contradictory and a full species list is not provided.
4 Data from Schreven et al. (2014, 2018).
5 Data from Houlihan et al. (2012) and Tremlett (2014), plus one additional ad hoc observation (Zeltus amasa, S. Schreven,
personal observation).
6 Data from Page et al. (1997), Ng & Tan (2011), Haryono (2012), Schindler & Linke (2013), Thornton (2017) and
Thornton et al. (2018).
7 Includes four species that may now be locally extinct (see Table A9 and Discussion).
8 Bat species records from Struebig et al. (2006).
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
Mires and Peat, Volume 22 (2018), Article 05, 1–50, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X
© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
7
Our lists comprise a potential total of 1,133
species, including 615 species for which species-
level identification has been confirmed and a further
518 records for which species-level identification is
currently uncertain, but which we believe are likely
to represent at least one true species. Of these, 46
species are currently listed as threatened by the
IUCN, 59 are legally protected in Indonesia and 22
vertebrate fauna species are endemic to Borneo.
Because many IUCN and endemic status assessments
are out of date and/or under revision (e.g., IUCN
revisions for Odonata are scheduled to be completed
by 2020), it is likely that these figures will increase
over the coming years.
Comparisons of our species lists with relatively
complete lists from other PSFs in the region indicate
high species diversity in Sebangau, though it is likely
that differences in sampling intensity and/or study
duration also contributed to the (generally) higher
recorded diversities in Sebangau. For example, we
identified 215 tree species in Sebangau, compared to
144 recorded in PSF in Katingan, Central Kalimantan
(Harrison 2011b), 127 in “tall swamp forest” in
Danau Sentarum National Park, West Kalimantan
(Giesen 2000), 135 in Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu
Biosphere Reserve (Gunawan et al. 2012), 115 in
Berbak National Park (Giesen 1991), 3278 from the
various island and coastal sites in/off Sumatra
surveyed by Sewandono (1938), and 132 in Pekan,
Peninsular Malaysia (Ibrahim 1997). Likewise, we
recorded, in total, 172 bird species in Sebangau,
compared to: 132 in PSF in Tuanan (Posa & Marques
2012) and 111 in “swamp forest” in Tanjung Puting
(Nash & Nash 1988), all in Central Kalimantan; an
estimated potential 60–70 in “tall (peat) swamp” in
Danau Sentarum National Park (Jeanes & Meijaard
2000); and 234 species in Berbak National Park
(Silvius & Verheugt 1986, Hornskov 1987). An
estimate of 3040 mammal species has been reported
in “tall (peat) swamp” in Danau Sentarum National
Park (Jeanes & Meijaard 2000), compared to our
record of 65 species from Sebangau, while the number
of fish species recorded in Sebangau (55) is the highest
from Borneo PSF to date (Thornton et al. 2018).
Thus, this study confirms that Sebangau is an
important area for biodiversity conservation, both
locally and globally; a conclusion that is further
justified when considering its large size and
relatively intact forest cover, and thus the large
populations of many species that are likely to be
present in the area. For example, owing primarily to
its large size, Sebangau is believed to represent the
largest contiguous protected population of the
Bornean orangutan (Utami-Atmoko et al. 2017) and
possibly the largest population of the Bornean white-
bearded gibbon (Campbell et al. 2008, Cheyne et al.
2008). Similar findings can be expected for many
other species that have been less well surveyed so far.
We were unable to assign concrete identifications
to species level for over 45 % of the records on our
list, and thus probably under-estimated the number of
threatened and endemic species. For example, of the
14 species of the tree genus Lithocarpus listed by the
IUCN, 12 are considered vulnerable/endangered, but
here 7 of 9 Lithocarpus could not be identified below
genus level. Our list thus suggests that no threatened
Lithocarpus species occur in Sebangau, which is
unlikely to be the case. Likewise, given the diversity
of the fig genus Ficus (for which, e.g., Anderson
1963 reports 24 species in coastal peat swamp forests
of Sarawak and Brunei), our count of nine morpho-
species in Sebangau is likely to be incomplete.
Moreover, particularly for the less well-known
invertebrate taxa that (to our knowledge) have
received no previous research attention in this
habitat, it is possible - or even probable - that some
of our morpho-species designations will represent
species new to science.
Many species found in Sebangau are used by the
local community. These include many timber species
(e.g. Shorea spp. and Gonystylus bancanus),
although logging of all but the smallest poles in the
NLPSF has ceased since 2004, owing to increased
protection; Dyera polyphylla trees used for rubber
tapping; Alseodaphne coriacea tree bark used for
mosquito coil production, with usual harvesting
methods involving felling and killing trees; plus use
by both people and orangutans (Morrogh-Bernard et
al. 2017) of Dracaena cantleyi leaves for self-
medication of joint pains, a behaviour thought to be
unique to the Sebangau orangutan population. Many
animal species are hunted or trapped for food (e.g.
soft-shell turtles, bearded pigs, sambar deer and
flying foxes, Struebig et al. 2007), although wildlife
hunting appears to have declined in recent years
owing to increased protection and possibly reduced
populations. Others have been reported to be
harvested occasionally for ornamental purposes (e.g.
great argus for feathers and clouded leopard for fur),
or the pet trade (e.g. box turtles, blue-crowned
hanging parrots, green leafbirds). In contrast, the
edible-nest swiftlet normally roosts in caves and so is
not typically found in PSF. However, local people
have brought these birds into nearby villages, where
they are bred in large numbers in custom-made
swiftlet houses so that their nests can be collected for
international export to make bird’s-nest soup. The
species can now be found feeding in large numbers
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
Mires and Peat, Volume 22 (2018), Article 05, 1–50, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X
© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
8
above areas of PSF adjacent to villages, such as the
NLPSF, where it may potentially be competing for
food with the native glossy swiftlet and other bird
species.
The biases inherent in our lists mean that they
should be regarded as absolute minimum counts of
total species numbers in the area. First, the lists
incorporate spatial bias because greater and, for some
species groups, exclusive survey effort was expended
in the mixed swamp forest habitat sub-type around
the main NLPSF base camp. Low pole, tall interior
and other habitat sub-types are under-represented and
the whole NLPSF area covers just 500 km2 of the
total 4,793 km2 of forest in the Sebangau catchment.
Secondly, capture or detection bias resulted from the
survey methods adopted. In particular, canopy
dwelling, cryptic, nocturnal, aquatic, high-flying,
seasonal migratory and very rare species will be
under-represented, as will species that are not
attracted to or detectable using the techniques that we
employed (e.g., ants and butterflies that are not
attracted to the baits used in our traps, or bats that fly
higher than or can avoid harp traps). Thirdly, ease of
identifying and distinguishing species varies between
groups, with the result that the lists for some groups
(e.g., trees, invertebrates) contain more records for
which identification to species level was not possible
than lists for other groups (e.g., mammals, birds).
An additional bias hidden within the species lists
presented here arises from the huge difference in
understanding that exists between different species
and species groups. For example, following many
years of intensive research, we now know a large
amount about orangutan population dynamics and
behavioural ecology in Sebangau (Husson et al.
2002, Morrogh-Bernard et al. 2003, Harrison et al.
2007, Harrison 2009, Harrison et al. 2009b, Husson
et al. 2009, Morrogh-Bernard 2009, Morrogh-
Bernard et al. 2009, Harrison et al. 2010c, Morrogh-
Bernard et al. 2011, Cheyne et al. 2013a, Morrogh-
Bernard et al. 2014a, Morrogh-Bernard et al. 2014b,
Husson et al. 2015); but the same cannot be said
about the lesser woolly horseshoe bat or the spider
Pristidia longistila, about which we know virtually
nothing specific for the Sebangau PSF other than that
these species are present. Moreover, whole
taxonomic groups are entirely unrepresented in our
dataset, including many that are likely to be
incredibly species rich; e.g., beetles and fungi.
Therefore, while it remains important to increase our
understanding of the flagship species for which
Sebangau is rightly famed, we encourage researchers
also to investigate the many lesser-studied groups, to
advance our overall understanding of PSF ecology
and the effects of human activities on this ecosystem.
Conservation implications
These lists highlight the species richness, and
particularly the numbers of threatened and nationally
protected species, found in the Sebangau forest. This
underlines the conservation importance of Sebangau,
as well as other PSF areas in southern Kalimantan
(e.g., Tuanan, Mawas, Katingan), especially given the
high similarity to Sebangau in species composition
for birds (Posa & Marques 2012) and trees (Harrison
et al. 2010b) of Tuanan and Mawas, and for flora and
fauna of Katingan (Harrison et al. 2010a, 2011b).
Disruption of this diverse PSF community is likely to
lead to knock-on negative effects on ecosystem
service provision and resilience (Yule 2010, Harrison
2013), and thus on local human communities.
Sebangau was protected as a National Park in
2004, and all other deep peatlands in Central
Kalimantan now have protection in some form owing
to their importance as carbon stores and buffers to
forest fires in their natural state. Nevertheless, all are
threatened in some way, by peat drainage, fire,
conversion for agriculture, timber logging, wildlife
hunting and climate change (Miettinen & Liew
2010). Forest conversion, degradation and/or
fragmentation will inevitably lead to reductions in
both the abundance of individual species and species
richness. Therefore, conservation of this ecosystem
must - and, indeed, is - considered a high priority
within Indonesia and internationally. This requires
restoration of natural ecosystem functions within PSF
including hydrology, carbon sequestration and
storage, which are negatively affected by these
disturbances (Yule 2010, Harrison 2013) and are
difficult to restore once disrupted (Page et al. 2009a).
In light of this, we recommend the following
conservation management actions, both specifically
in Sebangau and more widely in PSF areas:
1. Active forest protection and restoration to avert
further ecosystem damage and, where possible, to
reverse existing damage, including enforcement
of existing laws and regulations, forest patrols,
firefighting, blocking of ex-logging canals and
replanting of burned/deforested areas.
2. Development of sustainable livelihood and forest
use initiatives that provide incentives for local
people to support and actively participate in forest
conservation.
3. Raising awareness among local and international
communities, authorities and conservation
managers about PSF biodiversity, the threats it
faces, the implications of (individual) actions and
the conservation measures needed.
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
Mires and Peat, Volume 22 (2018), Article 05, 1–50, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X
© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
9
4. Further research on the population abundance,
distribution and ecology of flora and fauna
species, and on how these aspects are affected by
human activities, particularly for under-studied
taxa and taxa that are likely to be especially useful
as indicators of ecological disturbance for PSF
(Gardner 2010, Harrison et al. 2012). This should
be supplemented by in-depth sociological studies
among local stakeholders in order to better
understand their motivations, threat drivers and
opportunities for mitigation, particularly in the
context of the direct conservation interventions
outlined above.
Finally, we note that this study and production of
the species lists provided here has been possible only
because of the many years of research and large
numbers of researchers who have worked in the
NLPSF, and that current implementation of the above
conservation recommendations in the NLPSF could
not be expected to have occurred in the absence of
this research. Therefore, as in other tropical
environments (e.g., Pusey et al. 2007, Wrangham &
Ross 2008), this study also highlights the importance
and wider benefits that can be derived from long-term
PSF research projects and close collaborations
between local and international organisations.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We thank the Indonesian Ministry of Research and
Technology (RISTEK) and UPT LLG CIMTROP
UPR for research permissions in the NLPSF.
Collection of the species records described here has
been made possible through financial support from a
large number of sources over the years, among which
we are particularly indebted to The Orangutan
Project, Arcus Foundation, US Fish & Wildlife
Service Great Apes Conservation Fund, the StOLT
fund of SaveTheOrangutan and the Orangutan Land
Trust, Orangutan Appeal UK, EAZA, Bioparcs
Foundation, Orangutan Outreach, Orangutan
Conservancy, Taronga Zoo, Riverbanks Zoo,
Wallace Global Fund, Ocean Parks Conservation
Foundation Hong Kong, Wildlife Conservation
Society, Primate Conservation Inc., IFAW, Karen
Hanssen Trust, the Rufford Foundation, Point
Defiance Zoo and Aquarium, Clouded Leopard
Project, Fresno Chafee Zoo, and Panthera and
Robertson Foundation (through WildCRU,
University of Oxford). A large number of staff,
students, volunteers and other visitors from Borneo
Nature Foundation and other organisations have
contributed to this work, both generally and by
contributing records; we express our sincere gratitude
to all of them. We are especially grateful to Dudin,
Fransiskus A. Harsanto, Nicholas C. Marchant, John
O’Neil Rieley, Erna Shinta and Twentinolosa in this
regard. We thank Quentin Phillipps, Xingli Giam and
all others who have helped verify our records over the
years; Kitso Kusin and Yunsiska Ermiasi for support;
plus Quentin Phillipps and Wim Giesen for
comments that helped improve the manuscript.
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
This work represents a compilation of records
collected by many different researchers over 25
years. SJH, SHL, SMC, LJD, HCM-B, SEP, BRC
and MEH conceived the study and this article, and
(together with IPK and KAJ) coordinated research;
all authors contributed species records and/or assisted
in reviewing records and threat/protected/endemic
status; SJH and MEH managed the compiled species
dataset; and BRC created Figure 1. MEH wrote the
initial draft, which was forwarded for iterative review
by all authors.
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_______________________________________________________________________________________
Author for correspondence:
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Indonesia. Tel: +62 (0) 356 421 3343; E-mail: m.harrison@borneonature.org
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
Mires and Peat, Volume 22 (2018), Article 05, 1–50, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X
© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
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Appendix: Lists of species recorded in the NLPSF, Sebangau
Table A1. List of plant (Plantae) species recorded in the NLPSF, Sebangau. BNF local names indicate those typically used by BNF (Borneo Nature Foundation)
botanists and researchers, which commonly match local Dayak names from villages in the Sebangau area. IUCN Red List classifications are provided (CR = critically
endangered; DD = data deficient; EN = endangered; LC = least concern; NT = near threatened; VU = vulnerable), and ‘Protected?’ refers to protection status in
Indonesia. Parentheses for Latin names indicate synonyms, with those recommended by the Taxonomic Name Resolution Service prioritised; for local names, optional/
occasionally used parts of the name or spelling variations. Slashes for Latin names indicate cases in which identification between two classifications is uncertain; for
local names they indicate alternatives. Forms: C = climber; E = epiphyte; Fe = fern; Fi = fig; L = liana; O = orchid; P = parasitic; Se = sedge; Sh = shrub; T = tree.
GROUP/ORDER/Family
Genus
Species
Form
BNF local name
IUCN
Protected?
GYMNOSPERMS
GNETALES
Gnetaceae
Gnetum
sp. 1
L
Bajakah luaa
sp. 2
L
PINALES
Araucariaceae
Agathis
borneensis
T
Gatis
EN
Yes
Podocarpaceae
Dacrydium
pectinateum
T
Alau
EN
PTERIDOPHYTES
POLYPODIALES
Blechnaceae
Stenochlaena
palustris
Fe
Kalakei
Nephrolepidaceae
Nephrolepis
sp. 1
Fe
Paku jampa
ANGIOSPERMS
ALISMATALES
Araceae
Raphidophora
sp. 1
L
Unknown
sp. 1
Sh
Kujang himba
sp. 2
Sh
Kujang himba
sp. 3
Sh
APIALES
Araliaceae
Schefflera
sp. 1
T
sp. 2
L
Sapahurung
sp. 3
L
Bajakah tabulus
Pittosporaceae
Pittosporum
sp. 1
T
Prupuk tulang / napu / datar
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
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© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
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GROUP/ORDER/Family
Genus
Species
Form
BNF local name
IUCN
Protected?
AQUIFOLIALES
Aquifoliaceae
Ilex
cymosa
T
Kambasira (daun kecil)
hypoglauca
T
Kambasira (daun besar) /
Sumpung
wallichi
T
Keranji / Kambasira
Stemonuraceae
Stemonurus
cf. scorpiodes
T
Keput bajuku /
Tabaras yang tidak punya akar
umbellata
T
ARECALES
Arecaceae (Palmae)
Calamus
sp. 1
C
Uey liling
sp. 2 cf. trachycoleus
C
Uey irit
sp. 3 cf. caesius
C
Uey sigi
Korthalsia
sp. 1
C
Uey paka
Metroxylon
sp. 1
Sh
Hambiey
Pinanga
sp. 1
Sh
Pinang jouy
Salacca
sp. 1
Sh
Lokip
Unknown
sp. 1
Sh
Lokip
sp. 2
C
Uey seluang
ASPARAGALES
Asparagaceae
Dracaena
cantleyi
Sh
Orchidaceae
Eria
sp. 1
E
Anggrek bawang
Unknown
sp. 1
O
CARYOPHYLLALES
Nepenthaceae
Nepenthes
ampullaria
C
Ketupat hinut
LC
gracilis
C
Ketupat hinut
LC
rafflesiana
C
Ketupat hinut
LC
CELASTRALES
Celastraceae
Lophopetalum
sp. 1
T
Mahuwi
COMMELINALES
Commelinaceae
Commelina
sp. 1
L
Tewu kaak
Hanguanaceae
Hanguana
malayana
Sh
Bakong himba
LC
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
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© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
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GROUP/ORDER/Family
Genus
Species
Form
BNF local name
IUCN
Protected?
CUCURBITALES
Anisophylleaceae
Combretocarpus
rotundatus
T
Tumih
VU
ERICALES
Ebenaceae
Diospyros
areolata (bantamensis)
T
Malam-malam / U(A)ring pahe
cf. evena
T
Gulung haduk
confertiflora
T
Arang
lanceifolia
T
Arang
siamang
T
Ehang
sp. 1
T
Kayu arang apui
sp. 7
T
Arang
Lecythidaceae
Barringtonia
longisepala
T
Putat
Pentaphylacaceae
Ternstroemia
hosei
T
magnifica
T
Tabunter
Primulaceae
Ardisia
cf. sanguinolenta
T
Kalanduyung himba
sp. 2
T
Kamba Sulan
cf. Rapanea
borneensis
T
Rawoi / Species mertibu
Sapotaceae
Isonandra
lanceolata
T
Nyatoh palanduk (daun kecil)
sp. 1
T
Nyatoh palanduk (daun besar)
Madhuca
cf. pierri
T
Nyatoh undus
motleyana
T
Katiau
Palaquium
cf. xanthochymum
T
Nyatoh burung 1
cochlearifolium
T
Tampnag gagas / Nyatoh gagas /
Nyatoh terong
leiocarpum
T
Hangkang
pseudorostratum
T
Nyatoh bawoi / babi
Ridleyii
T
Nyatoh burung dua
sp. 2
T
Nyatoh burung tiga
spp. 34
T
Nyatoh burung
Planchonella
cf. maingayi
T
Sangkuak
Tetrameristaceae
Tetramerista
glabra
T
Ponak
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
Mires and Peat, Volume 22 (2018), Article 05, 1–50, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X
© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
19
GROUP/ORDER/Family
Genus
Species
Form
BNF local name
IUCN
Protected?
FABALES
Fabaceae (Leguminosae)
Adenanthera
pavonina
T
Tapanggang
Archidendron
borneensis
T
Kacang nyaring
Dalbergia
sp. 1
L
Dialium
Patens
T
Kala pimping napu
Koompassia
malaccensis
T
Bangaris / Kempas
LC
Yes
Leucomphalos
callicarpus
L
Akar kamunda
Ormosia
sp. 1
T
Unknown
sp. 1
L
Polygalaceae
Xanthophyllum
cf. ellipticum
T
Pohon kemuning
sp. 1
T
Ketapi-ketapi
sp. 2
T
GENTIANALES
Apocynaceae
Alyxia
sp. 1
L
Kelanis
Absolmsia (Astrostemma)
spartioides
E
Anggrek rangau
Dischidia
cf. latifolia
E
sp. 1
E
sp. 2
E
Bajakah tapuser
Dyera
polyphylla (lowii)
T
Jelutong / Pantong
Hoya
sp. 1
E
Parameria
sp. 1
L
Willughbeia
sp. 1
L
Bajakah dango
Gentianaceae
Fagraea
accuminatisma
T
racemosa
T
Tabat Barito
sp. 1
L
Kalamuhe
Rubiaceae
Psydrax (Canthium)
dicoccos (dydimum)
T
Kopi-kopi
Gardenia
tubifera
T
Saluang belum
Ixora
havilandii
T
Keranji
Lucinea
sp. 1
L
Bajakah tabari
Timonius
sp. 1
Sh
Uncaria
sp. 1
L
Kalalawit bahandang
Unknown
spp. 13
L
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
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© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
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GROUP/ORDER/Family
Genus
Species
Form
BNF local name
IUCN
Protected?
ICACINALES
Icacinaceae
Platea
excelsa
T
Kambalitan
sp. 2
T
Lampesu
LAMIALES
Gesneriaceae
Aeschynanthus
sp. 1
L
Unknown
sp. 1
L
Lamiaceae (Labiatae)
Clerodendron
sp. 1
T
Sopang
Oleaceae
Chionanthus
sp. 1
T
LAURALES
Lauraceae
Actinodaphne
sp. 1
T
Alseodaphne
coriacea
T
Gemur
Cinnamomum
sp. 1 cf. sintoc
T
Sintok
Cryptocarya
sp. 1
T
Medang
Litsea
cf. elliptica
T
Medang (Species medang)
cf. grandis var.
rufofusca
(cf. rufo-fusca)
T
Tampang
sp. 1 cf. resinosa
T
Medang
sp. 2
T
Tampang
Nothaphoebe
sp. 1
T
Medang
Phoebe
cf. grandis
T
Tabitik
LILIALES
Smilacaceae
Smilax
sp. 1
L
Bajakah tolosong
MAGNOLIALES
Annonaceae
Artabotrys
cf. roseus
L
Kalalawit Hitam
suaveolins
L
Bajakah balayan
Drepananthus
(Cyathocalyx)
biovulatus
T
Kerandau
Fissistigma
sp. 1
L
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
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© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
21
GROUP/ORDER/Family
Genus
Species
Form
BNF local name
IUCN
Protected?
Annonaceae
{continued}
Mezzetia
parviflora (leptopoda)
T
Karipak / Pisang-pisang besar
umbellate
T
Kambalitan (hitam) /
Pisang-pisang kecil
Maasia (Polyalthia)
glauca
T
Kayu bulan
hypoleuca
T
Alulup
Xylopia
cf. malayana
T
Tagula / Jangkang hijau
coriifolia
T
Jangkang merah
fusca
T
Rahanjang / Jangkang (kuning)
Magnoliaceae
Magnolia
bintulensis
T
Hanyer bajai / Medang limo /
Asam-asam
DD
Myristicaceae
Gymnacranthera
farquhariania
T
Mendarahan (Mahadarah) daun
kecil
Horsfieldia
crassifolia
T
Mendarahan (Mahadarah) daun
besar
NT
Knema
intermedia
T
Bahandang
NT
Myristica
lowiana
T
Mahadarah hitam
NT
MALPIGHIALES
Calophyllaceae
Calophyllum
cf. lanigerum
T
Mahadingan
cf. hosei
T
Kapurnaga kalakei
hosei
T
Jinjit / Bintangor / Mentangor
sclerophyllum
T
Kapurnaga (jangkar)
soulattri
T
Takal
LC
sp. 2
T
Mahadingan
spp. 35
T
Kapurnaga kalakei
Calophyllaceae
Mesua
sp. 1
T
Enyak beruk / Tabaras akar
tinggi /
Pasir-pasir
Chrysobalanaceae
Licania
splendens
T
Bintan
LC
Clusiaceae (Guttiferae)
Garcinia
bancana
T
Manggis (hutan)
sp. 1
T
Aci
sp. 2
T
sp. 3
T
Gantalang
sp. 4 parvifolia
T
Gandis
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
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© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
22
GROUP/ORDER/Family
Genus
Species
Form
BNF local name
IUCN
Protected?
Clusiaceae (Guttiferae)
{continued}
Garcinia
{continued}
sp. 5
T
Manggis jambu
sp. 6 cf. cuspidata
T
Gandis
sp. 7
T
Gandis
sp. 8 cf. celebica
(hombroniana)
T
sp. 9
T
Gandis
sp. 10
T
Manggis empat garis
sp. 11
T
Mahalilis
Euphorbiaceae
Blumeodendron
tokbrai
(elateriospermum)
T
Kenari
cf. Borneodendron
sp. 1
T
Songkai bujongan
Cephalomappa
sp. 1
T
Kerandau
Glochidion
cf. glomerulatum
T
Buah bintang
Macaranga
caladiifolia
T
Mahang semut / bitik
sp. 2
T
Mahang batu
Neoscortechinia
kingii
T
Pupuh palanduk / Nangka-
nangka
Pimelodendron
griffithianum
T
Unknown
sp. 2
L
sp. 3
T
Maha ramin
sp. 4
T
Teras bamban
Hypericaceae
Cratoxylon
arborescens
T
Geronggang mambulau
glaucum
T
Geronggang merah /
Geronggang padang
Linaceae
Ctenolophon
parvifolius
T
Kayu Cahang
Ochnaceae
Euthemis
leucarpa
Sh
sp. 1
Sh
Unknown
sp. 1
T
Phyllanthaceae
Antidesma
coriaceum
T
Tampohot / Dawat
montanum
(phanerophleum)
T
Matanundang
Baccaurea
bracteata
T
Rambai hutan
tetrandra (stipulata)
T
Kayu tulang
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
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© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
23
GROUP/ORDER/Family
Genus
Species
Form
BNF local name
IUCN
Protected?
Rhizophoraceae
Carallia
brachiata
T
Gandis
Gynotroches
sp. 1
T
Kelumun
MALVALES
Dipterocarpaceae
cf. Anisoptera
sp. 1
T
Keruing Sabun
Cotylelobium
cf. lanceolatum
T
Rasak galeget / Rasak daun
kecil
VU
(C. lanceolatum)
melanoxylon
T
EN
Dipterocarpus
borneensis
T
Keruing
confertus
T
Simpur
rappa
T
Bangkirai Rawa
Shorea
balangeran
T
Kahui / Balangeran
CR
crassa
T
teysmanniana
T
Meranti semut
EN
uliginosa
T
Meranti batu
VU
Unknown
sp. 1
T
Rasak
Vatica
mangachapoi
T
Rasak napu
EN
Malvaceae
Microcos (Grewia)
sp. 1
T
Barania himba
sp. 2
T
Barania himba buah besar
Sterculia
rhoidifolia
T
Loting
sp. 1
T
Galaga
sp. 2
T
Muara bungkang
Thymelaeaceae
Gonystylus
bancanus
T
Ramin
VU
Unknown
sp. 1
T
MYRTALES
Combretaceae
Combretum
sp. 1
L
Bajakah tampelas
Crypteroniaceae
Dactylocladus
stenostachys
T
Mertibu
Melastomataceae
Melastoma
malabathricum
Sh
Karamunting biasa
sp. 1
Sh
Karamunting Danum
Memecylon
sp. 1
T
Jambu-jambu
sp. 2
T
Milas
sp. 3
T
Tabati himba
Pternandra
cf.
coerulescens / galeata
T
Kemuning yg bergaris tiga
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
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© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
24
GROUP/ORDER/Family
Genus
Species
Form
BNF local name
IUCN
Protected?
Myrtaceae
Baeckea
frutescens
T
Kayu pilus
Syzygium (Eugenia)
zeylanicum (spicata)
T
Kayu lalas
Syzygium
cf. valevenosum
T
Kayu lalas daun besar
claviflorum (clavatum)
T
havilandii
T
Tatumbu / Jambu-jambu 1
sp. 1 cf. garcinifolia
T
Jambu burung
sp. 2
T
Kemuning putih
sp. 3 cf. nigricans
T
Jambu burung kecil
sp. 4
T
Jambu burung kecil
sp. 5 cf. E.spicata
T
Kayu lalas daun kecil
sp. 6 cf. campanulatum
T
Tampohot batang
sp. 7
T
Milas 1
sp. 8
T
Jambu burung
sp. 9 cf. lineatum
T
sp. 10
T
Jambu burung
sp. 11
T
Jambu burung kecil
sp. 12
T
sp. 13
T
Tampohot himba
sp. 14
T
Milas 2
sp. 15
T
Hampuak galaget
Tristaniopsis
obovata
T
Blawan
sp. 1 cf. bakhuizena
T
Blawan buhis
sp. 2
T
Blawan merah
sp. 3 cf. merguensis
T
Blawan putih
sp. 4
T
Blawan punai
whiteana
T
Blawan
OXALIDALES
Elaeocarpaceae
Elaeocarpus
acmocarpus
T
Patanak galaget
cf. griffithi
T
Rarumpuit
marginatus
T
Kejinjing
mastersii
T
Mangkinang
sp. 1
T
Pasir payau
sp. 4
T
Ampaning nyatu
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
Mires and Peat, Volume 22 (2018), Article 05, 1–50, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X
© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
25
GROUP/ORDER/Family
Genus
Species
Form
BNF local name
IUCN
Protected?
PANDANALES
Pandanaceae
Freycinetia
sp. 1
C
Akar gerising
sp. 2
C
Katipei Pari
Pandanus
sp. 1
Sh
Sambalaun / Pandan
sp. 2
Sh
Rasau
Pandanus / Freycinetia
sp. 1
Sh
Gerising / Pandan
PIPERALES
Piperaceae
Piper
sp. 1
C
Sirih himba
POALES
Cyperaceae
Mapania
(Thoracostachyum)
bancanum
Se
Rumput
Flagellariaceae
Flagellaria
sp. 1
C
Uey namei
RANUNCULALES
Menispermaceae
Fibraurea
tinctoria
L
Kalamuhe
ROSALES
Fagaceae
Castanopsis
foxworthyii / jaherii
T
Takurak
Lithocarpus
conocarpus
T
Pampaning bayang
rassa
T
Pampaning sangat besar
sp. 1 cf. dasystachys
T
Pampaning bitik
sp. 3
T
Pampaning bayang buah besar
sp. 4
T
Pampaning suling
sp. 5
T
Pampaning rantai
spp. 79
T
Pampaning
Juglandaceae
Engelhardtia
serrata
T
Nyamu
Moraceae
Ficus
cf. spathulifolia
Fi
Lunuk punai
cf. crassiramea
stupenda (cf. stupenda)
Fi
Lunuk tinggang
sp. 2
Fi
Lunuk bunyer
sp. 5
Fi
Lunuk buhis
sp. 6
Fi
Lunuk sambon
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
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© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
26
GROUP/ORDER/Family
Genus
Species
Form
BNF local name
IUCN
Protected?
Moraceae
{continued}
Ficus
{continued}
sp. 7
Fi
Lunuk tabuan
sp. 8
Fi
Lunuk
spp. 910
Fi
Sesendok
Parartocarpus
venenosus
T
Lilin-lilin / Tapakan
Rhamnaceae
Ziziphus
angustifolia
L
Kawit antan / Karinat / Liana
duri
SANTALALES
Loranthaceae
Dendrophthoe
incurvata
P
Lepidaria
sp. 1
P
Mentawa
SAPINDALES
Anacardiaceae
Bouea
oppositifolia
T
Tamehas
Buchanania
cf. arborescens
T
Kenyem burung
Campnosperma
coriaceum
T
Ta(e)rontang
squamatum
T
(Teras) nyating
Burseraceae
Canarium
sp. 1
T
Geronggang putih
Santiria
cf. griffithi
T
Teras Bamban
LC (S. griffithi)
cf. griffithi
T
Kasiak
LC (S. griffithi)
cf. laevigata
T
Irat
LC (S. laevigata)
spp. 12
T
Gerrongang putih
Meliaceae
Aglaia
rubiginosa
T
Kajalaki / Para-para
NT
sp. 1
T
Bangkuang napu
Chisocheton
sp. 1
T
Mariuh
sp. 2
T
Latak manuk
Sandoricum
beccanarium
T
Papong / Ketapi hutan
Rutaceae
Tetractomia
tetrandra
T
Rambangun
Sapindaceae
cf. Cubilia
cubili
T
Kahasuhuy
LC (C. cubili)
Nephelium
lappaceum
T
Rambutan hutan / Manamun
LC
maingayi
T
Kelumun buhis / Rambutan
gundul
sp. 1
T
Kaaja
Xerospermum
laevigatum /
noronhianum
T
Kelumun biasa / bakei
Simaroubaceae
Quassia
borneensis
T
Kayu takang
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
Mires and Peat, Volume 22 (2018), Article 05, 1–50, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X
© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
27
GROUP/ORDER/Family
Genus
Species
Form
BNF local name
IUCN
Protected?
UNKNOWN
Unknown
Unknown
sp. 6
L
Kelemuhe / Liana kuning sp. 2
sp. 7
L
sp. 8
L
Liana Semut
sp. 9
L
T
Kala pimping galaget
T
Rumbang
Sh
Lemba
E
Anggrek tanduk rusa
E
Pahakung
L
Liana Sonya
L
Liana rambutan
Xanthophyllum?
sp.
T
Takang sp. 2
VITALES
Vitaceae
Ampelocissus
rubiginosa
L
Bajakah panamar pari
sp. 1
L
Bajakah oyang / Liana anggur
Unknown
sp. 1
L
Bajakah panamar pari
ZINGIBERALES
Zingiberaceae
Alpinia
sp. 1
Sh
Suli batu
Unknown
sp. 1
Sh
Suli kambang
Zingiber
sp. 1
Sh
Suli tulang
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
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© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
28
Table A2. List of ant (Formicidae) species recorded in the NLPSF, Sebangau. No species identified to species
level are listed in the IUCN Red List or Indonesian protected species list. Slashes indicate cases in which
identification between two species is uncertain, and parentheses indicate subgenera. Abbreviations: “nr.” =
near (indicating relatedness to the taxon referred to).
Sub-family
Genus
Species
Dolichoderinae
Ochetellus
sp. 1
Philidris
sp. 1
Tapinoma
melanocephalum
spp. 12
Technomyrmex
kraepelini
lisae
rotundiceps
sp. 1
Ectatomminae
Gnamptogenys
gabata
Formicinae
Camponotus
sp. 1
spp. 36
Dinomyrmex
gigas
Euprenolepis
procera
Nylanderia
spp. 13
Oecophylla
smaragdina
Polyrhachis (Hedomyrma)
sp. 1
Polyrhachis (Myrma)
sp. 1
Polyrhachis (Myrmhopla) sexspinosa-group
sp. 1
Polyrhachis (Polyrhachis)
ypsilon
Formicinae
sp. 1
Myrmicinae
Acanthomyrmex
ferox
Cardiocondyla
spp. 12
Cardiocondyla wroughtonii-group
spp. 12
Carebara
cf. affinis
cf. pygmaea
sp. 1
Crematogaster (Physocrema)
inflata
cf. onusta
sewardi
Crematogaster
spp. 1-7
Mayriella
sp. 1
Meranoplus
malaysianus
Monomorium
cf. floricola
sp. 1
Pheidole
aglae
aristoteles
hortensis / clypeocornis
jacobsoni
plagiaria
quadrensis
quadricuspis
rugifera
Rhopalomastix
sp. 1
Solenopsis
sp. 1
Strumigenys
spp. 12
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
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© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
29
Sub-family
Genus
Species
Myrmicinae
{continued}
Tetramorium
pacificum
scabrosum-group sp. 1
sp. 1
cf. “Triglyphothrix” sp. 1
tonganum-group sp. 1 (nr. laparum)
tortuosum-group sp. 1
Vollenhovia
sp. 1
Ponerinae
Leptogenys
sp. 1
Odontomachus
rixosus
Pachycondyla
cf. tridentata
Pseudomyrmecinae
Tetraponera
attenuata
extenuata / modesta
nitida
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
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© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
30
Table A3. List of butterfly (Lepidoptera) species recorded in the NLPSF, Sebangau, together with IUCN Red
List classifications (LC = least concern). No species are included on the Indonesian protected species list.
Family
Sub-family
Genus
Species
IUCN
Nymphalidae
Charaxinae
Agatasa
calydonia
Charaxes
bernardus
borneensis
solon
Polyura
hebe
schreiber
Prothoe
franck
Cyrestinae
Chersonesia
peraka
Danainae
Euploea
mulciber
radamanthus
Ideopsis
vulgaris
LC
Heliconiinae
Vindula
dejone
Limenitidinae
Athyma
asura
pravara pravara
Dophla
evelina
Moduza
procris
Pandita
sinope
Morphinae
Amathusia
phidippus
Faunis
stomphax
Thaumantis
klugius
noureddin
LC
Zeuxidia
aurelius
doubledayi horsfieldi
Nymphalinae
Euthalia
kanda kanda
Hypolymnas
bolina
Lexias
bangkana
canescens
cyanipardus
pardalis
sp. 1
Tanaecia
clathrata clathrata
godartii vacillaria
munda
sp. 1
Satyrinae
Coelites
euptychioides euptychioides
Melanitis
leda
Mycalesis
anapita
Xanthotaenia
busiris
Papilionidae
Graphium
agamemnon
antiphates
delessertii
doson
evemon
sarpedon
Papilio
demoleus
iswara
Riodinidae
Paralaxita
damajanti
LC
orphna
LC
telesia
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
Mires and Peat, Volume 22 (2018), Article 05, 1–50, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X
© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
31
Family
Sub-family
Genus
Species
IUCN
Pieridae
Coliadinae
Eurema
nicevillei
Pierinae
Saletara
panda
Hesperidae
Coeliadinae
Burara
etelka
gomata
harisa
Hasora
badra
Lycaenidae
Lycaeninae
Acytolepis
puspa
ripte
Arhopala
sp. 1
Caleta
elna
Catapaecilma
evansi
Nacaduba
solta
Zeltus
amasa
Theclinae
Amblypodia
narada
Eooxylides
tharis
Hypolycaena
amablis
amasa
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
Mires and Peat, Volume 22 (2018), Article 05, 1–50, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X
© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
32
Table A4. List of spider (Araneae) species recorded in the NLPSF, Sebangau. No species identified to species
level are listed in the IUCN Red List or Indonesian protected species list.
Family
Genus
Species
Aranaeidae
Argiope
spp. 111
versicolor
Cyclosa
bifida
insulana
sp. 1
Cyrtophora
beccarii
unicolor
Neoscona
spp. 115
Parawaxia
dehaani
Aranaeidae
spp. 114
Clubionidae
Malamatidia
bohorkensis
Nusatidia
borneensis
Pristidia
longistila
Clubionidae
spp. 15
Corrinidae
Medmassa
spp. 12
insignis
Utivarachna
sp.1
Corrinidae
spp. 16
Ctenidae
Ctenus
sarawakensis
Ctenidae
spp. 12
Hersiliidae
Hersilia
deelemanae
spp. 13
Mimetidae
Mimetus
spp. 16
Nephilidae
Nephila
sp. 1
Oonopidae
Oonopidae
spp. 156
Oxyopidae
Hamataliwa
spp. 18
Pholcidae
Belisana
sp. 1
Calapnita
deelemanae
Pholcidae
spp. 18
Pisauridae
Nilus
albocinctus
Pisauridae
spp. 14
Salticidae
Donoessus
striatus
Parabithippus
petrae
Portia
labiata
Family
Genus
Species
Salticidae
{continued}
sp. 1
Spartaeus
spinimanus
Telamonia
dimidiata
Salticidae
spp. 125
Sparassidae
Heteropoda
sp. 1
tetrica
venatoria
Sparassidae
Pandercetes
sp. 1
Sparassidae
spp. 14
Tetragnathidae
Leucauge
argentina
celebesiana
spp. 17
Mesida
sp. 1
Opadometa
spp. 12
Tylorida
ventralis
Tetragnathidae
spp. 112
Theridiidae
Ariamnes
sp. 1
Brunepisinus
selirong
Chrysso
spp. 112
Janula
batman
spp. 16
Phoroncidia
sp. 1
Rhomphaea
spp. 110
Theridion
zebrinum
Theridiidae
spp. 16
Thomisidae
Thomisus
sp. 1
Thomisidae
spp. 13
Uloboridae
Philoponella
raffrayi
Uloborus
plumipes
sp. 1
Uloboridae
sp. 1
Zodariidae
Asceua
sp. 1
Unknown
Unknown
spp. 127
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
Mires and Peat, Volume 22 (2018), Article 05, 1–50, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X
© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
33
Table A5. List of dragon/damselfly (Odonata) species recorded in the NLPSF, Sebangau, together with IUCN
Red List classifications (DD = data deficient; LC = least concern; NT = near threatened) and Borneo endemic
species assignments. None of these species are included in the Indonesian protected species list. Slashes
indicate alternative English names.
INFRAORDER
/ Family
Genus
Species
English Name
IUCN
Endemic?
ANISOPTERA
Aeshnidae
Heliaeschna
crassa
LC
idae
LC
Tetracanthagyna
plagiata
LC
Oligoaeschna
sp.
Corduliidae
Metaphya
micans
Yes
Gomphidae
Ictinogomphus
acutus
NT
Libellulidae
Brachygonia
oculata
LC
ophelia
DD
puella
Chalybeothemis
fluviatilis
LC
Nannophyopsis
chalcosoma
pygmaea
Scarlet dwarf
LC
Neurothemis
fluctuans
Red grasshawk / common
parasol / grasshawk dragonfly
LC
Orthetrum
chrysis
Spine-tufted skimmer /
crimson-tailed marsh hawk /
brown-backed red marsh hawk
LC
sabina
Slender skimmer /
green marsh hawk
LC
Pornothemis
serrata
Raphismia
inermis
Rhyothemis
phyllis phyllis
Yellow-striped flutterer /
yellow-barred flutterer
LC
Risiophlebia
dohrni
LC
Tholymis
tillarga
Coral-tailed cloudwing
LC
Tramea
phaeoneura
Yes
Tyriobapta
laidlawi
Zyxomma
petiolatum
Longtailed dusk darter / brown
dusk hawk / dingy duskflyer
LC
Macromiidae
Epophthalmiaa
vittigera
LC
ZYGOPTERA
Argiolestidae
Podolestes
atomarius
Yes
Chlorocyphidae
Libellago
hyalina
LC
Pachycypha
aurea
Yes
Coenagrionidae
Agriocnemis
minima
LC
Amphicnemis
platystyla
DD
Yes
triplex
Yes
sp. 2
Yes1
Archibasis
melanocyana
Blue-nosed sprite
viola
LC
Ceriagrion
cerinorubellum
Orange-tailed marsh dart /
bi-coloured damsel
LC
Mortonagrion
forficulatum
Yes
Pseudagrion
coomansi
DD
Teinobasis
cf. suavis
Yes2
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
Mires and Peat, Volume 22 (2018), Article 05, 1–50, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X
© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
34
INFRAORDER
/ Family
Genus
Species
English Name
IUCN
Endemic?
Platycnemididae
Coeliccia
paludensis
Yes
Elattoneura
aurantiaca
erythromma
Yes
coomansi
1 Every named species of Amphicnemis known from Borneo is endemic to Borneo and it is highly unlikely that
this species, even if undescribed, is any different. Therefore, this species is considered to be a Borneo endemic
here.
2 Although male specimens are required to confirm definitive identification as T. suavis, this species record is
considered to indicate a Borneo endemic here because no similar species are known from other parts of the
region.
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
Mires and Peat, Volume 22 (2018), Article 05, 1–50, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X
© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
35
Table A6. List of freshwater fish (Actinopterygii) species recorded in the NLPSF, Sebangau, together with
IUCN Red List classifications (DD = data deficient; LC = least concern; VU = vulnerable) and Borneo endemic
species assignments. None of these species are included in the Indonesian protected species list. Additional
local and Indonesian species names are provided by Thornton (2017).
ORDER / Family
Genus
Species
English name
IUCN
Endemic?
BELONIFORMES
Zenarchopteridae
Hemirhamphodon
chrysopunctatus
tengah
CYPRINIFORMES
Cobitidae
Kottelatlimia
cf. pristes
Cyprinidae
Cyclocheilichthys
janthochir
Yes
Desmopuntius
foerschi
Foersch's fire barb
Yes
hexazona
Six-banded tiger barb
johorensis
Striped barb
rhomboocellatus
Snakeskin barb
Yes
Eirmotus
sp. 1
Eight-banded barb
Osteochilus
melanopleura
Greater bony lipped barb
LC
spilurus
LC
Rasbora
cephalotaenia
Porthole rasbora
dorciocelatta
Eyespot rasbora
kalbarensis
Kalbar rasbora
Yes
kalochroma
Clown rasbora
Striuntius
lineatus
Lined barb
Trigonopoma
gracile
Blackstripe rasbora
PERCIFORMES
Anabantidae
Anabas
testudineus
Climbing perch
DD
Channidae
Channa
bankanensis
Bangka snakehead
gachua
Forest snakehead
LC
melanoptera
Black finned snakehead
micropeltes
Giant snakehead
LC
pleurophthalmus
Oscellated snakehead
striata
Snakehead murrel
LC
Helostomatidae
Helostoma
temminckii
Kissing gourami
LC
Nandidae
Nandus
nebulosus
Bornean leaffish
LC
Osphronemidae
Belontia
hasselti
Malay combtail
Betta
anabatoides
Giant betta
Yes
foerschi
Yes
hendra 2
Yes
Luciocephalus
aura
Peppermint pikehead
pulcher
Giant pikehead
Sphaerichthys
acrostoma
Giant chocolate gourami
Yes
osphromenoides
Chocolate gourami
Trichopodus
pectoralis
Snakeskin gourami
LC
Pristolepidae
Pristolepis
grootii
Indonesian leaffish
S.J. Husson et al. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SEBANGAU PEAT SWAMP FOREST, INDONESIAN BORNEO
Mires and Peat, Volume 22 (2018), Article 05, 1–50, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X
© 2018 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, DOI: 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352
36
ORDER / Family
Genus
Species
English name
IUCN
Endemic?
SILURIFORMES
Bagridae
Leiocassis
micropogon
Bumblebee catfish
sp.
Mystus
nigriceps
Twospot catfish
olyroides
Yes
sp.
Chacidae
Chaca
bankanensis
Angler catfish
LC
Clariidae
Clarias
meladerma
Blackskin catfish
LC
nieuhofii
Slender walking catfish
LC
teijsmanni
Airbreathing catfish
Encheloclarias
tapeinopterus
VU
Schilbeidae
Pseudeutropius
moolenburghae
Sun catfish
Siluridae
Kryptopterus
sp.
Striped glass catfish
Ompok
leiacanthus
DD
Silurichthys
ligneolus
Brown leaf catfish
Yes
phaiosoma
Hasselt's leaf catfish
Wallago
leeri
Striped wallago catfish
SYNBRANCHIFORMES
Mastacembelidae
Macrognathus
aculeatus
Lesser spiny eel
maculatus
Frecklefin eel
LC
Synbranchidae
Monopterus
albus
Asian swamp eel
LC
1 Potentially new species based on inspection in the field and of photographs. Specimen required for
confirmation.