ThesisPDF Available

Design and Fabrication of Motorised vehicle

Authors:
  • Government Engineering College Banswara
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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
MAHARANA PRATAP ENGINEERING COLLEGE,
KANPUR
PROJECT REPORT
ON
DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MOTORIZED
VEHICLE
Submitted to U.P.Technical University,Lucknow in partial fulfillment of
requirement for the award of degree
of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
(MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)
UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF SUBMITTED BY
Er. PARITOSH KUMAR RAHUL ARYA(0704640065)
LECTURER SHUBHAM AWASTHI(0704640078)
Deptt. Of Mechanical Engg. ZIAUR RAHMAN(0704640089)
M.P.E.C.KANPUR ZIA ZAFAR(07004640090)
(Mechanical 4th year)
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MAHARANA PRATAP ENGINEERING COLLEGE
Department of Mechanical Engineering
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Rahul Arya , Shubham Awasthi , Ziaur Rahman , Zia Zafar of Eight Semester
B.tech Course in Mechanical Engineering Department have Satisfactorily Completed the Project work
on “DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MOTORIZED VEHICLE”
In partial fulfillment , during the academic session 2010-2011 as prescribed by Uttar Pradesh
Technical University , Lucknow.
They have worked hard for this project and I wish all of them bright future.
Internal Examiner External Examiner
Mr.Paritosh Kumar
Lecturer
Mechanical Engg. Deptt.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We feel great pleasure in expressing our deep sense of gratitude and
heartiest respect to Mr.Paritosh Kumar, for his surveillance, learned
guidance and heart touching inspirations through out our project work.
We take our privilege to have worked under Mr. Paritosh Kumar for his
valuable suggestions and pruning at every stage. He has been gracious
all along. The current work might not have been accomplished but his
supervision, constant encouragement, keep interests, patience, sparing
time for thought provoking discussion throughout the study. We do not
have words adequate enough to express our thanks to our guide.
We have a special mention of our gratitude to Mr.B.B.Maurya, Head of
Department , Mechanical Engineering for providing us the facilities of
the department . We express our deep sense of gratitude to Mr.Vikas
Singh and all other faculty members for antagonistic discussion and
suggestions providing us.
We thankfully, acknowledge the valuable opinions and co-operation of
all the students of Mechanical Engineering M.P.E.C Kanpur.
Rahul Arya (0704640061)
Shubham Awasthi(0704640078)
Ziaur Rahman (0704640089)
Zia Zafar (0704640090)
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PREFACE
The concept of Design and Fabrication of Motorized Vehicle came in our mind
during the visit of IIT KANPUR. It was one of the most innovative and interesting
project.
It was challenging job for us to design and fabricate Motorized Vehicle with
speed control. But our source of inspiration came from our mentor
Mr. Paritosh kumar and our workshop head Vikas Singh who helped to make
imagination into reality.
We also constantly strived ourselves to set up bench mark for peers and juniors
and finally lot of credit goes to our Head of Department Mr. B.B. Maurya .
A motorized bicycle is a bicycle with an attached motor used either to power the
vehicle, or to assist with pedaling.
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IDOLOGY OF PROJECT
Before staring our work we must know the meaning of “PROJECT” means to give
physically existence to the vibrating idea of mind.
Hence the combination of vibrating idea of mind is know as project the word
project consists of Seven letters. Each of them has its specific significance which is
given as follows.
P-PLANNING- Planning is a word which deals with the idea of thing
which is hypothesized before borning the construction of
project.
R-RESOURCE- It signifies the resources of which are able to make any
project. Resources are the ideas of which which guide to
routine function of planned work.
O-OPERATION- Its represents the operation of project i.e. the principle on
which device hold up.
J-JOINT LABOUR- It stands for the effort taking for meaning body jointly is
a work that can be accomplished to perform with full
efforts.
E-ECONOMY- The economy means the machine which is to prepared
have a reasonable cost. It indicates the construction
which is come to manufacture the machine.
C-CONSTRUCTION- It is main features to prepare the project.
T-TECHNIQUE- To accomplished the project technique which is being
used comes under the word.
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CONTENT
S.NO. TOPIC PAGE NO.
1.) Introduction and selection criteria of design and fabrication of motorized vehicle 1
Introduction 1
History 3
2.) About design and fabrication of motorized Vehicle 10
Working principle 11
Description of component 11
3.) Drawing details of the component 24
4.) Machine used in design and fabrication of motorized vehicle 27
List of machine used in project 28
Operation done by the machine 29
5.) Hand tools and Equipment used 31
List of hand tool and equipment
6.) Cost Estimation 33
7.) Properties of motorized vehicle 36
8.) Merits and Demerits of motorized vehicle 44
9.) Environmental impact of motorized vehicle 50
10.) Present Scenerio in India 53
11.) Conclusion 56
12.) Bibliography 58
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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION AND
SELECTION CRITERIA
OF
“DESIGN
ANDFABRICATION
OF
MOTORIZED VECHILE”
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INTRODUCTION
A Motorized vehicle (MV), also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, uses one or
more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. Electric vehicles include electric
cars, electric trains, electric lorries, electric aeroplanes, electric boats, electric motorcycles
and scooters and electric spacecraft.
A Motorized vehicle is vehicle with an attached motor used either to power the vehicle, or
to assist with pedaling. Sometimes classified as a motor vehicle, or a class of hybrid
vehicle, motorized vehicles may be powered by a variety of engine types and power
sources.
Electric vehicles first came into existence in the mid-19th century, when electricity was
among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort
and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time.
The internal combustion engine (ICE) is the dominant propulsion method for motor
vehicles but electric power has remained commonplace in other vehicle types, such as trains
and smaller vehicles of all types.
During the last few decades, environmental impact of the petroleum-based transportation
infrastructure, along with the peak oil, has led to renewed interest in an electric
transportation infrastructure. Electric vehicles differ from fossil fuel-powered vehicles in
that the electricity they consume can be generated from a wide range of sources, including
fossil fuels, nuclear power, and renewable sources such as tidal power, solar power,
and wind power or any combination of those. Currently though there are more than 400
coal power plants in the U.S. alone. However it is generated, this energy is then transmitted
to the vehicle through use of overhead lines, wireless energy transfer such as inductive
charging, or a direct connection through an electrical cable. The electricity may then be
stored on board the vehicle using a battery, flywheel, or super capacitors. Vehicles making
use of engines working on the principle of combustion can usually only derive their energy
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from a single or a few sources, usually non-renewable fossil fuels. A key advantage of
electric or Motorized electric vehicles is regenerative braking and suspension; their ability
to recover energy normally lost during braking as electricity to be restored to the on-board
battery.
In 2003, the first mass-produced Motorized gasoline-electric car, the Toyota Prius, was
introduced worldwide, in the same year Going Green in London launched the G-Wiz
electric car, a quadric cycle that became the world's best selling EV.
HISTORY
Electric motive power started with a small drifter operated by a miniature electric motor,
built by Thomas Davenport in 1835. In 1838, a Scotsman named Robert Davidson built an
electric locomotive that attained a speed of four miles per hour (6 km/h). In England a
patent was granted in 1840 for the use of rails as conductors of electric current, and similar
American patents were issued to Lilley and Colten in 1847.
Figure 01-: Electric vehicle model by Ányos Jedlik, an early electric
motor experimenter ( 1828, Hungary)
Between 1832 and 1839 (the exact year is uncertain), Robert
Anderson of Scotland invented the first crude electric carriage, powered by non-
rechargeable primary cells.
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By the 20th century, electric cars and rail transport were commonplace, with commercial
electric automobiles having the majority of the market. Over time their general-purpose
commercial use reduced to specialist roles, as platform trucks, forklift trucks, tow tractors
and urban delivery vehicles, such as the iconic British milk float; for most of the 20th
century, the UK was the world's largest user of electric road vehicles.
Electrified trains were used for coal transport, as the motors did not use precious oxygen in
the mines. Switzerland's lack of natural fossil resources forced the rapid electrification
of their rail network. One of the earliest rechargeable batteries - the nickel-iron battery -
was favored by Edison for use in electric cars.
Electric vehicles were among the earliest automobiles, and before the preeminence of light,
powerful internal combustion engines, electric automobiles held many vehicle land speed
and distance records in the early 1900s. They were produced by Baker Electric, Columbia
Electric, Detroit Electric, and others, and at one point in history out-sold gasoline-powered
vehicles.
Figure 02-: Edison and a 1914 Detroit Electric, model 47 (courtesy of the National
Museum of American History)
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In the 1930s, National City Lines, which was a partnership of General Motors, Firestone,
and Standard Oil of California purchased many electric tramnet works across the country to
dismantle them and replace them with GM buses.
Figure 03-:An electric vehicle and an antique car on display at a 1912 auto show
The partnership was convicted of conspiring to monopolize the sale of equipment and
supplies to their subsidiary companies conspiracy, but were acquitted of conspiring to
monopolize the provision of transportation services. Electric tram line technologies could
be used to recharge BEVs and PHEVs on the highway while the user drives, providing
virtually unrestricted driving range. The technology is old and well established
EXPERIMENTATION
In January 1990, General Motors' President introduced its EV concept two-seater, the
"Impact", at the Los Angeles Auto Show. That September, the California Air Resources
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Board mandated major-automaker sales of EVs, in phases starting in 1998. From 1996 to
1998 GM produced 1117 EV1s, 800 of which were made available through three-year
leases.
Chrysler, Ford, GM, Honda, Nissan and Toyota also produced limited numbers of EVs for
California drivers. In 2003, upon the expiration of GM's EV1 leases, GM crushed them.
The crushing has variously been attributed to 1) the auto industry's successful federal
court challenge to California's zero-emissions vehicle mandate, 2) a federal regulation
requiring GM to produce and maintain spare parts for the few thousands EV1s and 3) the
success of the oil and auto industries' media campaign to reduce public acceptance of electric
vehicles.
Figure 04-Display of an electric car
Ford released a number of their Ford Ecostar delivery vans into the market. Honda, Nissan
and Toyota also repossessed and crushed most of their EVs, which, like the GM EV1s, had
been available only by closed-end lease. After public protests, Toyota sold 200 of its RAV
EVs to eager buyers; they now sell, five years later, at over their original forty-thousand-
dollar price. This lesson did not go unlearned; BMW of Canada sold off a number of Mini
EV's when their Canadian testing ended.
The production of the Citroën Berlingo Electrique stopped in September 2005.
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REINTRODUCTION
With increasing prices of gasoline, electric vehicles are hitting the mainstream.
Major car makers, such as Ford Daimler AG, Toyota Motor Corp., General Motors
Corp., Renault SA, Peugeot-Citroen, VW, Nissan and Mitsubishi Corp., are developing
new-generation electric vehicles.
ELECRICITY SOURCES
There are many ways to generate electricity, some of them more ecological than others:
On-board rechargeable electricity storage system (RESS), called Full Electric Vehicles
(FEV). Power storage methods include:
Chemical energy stored on the vehicle in on-board batteries: Battery electric vehicle (BEV)
Static energy stored on the vehicle in on-board electric double-layer capacitors
kinetic energy storage: flywheels
Direct connection to generation plants as is common among electric trains, trolley buses,
and trolley trucks (See also : overhead lines, third rail andconduit current collection)
Renewable sources such as solar power: solar vehicle
Generated on-board using a diesel engine: diesel-electric locomotive
Generated on-board using a fuel cell: fuel cell vehicle
Generated on-board using nuclear energy: nuclear submarines and aircraft carriers
It is also possible to have Motoried electric vehicles that derive electricity from multiple
sources. Such as:
On-board rechargeable electricity storage system (RESS) and a direct continuous
connection to land-based generation plants for purposes of on-highway recharging with
unrestricted highway range
On-board rechargeable electricity storage system and a fueled propulsion power source
(internal combustion engine): plug-in Motoried
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Batteries, electric double-layer capacitors and flywheel energy storage are forms of
rechargeable on-board electrical storage. By avoiding an intermediate mechanical step,
the energy conversion efficiency can be improved over the Motorieds already discussed, by
avoiding unnecessary energy conversions. Furthermore, electro-chemical batteries
conversions are easy to reverse, allowing electrical energy to be stored in chemical form.
Another form of chemical to electrical conversion is fuel cells, projected for future use.
For especially large electric vehicles, such as submarines, the chemical energy of the diesel-
electric can be replaced by a nuclear reactor. The nuclear reactor usually provides heat,
which drives a steam turbine, which drives a generator, which is then fed to the propulsion.
ENERGY TRANSFORMATION
In physics, the term energy describes the capacity to produce changes within a system,
without regard to limitations in transformation imposed by entropy. Changes in total energy
of systems can only be accomplished by adding or subtracting energy from them, as energy
is a quantity which is conserved, according to the first law of thermodynamics. According
to special relativity, changes in the energy of systems will also coincide with changes in the
system's mass, and the total amount of mass of a system is a measure of its energy.
Energy in a system may be transformed so that it resides in a different state. Energy in
many states may be used to do many varieties of physical work. Energy may be used in
natural processes or machines, or else to provide some service to society (such as
heat, light, or motion). For example, an internal combustion engine converts the
potential chemical energy in gasoline and oxygen into heat, which is then transformed into
the propulsive energy (kinetic energy that moves a vehicle.) A solar cell converts solar
radiation into electrical energy that can then be used to light a bulb or power a computer.
The generic name for a device which converts energy from one form to another is
a transducer.
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In general, most types of energy, save for thermal energy, may be converted to any other
kind of energy, with a theoretical efficiency of 100%. Such efficiencies might occur in
practice, such as when chemical potential energy is completely converted into kinetic
energies, and vice versa, only in isolated systems.
Conversion of other types of energies to heat also may occur with high efficiency but a
perfect level would be only possible for isolated systems also.
If there is nothing beyond the frontiers of the universe then the only real isolated system
would be the universe itself. Currently we do not have the knowledge or technology to
create an isolated system from a portion of the universe.
Exceptions for perfect efficiency (even for isolated systems) occur when energy has already
been partly distributed among many available quantum states for a collection of particles,
which are freely allowed to explore any state of momentum and position (phase space).
In such circumstances, a measure called entropy, or evening-out of energy distribution in
such states, dictates that future states of the system must be of at least equal evenness in
energy distribution. (There is no way, taking the universe as a whole, to collect energy into
fewer states, once it has spread to them).
A consequence of this requirement is that there are limitations to the efficiency with which
thermal energy can be converted to other kinds of energy, since thermal energy in
equilibrium at a given temperature already represents the maximal evening-out of energy
between all possible states. Such energy is sometimes considered "degraded energy,"
because it is not entirely usable. The second law of thermodynamics is a way of stating that,
for this reason, thermal energy in a system may be converted to other kinds of energy with
efficiencies approaching 100%, only if the entropy (even-ness or disorder) of the universe is
increased by other means, to compensate for the decrease in entropy associated with the
disappearance of the thermal energy and its entropy content.
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CHAPTER 2
ABOUT
DESIGN AND
FABRICATION
OF
MOTORIZED VECHILE
17
WORKING PRINCIPLE
The vehicle has lead-acid battery mounted near the rear wheel that
provide electricity to a motor. The electric motor drives the rear wheel
and the motor is mounted inside the rear wheel .DC to DC convertor is
used to convert high voltage supply to low voltage supply. Here the
electrical energy is converted into the rotation energy which gives
momentum to the vehicle. On the steering handle there is a accelerating
throttle which help in the acceleration of the vehicle with the help of
speed controller.
Despite the weight and size, the acceleration is very good.
DESCRIPTION OF COMPONENT
Controllers
Electric vehicles brushless DC motor controller provides efficient, smooth and quite
controls for electric VEHICLE, electric motorcycle, scooter conversion, etc. Electric
vehicles brushless motor controller outputs high taking off current, and strictly limit battery
current. Motor speed controller can work with relative small battery, but provide good
acceleration and hill climbing. BLDC motor speed controller uses high power MOSFET,
PWM to achieve efficiency 99%. In most cases, Powerful microprocessor brings in
comprehensive and precise control to BLDC motor controllers. This programmable
brushless motor controller also allows users to set parameters, conduct tests, and obtain
diagnostic information quickly and easily.
Features of controllers:
•Special designed for electric VEHICLE and scooter.
• Intelligence with powerful microprocessor.
• Synchronous rectification, ultra low drop, fast PWM to achieve very high efficiency.
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• Electronic reversing.
• Voltage monitoring on 3 motor phases, bus, and power supply.
• Voltage monitoring on voltage source 12V and 5V.
• Current sense on all 3 motor phases.
• Current control loop.
• Hardware over current protection.
• Hardware over voltage protection.
• Support torque mode, speed mode, and balanced mode operation.
• Configurable limit for motor current and battery current.
• Battery current limiting available, doesn’t affect taking off performance.
• More startup current ,can get more startup speed.
• Low EMC.
• LED fault code.
• Battery protection: current cutback, warning and shutdown at configurable high and low
battery voltage.
• Rugged aluminum housing for maximum heat dissipation and harsh environment.
• Rugged high current terminals, and rugged aviation connectors for small signal.
• Thermal protection: current cut back, warning and shutdown on high temperature.
• Configurable 60 degree or 120 degree hall position sensors.
• Support motors with any number of poles.
Up to 40,000 electric RPM standard. Optional high speed 70,000 ERPM, and ultra high
speed 100,000 ERPM. (Electric RPM = mechanical RPM * motor pole pairs).
• Brake switch is used to start regen.
• 0-5V brake signal is used to command regen current.
• Support three modes of regenerative braking: brake switch regen, release throttle regen,0-
5V analog signal variable regen.
• Configurable high pedal protection: Disable operation if power up with high throttle.
• Current multiplication: Take less current from battery, output more current to motor.
• Easy installation: 3-wire potentiometer will work.
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• Current meter output.
• Standard PC/Laptop computer to do programming. No special tools needed.
• User program provided. Easy to use. No cost to customers.
General Specifications of Controllers:
•Frequency of Operation: 16.6kHz.
•Standby Battery Current: < 0.5mA.
•5V Sensor Supply Current: 40mA.
•Controller supply voltage range, PWR, 18V to 90V.
•Supply Current, PWR, 150mA.
•Configurable battery voltage range, B+. Max operating range: 18V to 60V.
•Analog Brake and Throttle Input: 0-5 Volts. Producing 0-5V signal with 3-wire pot.
•Full Power Operating Temperature Range: 0 to 50 (controller case temperature).
•Operating Temperature Range: -30 to 90, 100 shutdown (controller case
temperature).
•Peak Phase Current, 30 seconds: 300A.
•Continuous Phase Current Limit: 150A.
•Maximum Battery Current: Configurable.
Battery
An electric vehicle battery (EVB) or traction battery is a rechargeable battery used for
propulsion of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Traction batteries are used in forklifts,
electric Golf carts, riding floor scrubbers, electric motorcycles, full-size
electric cars, trucks, and vans, and other electric vehicles.
The electric motors are usually powered by 12-15 volt rechargeable batteries, similar to
those used to power outboard boat engines. These are available in wet or dry options. Many
VEHICLE carry an on-board charger which can be plugged into a standard wall outlet;
older or more portable models may have a separate charger unit.
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Electric vehicle batteries differ from starting, lighting, and ignition (SLI) batteries because
they are designed to give power over sustained periods of time. Deep cycle batteries are
used instead of SLI batteries for these applications. Traction batteries must be designed
with a high ampere-hour capacity. Batteries for electric vehicles are characterized by their
relatively high power-to-weight ratio, energy to weight ratio and energy density; smaller,
lighter batteries reduce the weight of the vehicle and improve its performance. Compared to
liquid fuels, all current battery technologies have much lower specific energy; and this often
impacts the maximum all-electric range of the vehicles.
Batteries are usually the most expensive component of BEVs. The cost of battery
manufacture is substantial, but increasing returns to scale lower costs.
The predicted market for automobile traction batteries is over $37 billion in 2020.
On an energy basis, the price of electricity to run an EV is a small fraction of the cost of
liquid fuel needed to produce an equivalent amount of energy
Lead Acid Battery
Flooded lead-acid batteries are the cheapest and most common traction batteries available,
usually discharged to roughly 80%. They will accept high charge rates for fast charges.
Flooded batteries require inspection of electrolyte level and replacement of water.
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Figure05: Lead Acid Battery pack
Traditionally, most electric vehicles have used lead-acid batteries due to their mature
technology, high availability, and low cost (exception: some early EVs, such as the Detroit
Electric, used a nickel-iron battery.) Like all batteries, these have an environmental impact
through their construction, use, disposal or recycling. On the upside, vehicle battery
recycling rates top 95% in the United States. Deep-cycle lead batteries are expensive and
have a shorter life than the vehicle itself, typically needing replacement every 3 years.
Lead-acid batteries in EV applications end up being a significant (2550%) portion of the
final vehicle mass. Like all batteries, they have significantly lowerenergy density than
petroleum fuelsin this case, 3040 Wh/kg. While the difference isn't as extreme as it first
appears due to the lighter drive-train in an EV, even the best batteries tend to lead to higher
masses when applied to vehicles with a normal range.
Charging and operation of batteries typically results in the emission
of hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur, which are naturally occurring and normally harmless if
properly vented. Early Citicar owners discovered that, if not vented properly, unpleasant
sulfur smells would leak into the cabin immediately after charging.
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Lead-acid batteries powered such early-modern EVs as the original versions of the EV1 and
the RAV4EV.
Battery cost
The cost of the battery when distributed over the life cycle of the vehicle (compared with an
up to 10 years life cycle of an internal combustion engine vehicle) can easily be more than
the cost of the electricity. This is because of the high initial cost relative to the life of the
batteries. Battery weight is a problem; in trying to achieve a reasonable miles/charge, the
weight is still not reasonable for anything but local driving. For example, a 1-kWhr battery
using LiFePO4 technology costs $500USD. A typical small passenger electric car will use
8 kW-hrs for a 40-mile (64 km) range each day. Using the 7000 cycle or 10 year life given
in the previous section, 365 cycles per year would take 19 years to reach the 7000 cycles.
Using the lower estimate of a ten year life gives 3650 cycles over ten years giving 146000
total miles driven. At $500 per kWh an 8 kWh battery costs $4000 resulting in
$4000/146000 miles or $0.027 per mile. In reality a larger pack would be used to avoid
stressing the battery by avoiding complete discharge or 100% charge. Adding a 2 kWh in
battery adds $1000 to the cost resulting in $5000/146000 miles or $0.034/mile.
Scientists at Technical University of Denmark paid $10,000USD for a certified EV battery
with 25kWh capacity, with no rebates or overprice.[15] Two out of 15 battery producers
could supply the necessary technical documents about quality and fire safety.[16] Estimated
time is 10 years before battery price comes down to 1/3 of present.[15] Battery professor
Poul Norby states that lithium batteries will need to double their energy density and bring
down the price from $500 (2010) to $100 per kWh capacity in order to make an impact on
petrol cars.
A solution to the range problem is detailed in an article on Battery Exchange and explains
how the total battery needs would be reduced by using a battery exchange or battery swap
system. This requires substantial investment in setting up exchange stations but would
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allow for the use of lighter batteries as they would not be required to provide many miles of
use. Lighter batteries make the ecar system far more efficient and lower overall costs.
The LiFePO4 technology has yielded batteries that have a higher miles/$ over the life of the
packs but they require a complex control system. The manufacture of the batteries is still
being developed and is not a reliable source.
Some batteries can be leased or rented instead of bought (see Think Global).
One article indicates that 10 kW·h of battery energy provides a range of about 20 miles
(32 km) in a Toyota Prius, but this is not a primary source, and does not fit with estimates
elsewhere of about 5 miles (8.0 km) /(kW·h). The Chevrolet Volt is expected to achieve 50
MPG when running on the auxiliary power unit (a small onboard generator) - at 33%
thermodynamic efficiency that would mean 12 kW·h for 50 miles (80 km), or about 240
watt-hours per mile. For prices of 1 kW·h of charge with various different battery
technologies, see the "Energy/Consumer Price" column in the "Table of rechargeable
battery technologies" section in the rechargeable battery.
Rechargeable batteries used in electric vehicles include lead-acid ("flooded", Deep cycle,
and VRLA), Ni Cd, nickel metal hydride, lithium ion, Li-ion polymer, and, less
commonly, zinc-air and molten salt batteries. The amount of electricity (i.e. electric charge)
stored in batteries is measured in ampere hours or incoulombs, with the total energy often
measured in watt hours.
Internal Components
Battery pack designs for Electric Vehicles (EVs) are complex and vary widely by
manufacturer and specific application. However, they all incorporate a combination of
several simple mechanical and electrical component systems which perform the basic
required functions of the pack.
The actual battery cells can have different chemistry, physical shapes, and sizes as preferred
by various pack manufacturers. Battery pack will always incorporate many discrete cells
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connected in series and parallel to achieve the total voltage and current requirements of the
pack. Battery packs for all electric drive EVs can contain several hundred individual cells.
To assist in manufacturing and assembly, the large stack of cells is typically grouped into
smaller stacks called modules. Several of these modules will be placed into a single pack.
Within each module the cells are welded together to complete the electrical path for current
flow. Modules can also incorporate cooling mechanisms, temperature monitors, and other
devices. In most cases, modules also allow for monitoring the voltage produced by each
battery cell in the stack by the Battery Management System (BMS).
The battery cell stack has a main fuse which limits the current of the pack under a short
circuit condition. A “service plug” or “service disconnect” can be removed to split the
battery stack into two electrically isolated halves. With the service plug removed, the
exposed main terminals of the battery present no high potential electrical danger to service
technicians.
The battery pack also contains relays, or contactors, which control the distribution of the
battery pack’s electrical power to the output terminals. In most cases there will be a
minimum of two main relays which connect the battery cell stack to the main positive and
negative output terminals of the pack, those supplying high current to the electrical drive
motor. Some pack designs will include alternate current paths for pre-charging the drive
system through a pre-charge resistor or for powering an auxiliary buss which will also have
their own associated control relays. For obvious safety reasons these relays are all normally
open.
The battery pack also contains a variety of temperature, voltage, and current sensors.
Collection of data from the pack sensors and activation of the pack relays are accomplished
by the pack ’s Battery Monitoring Unit (BMU) or Battery Management System (BMS). The
BMS is also responsible for communications with the world outside the battery pack.
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Charging
Batteries in BEVs must be periodically recharged. BEVs most commonly charge from
the power grid (at home or using a street or shop recharging point), which is in turn
generated from a variety of domestic resources, such as coal, hydroelectricity, nuclear and
others. Home power such as roof top photovoltaic solar cell
panels, microhydro or wind may also be used and are promoted because of concerns
regarding global warming.
Charging time is limited primarily by the capacity of the grid connection. A
normal household outlet is between 1.5 kilowatts (in the US, Canada, Japan, and other
countries with 110 volt supply) to 3 kilowatts (in countries with 240 V supply). Many
European countries feed domestic consumers with a 3 phase system fused at 16-25 amp
allowing for a theoretical capacity around 20-30 kW. However, this capacity is also
required to feed the rest of the location and hence cannot be used practically and will also
not be supported "en masse" by the distribution network. At this higher power level
charging even a small, 7 kilowatt-hour (1428 mi) pack, would probably require one hour.
This is small compared to the effective power delivery rate of an average petrol pump,
about 5,000 kilowatt.
In 1995, some charging stations charged BEVs in one hour. In November 1997, Ford
purchased a fast-charge system produced by AeroVironment called "PosiCharge" for
testing its fleets of Ranger EVs, which charged their lead-acid batteries in between six and
fifteen minutes. In February 1998, General Motors announced a version of its "Magne
Charge" system which could recharge NiMH batteries in about ten minutes, providing a
range of sixty to one hundred miles.
Most people do not always require fast recharging because they have enough time, six to
eight hours, during the work day or overnight to recharge. As the charging does not require
attention it takes a few seconds for an owner to plug in and unplug their vehicle. Many BEV
drivers prefer refueling at home, avoiding the inconvenience of visiting a fuel station. Some
workplaces provide special parking bays for electric vehicles with charging equipment
provided.
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Connectors
The charging power can be connected to the car in two ways. The first is a direct electrical
connection known as conductive coupling. This might be as simple as a mains lead into a
weatherproof socket through special high capacity cables with connectors to protect the
user from high voltages.The modern standard for plug-in vehicle charging is the SAE 1772
conductive connector (IEC 62196 Type 1) in the USA. The ACEA has chosen the VDE-
AR-E 2623-2-2 (IEC 62196 Type 2) for deployment in Europe.
The second approach is known as inductive charging. A special 'paddle' is inserted into a
slot on the car. The paddle is one winding of a transformer, while the other is built into the
car. When the paddle is inserted it completes a magnetic circuit which provides power to
the battery pack. In one inductive charging system, one winding is attached to the underside
of the car, and the other stays on the floor of the garage. The advantage of the inductive
approach is that there is no possibility of electrocution as there are no exposed conductors,
although interlocks, special connectors and ground fault detectors can make conductive
coupling nearly as safe. Inductive charging can also reduce vehicle weight, by moving more
charging componentry offboard. An inductive charging proponent from Toyota contended
in 1998 that overall cost differences were minimal, while a conductive charging proponent
from Ford contended that conductive charging was more cost efficient.
Travel range before recharging and trailers
The range of a BEV depends on the number and type of batteries used, terrain, weather, and
the performance of the driver. The weight and type of vehicle also have an impact just as
they do on the mileage of traditional vehicles. Electric vehicle conversion performance
depends on a number of factors including the battery chemistry:
Lead-acid batteries are the most available and inexpensive. Such conversions generally
have a range of 30 to 80 km (20 to 50 mi). Production EVs with lead-acid batteries are
capable of up to 130 km (80 mi) per charge.
27
NiMH batteries have higher energy density than lead-acid; prototype EVs deliver up to
200 km (120 mi) of range.
New lithium-ion battery-equipped EVs provide 320480 km (200300 mi) of range per
charge. Lithium is also less expensive than nickel.
Nickel-zinc battery are cheaper and lighter than Nickel-cadmium batteries. They are also
cheaper (but not as light) as Lithium-Ion batteries.
Finding the economic balance of range versus performance, battery capacity versus weight,
and battery type versus cost challenges every EV manufacturer.
With an AC system or Advanced DC systems regenerative braking can extend range by up
to 50% under extreme traffic conditions without complete stopping. Otherwise, the range is
extended by about 10 to 15% in city driving, and only negligibly in highway driving,
depending upon terrain.
BEVs (including buses and trucks) can also use genset trailers and pusher trailers in order
to extend their range when desired without the additional weight during normal short range
use. Discharged baset trailers can be replaced by recharged ones in a route point. If rented
then maintenance costs can be deferred to the agency.
Such BEVs can become Motoried vehicles depending on the trailer and car types of energy
and powertrain
Lifespan
Individual batteries are usually arranged into large battery packs of
various voltage and ampere-hour capacity products to give the required energy capacity.
Battery service life should be considered when calculating the extended cost of ownership,
as all batteries eventually wear out and must be replaced. The rate at which they expire
depends on a number of factors.
The depth of discharge (DOD) is the recommended proportion of the total available energy
storage for which that battery will achieve its rated cycles. Deep cycle lead-acid batteries
28
generally should not be discharged to below 20% of total capacity. More modern
formulations can survive deeper cycles.
Safety
The safety issues of battery electric vehicles are largely dealt with by the international
standard ISO 6469. This document is divided in three parts dealing with specific issues:
On-board electrical energy storage, i.e. the battery
Functional safety means and protection against failures
Protection of persons against electrical hazards.
Firefighters and rescue personnel receive special training to deal with the higher voltages
and chemicals encountered in electric and Motoried electric vehicle accidents. While BEV
accidents may present unusual problems, such as fires and fumes resulting from rapid
battery discharge, there is apparently no available information regarding whether they are
inherently more or less dangerous than gasoline or diesel internal combustion vehicles
which carry flammable fuels.
Future
The future of battery electric vehicles depends primarily upon the cost and availability
of batteries with high energy densities, power density, and long life, as all other aspects
such as motors, motor controllers, and chargers are fairly mature and cost-competitive with
internal combustion engine components. Li-ion, Li-poly and zinc-air batteries have
demonstrated energy densities high enough to deliver range and recharge times comparable
to conventional vehicles.
29
Steering system
Steering is the term applied to the collection of components, linkages, etc. which will
allow a vessel (ship, boat) or vehicle (car, motorcycle, VEHICLE) to follow the desired
course. An exception is the case of rail transport by which rail tracks combined together
with railroad switches (and also known as 'points' in British English) provide the steering
function.
Basic geometry
The basic aim of steering is to ensure that the wheels are pointing in the desired directions.
This is typically achieved by a series of linkages, rods, pivots and gears. One of the
fundamental concepts is that of caster angle- each wheel is steered with a pivot point ahead
of the wheel; this makes the steering tend to be self-centering towards the direction travel.
Figure: Ackermann steering geometry
30
The steering linkages connecting the steering box and the wheels usually conforms to a
variation of Ackermann steering geometry, to account for the fact that in a turn, the inner
wheel is actually travelling a path of smaller radius than the outer wheel, so that the degree
of toe suitable for driving in a straight path is not suitable for turns.
31
CHAPTER 3
DRAWING
DETAILS
OF
COMPONENTS
32
Design of Vehicle
Assume
load on vehicle= 100 kg
Load (P)= 1000 N
Let Area cross section =
Stress = load / area
= 1000/160×100×10^-4
σ = 625.55 n/m²
From tensile testing , σ’ = 650 N/m²
Thus, σ’ > σ theoretical
Hence design of the vehicle is safe
33
Capability of Motor
Specification of motor Power (P)= 1.5 KW
No. of revolution per min(N)= 500 RPM
P=2 πrt/60×1000
Torque Transmitted T = 28.62 N-m
Shear Stress τ = 16T/πd³
Where D= dia of wheel
D=40 cm
τ = 16×28.62/π(0.4)³
τ = 2278.66 N/m²
Load carried by motor = shear stress × area of cross section
P= 2278.66×160×100 ×10^-4
P= 3645.5 N
or P= 364 kg
therefore the load on vehicle is easily carried by this motor .
Hence Design is safe
34
CHAPTER 4
MACHINES USED
IN
DESIGN AND
FABRICATION OF
MOTORIZED VEHICLE
35
LIST OF MACHINE USED IN PROJECT
1.) LATHE MACHINE:-
Center height 170 mm
Distance between center 600 mm
Maximum speed 2000 mm
Motor Power 500 kw
2.) DRILL MACHINE :-
Capacity 50 mm
Range of Spindle Speed 35-195 rpm
Working space on base 412 * 412 mm
3.) SHAPER MACHINE :-
Type Push cut horizontal type
Stroke 175-900 mm
Power Feed 0.2-5 mm
Motor 500 kw
4.) HACKSAW MACHINE :-
Maximum dia. Of root of cut 180 mm
Maximum square section to cut 125 mm
Stroke 75-150 mm
Blade Size 350 mm
Motor 1 HP
36
OPERATION DONE BY THE MACHINES
1.)DRILLING
It is a process of making hole and enlarging it in an object by forcing a rotating tool called a
drill. The same operation can be accomplished in some other machine by holding the drill
stationary and rotating the work.
2.) BORING
It is the process of enlarging a hole that has already drilled or cored. Principally, it is an
operation of turning a hole that has been drilled previously, with a single point tool.
3.) REAMING
Reamer is a cutting tool, used for enlarging or finishing to accurate dimensions a hole
previously formed.The flutes on reamer body act both as cutting teeth and as grooves for
accommodating the chips removed.
4.) GRINDING
It is the process in which the metal cutting or removal take place comparatively in smaller
volume through friction for accuracy. It is also used for sharpening the tool.
5.) TURNING
It is the process which is performed on lathe machine in which remove the excess of
material from the work piece to produce crown shaped .
6.) TAPPING
Taping and threading is a process of making threads, are being made on adjustable rod, for
fixing steering column.
7.) SHAPING
It is used principally to machine flat or plane surface in horizontal, vertical and angular.
37
8.) CUTTING
It is used principally to cut the material for making structure other parts.
9.) WELDING
It is the process of joining different material with help of heat and with or without the
application of filler material. In the manufacturing of chassis, battery cabin.
38
CHAPTER 5
HAND TOOL
AND
EQUIPMENTS
USED
39
LIST OF HAND TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Single point cutting tool
Drills
Vernier Caliper
Hacksaw
Files
Measuring Tap
Hammers
Punch
Screw Driver
Hand grinding machine
Hand Drilling machine
T joint
Oxy-Acetylene gas welding system
Grease and oil
Paint
40
CHAPTER 6
COST
ESTIMATION
41
COST ESTIMATION
SR.
NO.
COMPONENT
NAME
MATERIAL
NO.OF
COMP
ONEN
T
COST
RS.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Rectangular Pipe
(150 * 3.5)
Rectangular Pipe
(120 * 3.5)
Cover sheet (75*120)
Batteries(12 volt)
Wheels
Motorized wheel
Steering Handle
Controller
(MOSFET)
Accelerator
Braking System
Seat
Blancing Rod
Coupling
Mild Steel
Mild Steel
Mild Steel
Lead acid
Mild steel
Plastic
Mild steel
Cast Iron
2
2
1
4
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
Nil
Nil
Nil
1600
1500
1850
250
850
100
200
150
500
100
42
13.
14.
15.
Bearing
Nut & Bolt
Others
Cast Iron
Cast Iron
Mild steel
4
15
200
100
800
Grand Total
42
Rs.8200
43
CHAPTER 7
PROPERTIES
OF
MOTORIZED
VEHICLES
44
PROPERTIES OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE
ENERGY SOURCES
Although electric vehicles have few direct emissions, all rely on energy created
through electricity generation, and will usually emit pollution and generate waste, unless it
is generated by renewable source power plants. Since electric vehicles use whatever
electricity is delivered by their electrical utility/grid operator, electric vehicles can be made
more or less efficient, polluting and expensive to run, by modifying the electrical
generating stations. This would be done by an electrical utility under a government energy
policy, in a timescale negotiated between utilities and government.
Fossil fuel vehicle efficiency and pollution standards take years to filter through a nation's
fleet of vehicles. New efficiency and pollution standards rely on the purchase of new
vehicles, often as the current vehicles already on the road reach their end-of-life. Only a
few nations set a retirement age for old vehicles, such as Japan or Singapore, forcing
periodic upgrading of all vehicles already on the road.
Electric vehicles will take advantage of whatever environmental gains happen when a
renewable energy generation station comes online, a fossil-fuel power station is
decommissioned or upgraded. Conversely, if government policy or economic conditions
shifts generators back to use more polluting fossil fuels andinternal combustion engine
vehicles (ICEVs), or more inefficient sources, the reverse can happen. Even in such a
situation, electrical vehicles are still more efficient than a comparable amount of fossil fuel
vehicles. In areas with a deregulated electrical energy market, an electrical vehicle owner
can choose whether to run his electrical vehicle off conventional electrical energy sources,
45
or strictly from renewable electrical energy sources (presumably at an additional cost),
pushing other consumers onto conventional sources, and switch at any time between the
two.
EFFICIENCY
Because of the different methods of charging possible, the emissions produced have been
quantified in different ways. Plug-in all-electric and Motoried vehicles also have different
consumption characteristics.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION
Electromagnetic radiation from high performance electrical motors has been claimed to be
associated with some human ailments, but such claims are largely unsubstantiated except
for extremely high exposures. Electric motors can be shielded within a metallic Faraday
cage, but this reduces efficiency by adding weight to the vehicle, while it is not conclusive
that all electromagnetic radiation can be contained.
CHARGING (Grid Capacity)
If a large proportion of private vehicles were to convert to grid electricity it would increase
the demand for generation and transmission, and consequent emissions. However, overall
energy consumption and emissions would diminish because of the higher efficiency of
electric vehicles over the entire cycle. In the USA it has been estimated there is already
nearly sufficient existing power plant and transmission infrastructure, assuming that most
charging would occur overnight, using the most efficient off-peak base load sources.
In the UK however, things are different. While National Grid’s high-voltage electricity
transmission system can currently manage the demand of 1 million electric cars, Steve
Holliday (CEO National Grid PLC) said, “penetration up and above that becomes a real
46
issue. Local distribution networks in cities like London may struggle to balance their grids
if drivers choose to all plug in their cars at the same time."
CHARGING STATIONS
Electric vehicles typically charge from conventional power outlets or dedicated charging
stations, a process that typically takes hours, but can be done overnight and often gives a
charge that is sufficient for normal everyday usage.
However with the widespread implementation of electric vehicle networks within large
cities, such as those provided by POD Point in the UK and Europe, electric vehicle users
can plug in their cars whilst at work and leave them to charge throughout the day, extending
the possible range of commutes and eliminating range anxiety.
One proposed solution for daily recharging is a standardized inductive charging system
such as Evatran's Plugless Power. Benefits are the convenience of with parking over the
charge station and minimized cabling and connection infrastructure.
Another proposed solution for the typically less frequent, long distance travel is "rapid
charging", such as the Aerovironment PosiCharge line (up to 250 kW) and
the Norvik MinitCharge line (up to 300 kW). Ecotality is a manufacturer of Charging
Stations and has partnered with Nissan on several installations. Battery replacement is also
proposed as an alternative, although no OEM's including Nissan/Renault have any
production vehicle plans. Swapping requires standardization across platforms, models and
manufacturers. Swapping also requires many times more battery packs to be in the system.
One type of battery "replacement" proposed is much simpler: while the latest generation
of vanadium redox battery only has an energy density similar to lead-acid, the charge is
stored solely in a vanadium-based electrolyte, which can be pumped out and replaced with
charged fluid. The vanadium battery system is also a potential candidate for intermediate
energy storage in quick charging stations because of its high power density and extremely
good endurance in daily use. System cost however, is still prohibitive. As vanadium battery
47
systems are estimated to range between $350$600 per kWh, a battery that can service one
hundred customers in a 24 hour period at 50 kWh per charge would cost $1.8-$3 million.
According to Department of Energy research conducted at Pacific National Laboratory,
84% of existing vehicles could be switched over to plug-in Motorieds without requiring any
new grid infrastructure. In terms of transportation, the net result would be a 27% total
reduction in emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide,
a 31% total reduction in nitrogen oxides, a slight reduction in nitrous oxide emissions, an
increase in particulate matter emissions, the same sulfur dioxide emissions, and the near
elimination of carbon monoxide and volatile organic compound emissions (a 98% decrease
in carbon monoxide and a 93% decrease in volatile organic compounds). The emissions
would be displaced away from street level, where they have "high human-health
implications."
Battery swapping
There is another way to "refuel" electric vehicles. Instead of recharging them from electric
socket, batteries could be mechanically replaced on special stations just in a couple of
minutes (battery swapping).
Batteries with greatest energy density such as metal-air fuel cells usually cannot be
recharged in purely electric way. Instead some kind of metallurgical process is needed, such
as aluminum smelting and similar.
Silicon-air, aluminum-air and other metal-air fuel cells look promising candidates for swap
batteries. Any source of energy, renewable or non-renewable, could be used to remake used
metal-air fuel cells with relatively high efficiency. Investment in infrastructure will be
needed. The cost of such batteries could be an issue, although they could be made with
replaceable anodes and electrolyte.
48
OTHER IN-DEVELOPMENT TECHNOLOGIES
Conventional electric double-layer capacitors are being worked to achieve the energy
density of lithium ion batteries, offering almost unlimited lifespans and no environmental
issues. High-K electric double-layer capacitors, such as EEStor's EESU, could improve
lithium ion energy density several times over if they can be produced. Lithium-sulphur
batteries offer 250Wh/kg. Sodium-ion batteries promise 400Wh/kg with only minimal
expansion/contraction during charge/discharge and a very high surface area. Researchers
from one of the Ukrainian state universities claim that they have manufactured samples of
supercapacitor based on intercalation process with 318 W-h/kg specific energy, which seem
to be at least two times improvement in comparison to typical Li-ion batteries.
SAFETY
The United Nations in Geneva (UNECE) has adopted the first international regulation
(Regulation 100) on safety of both fully electric and Motoried electric cars to ensure that
cars with a high voltageelectric power train, such as Motoried and fully electric vehicles,
are as safe as combustion cars. The EU and Japan have already indicated that they intend to
incorporate the new UNECE Regulation in their respective rules on technical standards for
vehicles.
ENERGY RESILIENCE
Electricity is a form of energy that remains within the country or region where it was
produced and can be multi-sourced. As a result it gives the greatest degree of energy
resilience.
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Electric vehicle 'tank-to-wheels' efficiency is about a factor of 3 higher than internal
combustion engine vehicles. It does not consume energy when it is not moving, unlike
internal combustion engines where they continue running even during idling. However,
looking at the well-to-wheel efficiency of electric vehicles, their emissions are comparable
49
to an efficient gasoline or diesel in most countries because electricity generation relies on
fossil fuels.
COST OF RECHARGE
The GM Volt will cost "less than purchasing a cup of your favorite coffee" to recharge. The
Volt should cost less than 2 cents per mile to drive on electricity, compared with 12 cents a
mile on gasoline at a price of $3.60 a gallon. This means a trip from Los Angeles to New
York would cost $56 on electricity, and $336 with gasoline. This would be the equivalent to
paying 60 cents a gallon of gas.
STABILIZATION OF THE GRID
Since electric vehicles can be plugged into the electric grid when not in use, there is a
potential for battery powered vehicles to even out the demand for electricity by feeding
electricity into the grid from their batteries during peak use periods (such as midafternoon
air conditioning use) while doing most of their charging at night, when there is unused
generating capacity. This Vehicle to Grid (V2G) connection has the potential to reduce the
need for new power plants.
Furthermore, our current electricity infrastructure may need to cope with increasing shares
of variable-output power sources such as windmills and PV solar panels. This variability
could be addressed by adjusting the speed at which EV batteries are charged, or possibly
even discharged.
Some concepts see battery exchanges and battery charging stations, much like gas/petrol
stations today. Clearly these will require enormous storage and charging potentials, which
could be manipulated to vary the rate of charging, and to output power during shortage
periods, much as diesel generators are used for short periods to stabilize some national
grids.
50
RANGE
Many electric designs have limited range, due to the low energy density of batteries
compared to the fuel of internal combustion engine vehicles. Electric vehicles also often
have long recharge times compared to the relatively fast process of refueling a tank. This is
further complicated by the current scarcity of public charging stations. "Range anxiety" is a
label for consumer concern about EV range.
HEATING OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES
In cold climates considerable energy is needed to heat the interior of a vehicle and to
defrost the windows. With internal combustion engines, this heat already exists from the
combustion process from the waste heat from the engine cooling circuit and this offsets
the greenhouse gases' external costs. If this is done with battery electric vehicles, this will
require extra energy from the vehicles' batteries. Although some heat could be harvested
from the motor(s) and battery, due to their greater efficiency there is not as much waste heat
available as from a combustion engine.
However, for vehicles which are connected to the grid, battery electric vehicles can be
preheated, or cooled, and need little or no energy from the battery, especially for short trips.
Newer designs are focused on using super-insulated cabins which can heat the vehicle using
the body heat of the passengers. This is not enough, however, in colder climates as a driver
delivers only about 100 W of heating power. A reversible AC-system, cooling the cabin
during summer and heating it during winter, seems to be the most practical and promising
way of solving the thermal management of the EV. Ricardo Arboix introduced (2008) a
new concept based on the principle of combining the thermal-management of the EV-
battery with the thermal-management of the cabin using a reversible AC-system. This is
done by adding a third heat-exchanger, thermally connected with the battery-core, to the
traditional heat pump/air conditioning system used in previous EV-models like the GM
EV1 and Toyota RAV4 EV.
51
The concept has proven to bring several benefits, such as prolonging the life-span of the
battery as well as improving the performance and overall energy-efficiency of the EV.
ELECTRIC PUBLIC TRANSIT EFFICIENCY
Shifts from private to public transport (train, trolleybus or tram) have the potential for large
gains in efficiency in terms of individual miles per kWh.
Research shows people do prefer trams, because they are quieter and more comfortable and
perceived as having higher status.
Therefore, it may be possible to cut liquid fossil fuel consumption in cities through the use
of electric trams.
Trams may be the most energy-efficient form of public transportation, with rubber wheeled
vehicles using 2/3 more energy than the equivalent tram, and run on electricity rather than
fossil fuels.
In terms of net present value, they are also the cheapestBlackpool trams are still running
after 100-years, but combustion buses only last about 15-years.
52
CHAPTER 8
MERITS
AND
DEMERITS
OF
MOTORIZED VEHICLE
53
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MOTORIZED
VEHICLES
ENVIRONMENTAL
Due to efficiency of electric engines as compared to combustion engines, even when the
electricity used to charge electric vehicles comes from a CO2 emitting source, such as a
coal or gas fired powered plant, the net CO2 production from an electric car is typically one
half to one third of that from a comparable combustion vehicle.
Electric vehicles release almost no air pollutants at the place where they are operated. In
addition, it is generally easier to build pollution control systems into centralised power
stations than retrofit enormous numbers of cars.
Electric vehicles typically have less noise pollution than an internal combustion engine
vehicle, whether it is at rest or in motion. Electric vehicles emit no tailpipe CO2 or
pollutants such as NOx,NMHC, CO and PM at the point of use.
Electric motors don't require oxygen, unlike internal combustion engines; this is useful
for submarines.
While electric and Motoried cars have reduced tailpipe carbon emissions, the energy they
consume is sometimes produced by means that have environmental impacts. For example,
the majority ofelectricity produced in the United States comes from fossil
fuels (coal and natural gas) so use of an Electric Vehicle in the United States would not be
completely carbon neutral. Electric and Motoried cars can help decrease energy use and
pollution, with local no pollution at all being generated by electric vehicles, and may
someday use only renewable resources, but the choice that would have the lowest negative
environmental impact would be a lifestyle change in favor of walking, biking, use of public
transit or telecommuting. Governments may invest in research and development of electric
54
cars with the intention of reducing the impact on the environment where they could instead
develop pedestrian-friendly communities or electric mass transit.
MECHANICAL
Electric motors are mechanically very simple.
Electric motors often achieve 90% energy conversion efficiency over the full range of
speeds and power output and can be precisely controlled. They can also be combined
with regenerative braking systems that have the ability to convert movement energy back
into stored electricity.
This can be used to reduce the wear on brake systems (and consequent brake pad dust) and
reduce the total energy requirement of a trip. Regenerative braking is especially effective
for start-and-stop city use.
Figure-:An Alkè electric city van.
55
They can be finely controlled and provide high torque from rest, unlike internal combustion
engines, and do not need multiple gears to match power curves. This removes the need
for gearboxes and torque converters.
Electric vehicles provide quiet and smooth operation and consequently have less noise
and vibration than internal combustion engines.
FUTURE ASPECTS
Figure:Eliica Battery Electric Car with 370 km/h top speed and 200 km range
The number of US survey respondents willing to pay $4,000 more for a plug-in
Motoried car increased from 17% in 2005 to 26% in 2006.
Ferdinand Dudenhoeffer, head of the Centre of Automotive Research at the Gelsenkirchen
University of Applied Sciences in Germany, said that "by 2025, allpassenger cars sold in
Europe will be electric or Motoried" electric.
Several startup companies like Tesla Motors, Commuter Cars, and Miles Electric
Vehicles will have powerful battery-electric vehicles available to the public in 2008.
Battery and energy storage technology is advancing rapidly. The average distance driven by
80% of citizens per day in a car in the US is about 50 miles (US dept of transport, 1991),
which fits easily within the current range of the electric car.
56
This range can be improved by technologies such as Plug-in Motoriedelectric vehicles
which are capable of using traditional fuels for unlimited range, rapid charging stations for
BEVs, improved energy density batteries, flow batteries, or battery swapping.
In 2006 GM began the development of a plug-in Motoried that will use a lithium-ion
battery. The vehicle, initially known as the Car, is now called the Chevrolet Volt. The basic
design was first exhibited January 2007 at the North American International Auto Show.
GM is planning to have this EV ready for sale to the public in the latter half of 2010. The
car is to have a 40-mile (64 km) range. If the battery capacity falls below 30 percent a small
internal combustion engine will kick in to charge the battery on the go.
This in effect increases the range of the vehicle, allowing it to be driven until it can be fully
charged by plugging it into a standard household AC electrical source. In December 2010
Nissan introduced the Nissan Leaf in Japan and the U.S.
The Nissan Leaf is a five-door mid-size hatchback electric car. The U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency determined the range to be 117 kilometres (73 mi), with an energy
consumption of 765 kJ/km (34 kWh per 100 miles). Among other awards and recognition,
the Nissan Leaf won the 2010 Green Car Vision Award award, the 2011 European Car of
the Year award, the 2011 World Car of the Year, and ranks as the most efficient EPA
certified vehicle for all fuels ever.
On October 29, 2007, Shai Agassi launched Project Better Place, a company focused on
building massive scale Electric Recharge Grids as infrastructure supporting the deployment
of electric vehicles (including plug-in Motorieds) in countries around the world. On January
21, PBP and the NissanRenault group signed a MOU - PBP will provide the battery
recharging and swapping infrastructure and Renault-Nissan will mass-produce the vehicles.
Improved long term energy storage and nano batteries
There have been several developments which could bring electric vehicles outside their
current fields of application, as scooters, golf cars, neighborhood vehicles, in industrial
operational yards and indoor operation. First, advances in lithium-based battery technology,
57
in large part driven by the consumer electronics industry, allow full-sized, highway-capable
electric vehicles to be propelled as far on a single charge as conventional cars go on a single
tank of gasoline. Lithium batteries have been made safe, can be recharged in minutes
instead of hours, and now last longer than the typical vehicle. The production cost of these
lighter, higher-capacity lithium batteries is gradually decreasing as the technology matures
and production volumes increase.
Rechargeable Lithium-air batteries potentially offer increased range over other types and
are a current topic of research
Introduction of battery management and intermediate storage
Another improvement is to decouple the electric motor from the battery through electronic
control, employing ultra-capacitors to buffer large but short power demands
and regenerative braking energy.
The development of new cell types combined with intelligent cell management improved
both weak points mentioned above. The cell management involves not only monitoring the
health of the cells but also a redundant cell configuration (one more cell than needed). With
sophisticated switched wiring it is possible to condition one cell while the rest are on duty.
Faster battery recharging
By soaking the matter found in conventional lithium ion batteries in a special solution,
lithium ion batteries were supposedly said to be recharged 100x faster. This test was
however done with a specially-designed battery with little capacity. Batteries with higher
capacity can be recharged 40x faster.
The research was conducted by Byoungwoo Kang and Gerbrand Ceder of MIT. The
researchers believe the solution may appear on the market in 2011. Another method to
speed up battery charging is by adding an additional oscillating electric field. This method
was proposed byIbrahim Abou Hamad from Mississippi State University.The
company Epyon specializes in faster charging of electric vehicles
58
CHAPTER 9
ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPACT
OF
MOTORIZED
VEHICLE
59
Environmental Impact of Motorized Vehicle
Though Motoried cars consume less petroleum than conventional cars, there is still an issue
regarding the environmental damage of the Motoried car battery. Today most Motoried car
batteries are one of two types: (1) nickel metal hydride, or (2) lithium ion; both are regarded
as more environmentally friendly than lead-based batteries which constitute the bulk of car
batteries today.
There are many types of batteries. Some are far more toxic than others. While batteries like
lead acid or nickel cadmium are incredibly bad for the environment, the toxicity levels and
environmental impact of nickel metal hydride batteriesthe type currently used in
Motoriedsare much lower. Nickel-based batteries are known carcinogens, and have been
shown to cause a variety of teratogenic effects.
The Lithium-ion battery has attracted attention due to its potential for use in Motoried
electric vehicles. Hitachi is a leader in its development.
Additionally, the market for Lithium-ion batteries is rapidly expanding as an alternative to
the nickel-metal hydride batteries, which have been utilized in the Motoried market thus
far. In addition to its smaller size and lighter weight, lithium-ion batteries deliver
performance that helps to protect the environment with features such as improved charge
efficiency without memory effect.
In an environment where motor vehicle requirements including lower exhaust emissions
and better fuel economy are prevalent, it is anticipated that the practical use of Motoried,
electric, and fuel cell vehicles will continue to increase.
The lithium-ion batteries are appealing because they have the highest energy density of any
rechargeable batteries and can produce a voltage more than three times that of nickel-metal
hydride battery cell while simultaneously storing large quantities of electricity as well.
60
The batteries also produce higher output (boosting vehicle power), higher efficiency
(avoiding wasteful use of electricity), and provides excellent durability, compared with the
life of the battery being roughly equivalent to the life of the vehicle.
Additionally, use of lithium-ion batteries reduces the overall weight of the vehicle and also
achieves improved fuel economy of 30% better than gasoline-powered vehicles with a
consequent reduction in CO2 emissions helping to prevent global warming. The lithium-ion
batteries supplied by Hitachi are flourishing in a wide range of different applications
including cars, buses, commercial vehicles and trains.
Electric vehicles that have the ability to be recharged from an owner’s main power supply
are now available in several global automotive markets. When these vehicles are charged
overnight, which is less costly than charging the vehicle during the day in Japan, the
expense is about one-ninth of the cost for fueling a gasoline powered vehicle.
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MOTORIED VEHICLE EMISSIONS
Motorized vehicle emissions today are getting close to or even lower than the
recommended level set by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency).
The recommended levels they suggest for a typical passenger vehicle should be equated to
5.5 metric tons of carbon dioxide. The three most popular Motorized vehicles, Honda
Civic, Honda Insight and Toyota Prius, set the standards even higher by producing 4.1, 3.5,
and 3.5 tons showing a major improvement in carbon dioxide emissions.
Motorized vehicles can reduce air emissions of smog-forming pollutants by up to 90% and
cut carbon dioxide emissions in half.
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CHAPTER 10
PRESENT
SCENERIO
IN
INDIA
63
PRESENT SCENERIO IN INDIA
Practically the only Electric Vehicle to have been manufactured for several years is the
Indian REVA. It is produced by REVA Electric Car Company Private Ltd. (RECC) in
Bangalore, India, a company established in 1994 as a joint venture between the Maini
Group India and AEV LLC, California USA. After seven years of R&D, they
commercialized the first REVA car in June 2001.
The current version of the REVA is the REVAi. It was first reserved for the Indian market,
but it is now distributed in several European countries: UK (by GoinGreenunder the name
G-Wiz), Cyprus and Greece (by REVA Phaedra Electricity Mobility Ltd., Belgium
(by Green Mobil), Norway (by Ole Chr. Bye AS), Iceland (byPerlukafarinn ehf), Spain
(by Emovement)and Germany (by Elektro PKW, the REVA is also available in the
Republic of Ireland GreenAer. It may be exported to the USA with a speed limiter for use
as a Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV).
In July 2010, the government of Tamil Nadu allocated land in Ranipet to Bavina Cars India
for production of electric cars. The plant is set to be operational by 2011.
In addition to Bangalore-based Reva, which currently is the only company actually selling
EVs today, electric cars made in India includes:
Mahindra & Mahindra: Four-seat model by 2010.
Tata: 2008-2009 (also possibly an air car).
Ajanta Group: clockmaker with plans for low-cost electric vehicle.
Tara: Low-cost EV less than a Tata Nano.
Hero Electric: 2013 Electric car.
With Tata, Ajanta and Tara talking about 'low-cost' cars and "less than a Tata Nano".
64
CHAPTER 11
CONCLUSION
65
Conclusion
All types of engine-driven vehicles from automobiles, airplanes, aircraft carriers
and agricultural equipment to zambonis may have electric motors to perform a
variety of functions. In electric vehicles, diesel-electric vehicles, and hybrid
vehicles, electric motors are used to propel the vehicle. The motor controllers in
vehicle applications are integrated into the vehicle.
The machine is very much advance and simple to construst. The working
of machine is easy and eco friendly . Its is the most economical vehicle as there
is no fuel consumption. The cost of all the component is less and the component
should be easily available in the market .so presently it is common to use in
developing countries.
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CHAPTER 12
BIBLIOGRAPHY
67
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books
Automobile Engineering- by P.C.Sharma
Machine design- by V.B.Bandhari
Machine design- by P.C.Sharma
Website
www.ask.com
www.engineersedge.com
www.howstuffworks.com
www.google.com
www.encyclopedia.com
www.sciencedirect.com
www.answer.com
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Book
Full-text available
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After seven years of R&D, they commercialized the first REVA
  • India Bangalore
Bangalore, India, a company established in 1994 as a joint venture between the Maini Group India and AEV LLC, California USA. After seven years of R&D, they commercialized the first REVA car in June 2001.
Ajanta and Tara talking about 'low-cost' cars and "less than a Tata Nano
  • With Tata
With Tata, Ajanta and Tara talking about 'low-cost' cars and "less than a Tata Nano".