From elections to the protection of fundamental rights, from constitutional reforms to budgetary management, digital or environmental issues, democracy is at the heart of Europe – or at least, central to the speeches on Europe. However, the role it plays is ambiguous. Instated in the writings of the “Founding Fathers” – and mentioned for that reason in the preambles of conventional instruments ... [Show full abstract] since the creation of the two legal systems – democracy is more and more frequently asserted as crucial to the European project and The European Court of Human Rights will not hesitate to present it as “the only political model contemplated by the Convention and, accordingly, the only one compatible with it” (United Communist Party of Turkey, 1998). Yet, in parallel, criticisms have increased against institutions blamed for not being democratic enough themselves to achieve such an ambition legitimately, even to prevent the rise of movements deemed anti-democratic. This paradox is, nevertheless, only seeming for European identity precisely stays in the will to spread a certain approach of democracy. Thus, the difference observed between the crucial interest given to democracy and a set of problems frequently analyzed as elements of a European democratic “crisis” mainly highlights the current difficulties Europe – that considers itself and above all as a political model based on law – is faced with. Reflecting both on the existence of a “European identity” and on the link of this identity to democracy, we have to distinguish the discourse on democracy and its practical implementation : Valuing democracy enables Europe to assert its identity while trying to spread its political model and, in return, the respect of democratic requirements constitutes the very condition of safeguarding this identity.