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Qualitative Characteristics of Red Rice and White Rice Procured from Local Market of Uttarakhand: A Comparative Study

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Abstract

The present study was undertaken with the objective to evaluate and compare the physical characteristics, nutritional quality, antioxidant properties and glycemic index of indigenously grown raw red rice grown in Udham Singh Nagar district of Uttarakhand and white rice (Sarbati) procured from local market of Uttarakhand, India. Of the thirteen physical quality parameters evaluated, red rice proved to be superior to white rice in all parameters barring seed length. Red rice was found to have a higher iron, magnesium, calcium, and zinc content than white rice. Regarding other nutrients the study revealed that red rice has a higher crude protein (10.49%) and crude fiber (2.71%) content as compared to white rice. The nutritional quality of red rice was found to be comparable to many millets, fruits and vegetables. It showed excellent antioxidant properties too such as total phenolic content (143.38 mg GAE/100g of phenol), total flavonoid content (120.0 mg R.E. /100 gm of flavonoid) and DPPH scavenging activity (25 per cent). Red rice was found to have a lower glycemic index (63.15 ± 2.63mg/dl) than white rice due to which it can be a part of the diets of diabetics as well as persons suffering from other non-communicable diseases. Red rice is a storehouse of nutritional excellence and is a healthier alternative to white or polished rice.
49 Journal of Rice Research 2017, Vol 10 No. 1
Introduction
Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) is one of the most popular and
important cereal crops. It is the staple food of more than
three billion people (Bhattacharjee et al., 2002) in 39
countries,that comprises of nearly half of the world’s
population. Commercially more than two thousand
varieties of rice are grown throughout the world. Over 2
billion people in Asia derive 80% of their energy needs
from rice, which contains 80% carbohydrates, 7–8% crude
protein, 3% crude fat, and 3% crude fiber (Juliano, 1985).
Champagne et al., (2006) stated that rice is mainly composed
of starch. Vandeputte et al., (2004) mentioned rice starch
as the major constituent of rice grain. Moldenhauer et al.,
(2006) added that the same level of starch is the base of
determining the quality that the cooked rice would depict.
Rice is widely consumed as white rice in milled and
parboiled form. There are many special cultivars of rice
that contain colour pigments, such as black rice, red rice
and brown rice. Their name refer to the kernel colour
(black, red or purple) which is formed by deposition of
anthocyanin in different layers of the pericarp, seed coat
and aleurone (Chaudhary et al,. 2001). The origin of
coloured rice is as old as rice itself. Rice with a red bran
layer is called red rice. Though, the colour is confined to the
bran layer, a tinge of red remains even after a high degree
of milling. Unmilled rice has a higher nutrient content than
milled or polished white rice. Red rice contains 7g/100g
protein, 5.5mg/100g iron, 3.3mg/100g zinc, and 2g/100g
fibre respectively. Red rice has a nutritional value more
than that of milled and or polished rice FAO (2004).
Rice was known to the civilization 5000 BC. However
the Chinese, Southern and East Asians are believed to
have learnt the practice of growing rice around 2000 BC
(Chaudhary et al., 2001).
De candolle (1886) and Watt (1892) believed that rice
was originally cultivated in South India. India is one of
the rice producing country with larger area involved in
the cultivation of rice. Historians believe that the well-
known variety of rice was first domesticated in the area
covering the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas. Rice
seems to have appeared around 1400 BC in southern
India after its domestication in the northern plains. Some
say that the word rice is derived from the Tamil word
Arisi” (Hiziroglu et al., 2007). The rice crop forms the
basic economic activity directly or indirectly for about 150
million rural households in India (Krishnaiah et al., 2000).
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS
Qualitative Characteristics of Red Rice and White Rice Procured from Local Market
of Uttarakhand: A Comparative Study
Rita singh Raghuvanshi, Anuradha Dutta*, Gunjan Tewari and Shweta Suri
Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology,
Pantnagar- 263145 (U.S. Nagar), Uttarakhand, India
*Corresponding author - adutta.gbpuat@gmail.com
Received: 4th April, 2017 Accepted: 5th May, 2017
Abstract
The present study was undertaken with the objective to evaluate and compare the physical characteristics, nutritional
quality, antioxidant properties and glycemic index of indigenously grown raw red rice grown in Udham Singh Nagar
district of Uttarakhand and white rice (Sarbati) procured from local market of Uttarakhand, India. Of the thirteen
physical quality parameters evaluated, red rice proved to be superior to white rice in all parameters barring seed
length. Red rice was found to have a higher iron, magnesium, calcium, and zinc content than white rice. Regarding
other nutrients the study revealed that red rice has a higher crude protein (10.49%) and crude fiber (2.71%) content
as compared to white rice. The nutritional quality of red rice was found to be comparable to many millets, fruits and
vegetables. It showed excellent antioxidant properties too such as total phenolic content (143.38 mg GAE/100g of
phenol), total flavonoid content (120.0 mg R.E. /100 gm of flavonoid) and DPPH scavenging activity (25 per cent).
Red rice was found to have a lower glycemic index (63.15 ± 2.63mg/dl) than white rice due to which it can be a part
of the diets of diabetics as well as persons suffering from other non-communicable diseases. Red rice is a storehouse
of nutritional excellence and is a healthier alternative to white or polished rice.
Keywords: Red rice, Antioxidants, Glycemic index, Nutritional composition, Physico-chemical characteristics.
Abbreviations: DPPH:2, 2 Diphenyl 2 picryl hydrazyl hydrate;TFC:Total flavonoid content; TPC:Total phenol content;
R.E:Retinol equivalent; GAE:Gallic acid equivalent
50 Journal of Rice Research 2017, Vol 10 No. 1
Ancient Indian literature Charaka Samhita, authored by
great Charaka mentioned rice with red husk and grain as the
best which is efficacious and subdues the diseases (Kumar,
1988; Krishnamurthy, 1991). Eaten as a whole grain, Red
rice is commonly consumed in Himachal Pradesh, Uttar
Pradesh and South India, especially Karnataka and Tamil
Nadu and is predominantly known for its aroma and taste.
But rice consumers often prefer to have polished white rice
despite the valuable food content of coloured rice which is
lost when bran is removed while polishing.
The choice of carbohydrate-rich foods in the habitual
diet should take into account not only their chemical
composition but also their ability to influence postprandial
glycemia (glycemic index) (Riccardi et al., 2008).
Polyphenol and flavonoid which have antioxidant capacity
present in many foods and vegetables are regarded
as the functional materials. Regular intake of these
phytochemicals can reduce many chronic diseases such as
cardiovascular diseases, heart diseases, diabetes, obesity
and certain cancers, and improve endothelial function and
reduce blood pressure (Liu, 2007; Yawadio et al., 2007;
Jonathan et al., 2006).
Little or no information is available on nutritive value of
red rice grown in tarai region of Uttarakhand. Therefore,
the study is aimed to estimate and analyse the physical
characteristics, nutritional quality, antioxidant properties
and glycemic index of white rice and red rice.
Materials and Methods:
Procurement of sample: Samples of two types of rice
(Oryza Sativa L.) viz. indigenously grown raw red rice from
Udham Singh Nagar district of Uttarakhand, and white rice
(Sarbati) were procured from Uttarakhand Agricultural
Production Board and the local market respectively.
Estimation of nutritional quality: Dehusked red rice
and milled, polished white rice samples were analysed
in triplicate for proximate composition such as percent
moisture, crude protein, total ash, crude fat and crude
fibre. Proximate composition was determined by the
method given by AOAC (2000). The carbohydrate
percentage was determined by the difference method as
reported by (Onyeike et al., 1995). The calorific value
(Kcal/100g) of sample was calculated by summing up the
product of multiplication of per cent crude protein, crude
fat and carbohydrate present in the sample by 4, 9 and 4
respectively.
Minerals: Calcium, iron, zinc, and magnesium in
the sample were estimated using atomic absorption
spectrophotometer. Ash solutions were prepared using wet-
ashing procedure as described by Raghuramulu (2003).
Physical properties: The physical properties of white
rice and red rice such as Seed volume, seed weight, seed
density, hydration capacity, swelling capacity, length of
grains, bulk density, and kernel elongation were estimated
by the procedure reported by (Williams et al., 1983). Alkali
spread value was calculated by method described by (Little
et al., 1958) and the kernel elongation was calculated as
described by (Azeez et al., 1966).
The hydration capacity of the grain is an important attribute
which affects the cooking quality and in turn organoleptic
qualities of product Potty (1996). The author also reported
that large sized particles have low bulk density; progressive
size reduction increases the bulk density significantly.
Cooking quality: Different grain samples take different
time for cooking therefore the rice samples were soaked
for a constant period of 60 minutes and cooked for 3
different timing viz. 20, 30 and 40minutes. The number of
cooked grains were counted and put in 500ml of boiling
water and timed from the time the water started boiling
again. After specified period remaining water was drained
off and the softness of the grain was gauged manually by
pressing them between the thumb and index finger. The
cooked grains were counted and recorded in percentage.
Antioxidant properties: Total flavonoid content (TFC),
total phenol content (TPC) and DPPH scavenging activity
were determined.
Total flavonoid content - Total flavanoid content was
determined according to the method given by Zhishen et
al., (1999).
Total Phenol content: The Total Phenol content was
determined according to the method given by Singleton et
al., (1999) using Folin- ciocalteu reagent.
DPPH scavenging activity: The total antioxidant activity
was determined according to the method given by Brand et
al., (1995) using 1,1- diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH).
Glycemic Index: The glycemic index of white rice and
red rice was determined using the procedure described by
(Brouns et al., 2005).
Statistical Analysis: The data obtained on the proximate
composition, mineral content, physical properties and
antioxidant content of white and red rice were further
analysed statistically. Mean ± S.D. was calculated for
chemical composition of white and red rice.
Results and discussion
Nutritional composition of white rice and red rice:
The results of proximate composition and minerals are
presented in Table 1. White rice was found to have 12.7%
moisture, 7.6% crude protein, 0.46% ash, 0.62% fat, 0.23%
fibre, and 78.34% carbohydrate. On the other hand, red rice
was found to have 12.75% moisture, 10.49% crude protein,
1.53% ash, 1.815 fat, 2.7% fibre and 70.19% carbohydrate
content. The protein content of red rice is comparable to
other cereals and millets such as Whole wheat (11.8%),
51 Journal of Rice Research 2017, Vol 10 No. 1
Barley (11.5%), Bajra (11.6%) and Jowar(10.4%). The ash
content of Red Rice was higher than that of White Rice.
Red rice is a rich source of fibre as compared to whole
wheat (1.2%), Bajra (1.2%) and many vegetables such as
amaranth, spinach, cucumber and carrot (Gopalan et al.,
2007). The total physiological energy was recorded as
349.34 kcal in white rice and 341.29 kcal in red rice.
Red rice was found to be a rich mineral source. It had
13.45mg iron, 192.27 mg magnesium, 8.71 mg calcium,
and 1.91 mg zinc while white rice was found to have
7.65 mg iron, 46.45 mg magnesium, 7.94 mg calcium
and 1.49 mg zinc. Red rice has an iron content more
than whole wheat (5.3mg) (Gopalan et al., 2007). Thus,
it can be recommended for the people suffering with iron
deficiency as rice forms a major part of the diet. A high
magnesium content in red rice seeks its importance in the
diet of individuals suffering with various heart disorders,
especially those related to elevated cholesterol level and
hypertension.
Physical properties of white rice and red rice: The
Physical properties of red rice are presented in table 1
compared to white rice sample. Red rice was found to
have a higher 1000 kernel weight (18.3g), seed weight
(1.827g), seed density (1.59 g/ml), seed volume (1.1 ml),
hydration capacity(0.347 g/100 seeds), hydration index
(0.19), swelling capacity (1.6 ml/100 seeds), swelling
index (1.41), kernel elongation (1.32 cm) and bulk density
(0.82 gm/l). Also it has a high gelatinization temperature
and cooking time. However, the length of the red rice grain
is less than white rice. The physical properties of red rice
suggest that it has more density than the white rice.
Table 1. Proximate composition and physical properties
of white rice and red rice
Nutritional
parameters White rice Red rice
Moisture Content
(g/100 gram) 12.75±0.15 12.7±0.13
Crude Fat Content
(g/100 gram) 0.62±0.015 1.81±0.011
Crude Fiber Content
(g/100 gram) 0.23±0.02 2.71±0.1
Crude Protein
Content (g/100 gram) 7.6±0.23 10.49±0.43
Total Ash Content
(g/100 gram) 0.46±0.04 1.53±0.01
Carbohydrate
Content (g/100 gram) 78.34±1.5 70.19±1.0
Energy Content
(kcal/100 gram) 349.34±2.5 341±1.2
Thousand kernel
weight (g) 14.2±0.51 18.3±0.83
Seed weight (g) 1.42±0.02 1.827±0.02
Seed volume (ml) 1.16±0.05 1.1±0.05
Seed density (g/ml) 1.22±0.072 1.59±0.083
Hydration capacity
(g/100 seeds) 0.179±0.03 0.347±0.02
Hydration index 0.125±0.02 0.19±0.009
Swelling capacity
(ml/100seeds) 0.85±0.35 1.6±0.1
Swelling index 0.72±0.34 1.41±0.11
Length of grain(cm) 0.7±0.1 0.56±0.057
Bulk density of 1g of
sample(g/l) 0.703± 0.005 0.82±0.017
Kernel elongation
1.28 cm± 0.127
1.32cm± 0.096
Gelatinization Temp
(Alkali spread value) 1-5scale point High (1-2 scale
point)
Cooking quality 30- 40 min more than 60
min
Antioxidant property of white rice and red rice: The
results of antioxidant properties are presented in Table 2.
The total phenolic content and total flavonoids content
of red rice was found to be 143.38 mg GAE/100 gm and
120 mg R.E./100 gm respectively. The DPPH scavenging
activity was found to be 25%. Sompong et al., (2011) found
the total phenolic content of ten red rice varieties ranging
between 79.2 and 691.4 mg FA equivalent/ 100 gm. Shen
et al., (2009) recorded 147.2 mg RE/100 gm as the mean
flavonoid content of red rice varieties. On the other hand,
the total phenol and flavonoids content of white rice
was found to be 24.26 mg GAE/100 gm and 166.23 mg
R.E./100 gm. The DPPH scavenging activity was found to
be 20%. Yafang et al., (2011) found the phenolic content
of white rice to be ranging between 42.57 mg GAE/100
g to 100.7 mg GAE/100 g and flavonoid content ranged
between 62.1 mg RE/100 g to 182.6 mg RE/100 g.
Table 2. Mineral and Antioxidant properties of white
rice and red rice
II. Minerals and
Antioxidant properties White rice Red rice
Calcium Content (mg/100g) 7.94±0.17 8.71±0.65
Iron Content(mg/100g) 7.65±0.22 13.45±0.60
Magnesium Content
(mg/100g) 46.45±0.649 192.27±5.98
Zinc content(mg/100g) 1.49±0.039 1.91±0.036
Total avonoid content
(mg R.E./100 gm of avonoid)
166.23±0.25 120.0 ±0.38
52 Journal of Rice Research 2017, Vol 10 No. 1
Total phenolic content
(mg GAE/100g of phenol) 24.26±1.05 143.38 ±1.5
DPPH scavenging activity% 20% 25%
Figure 1. Blood glucose response curve for White and Red rice
Glycemic Index: The glycemic index of white rice
and red rice was recorded as 71.7±0.91 and 63.15±2.63
respectively. White rice has 8 per cent more carbohydrate
and 2.5 per cent less crude fibre relatively. Fiber rich
foods like red rice generally have a low glycemic index
(GI) (Radulian et al., 2009). As red rice is relatively rich
in crude fibre, it may be eaten in small quantities by the
diabetic individuals and incorporated in daily diet by the
healthy people too.
Conclusion
In the present study it was found that red rice has a
higher content of crude fiber, crude protein, minerals
and antioxidants than white rice. It has a higher nutrient
density and lower glycemic index which makes it
comparatively superior than white rice. Red rice has
multifaceted nutritional values which make it a highly
beneficial superfood. However, red rice has been relegated
from plates and fields due to the emergence of white rice
as a predominant staple food since the advent of green
revolution. Although the scientific community is totally
aware of its wonders as a source of minerals, protein and
antioxidants, yet alone they cannot make a significant
mark without an immense market demand. The red rice
must evolve onto its journey as a gift of nature rather than
ending as weedy and wild rice. Looking onto its health
properties, it will be desirable to have processed food items
such as puffed and flaked rice, coloured noodles and snack
items prepared from red rice adding to its popularisation
and commercialisation as an important food grain.
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... ± 2.63mg/dl) than white rice, red rice can be a part of the diets of diabetics as well as persons suffering from other non-communicable diseases. Red rice is a storehouse of nutritional excellence and is a healthier alternative to white or polished rice (Raghuvanshi et al. 2017). Due to the high fibre content, red rice possesses the ability to keep healthy metabolic function and bowel function also. ...
... The moisture and fat per cent content of red rice was 13.92 ± 0.13, 2.11± 0.07 which was on the higher side then the control i.e. 12.85 ± 0.15 and 0.67 ± 0.01, respectively (Table 1). Similar results were reported by (Raghuvanshi et al. 2017). They found that red rice have 12.75% moisture, 1.53 % ash and 1.81% fat. ...
... The total phenolic content and total flavonoids content of red rice was found to be 143.38 mg GAE/100 gm and 120 mg R.E. /100 gm respectively (Raghuvanshi et al. 2017). Table 2 depicts that the sensory score for body and texture of T 2 formulation was found to score highest i.e. 8.50 ± 0.24 which was found to be statistically non-significant over other treatments at (P>0.05). ...
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... The b -and g -tocotrienols are the most abundant forms present in rice (Irakli et al., 2016). Rice grains have traces of a number of essential micronutrients, mainly zinc, magnesium, iron, copper, potassium, manganese and calcium (Raghuvanshi et al., 2017;Shozib et al., 2017;Shao et al., 2018). It also contains higher levels of minerals, i.e. zinc, manganese and iron that are deficit in white rice (Raghuvanshi et al., 2017;Hurtada et al., 2018;Shao et al., 2018). ...
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... Brown rice is consumed as piping hot and served during special festivals. Red rice is a good source of iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg), therefore it is good food for pregnant women and the populace suffering from iron defi ciency and heart patients (Raghuvanshi et al., 2017;Priya et al., 2019). ...
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Nagaland is one of the parts of the center of origin of rice, and has diversifi ed rice landraces with unique cooking quality, taste, aroma and stress tolerance. In current study, landraces were evaluated for grain quality, yield and stress tolerance. Landraces Aongsho, Semmeki, Goyo Tsük and Moya Tsük showed higher yield as compared to Bhalum-3 check variety in the upland ecosystem. Whereas, Mehourü was the smallest landraces with a height of 65 cm. Among all the landraces under study, Yunghah, Goyo Tsük, Rükhatang and Vepvu Tsük were found strongly aromatic. While, Teke, Aongsho and Semmeki landrace showed moisture stress tolerance. Cluster and principal component analysis grouped the landraces into six distinct clusters. These landraces harbor the genes for various grain quality traits, drought tolerance and brown spot disease (Cochliobolus miyabeanus) tolerance. Superior landraces identifi ed for grain quality, drought tolerance and brown spot can be utilized in future breeding programmes. This study may help in pre-breeding activities for development of improved varieties/hybrids for this agro-climatic zone.
... Rice is a primary grain food supporting world population growth (He et al. 2018), providing 80% of the energy requirements for nearly two billion people in Asia (Raghuvanshi et al. 2017). China is the largest rice producer and consumer in the world, representing around 30% of global rice production and 28% of global rice consumption (FAO 2019). ...
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Ratoon rice (RR) is regarded as a labor-saving and efficient approach to rice cultivation; however, sub-optimal production techniques (fertilization, irrigation, harvesting) may lead to serious environmental problems and unsustainable agriculture. In this study, emergy analysis was combined with indicators of soil fertility, global warming potential (GWP), and profitability to comprehensively assess the sustainability performance of three cultivation modes: (i) traditional farm practice (TRA), (ii) optimized mode (OPT), and (iii) OPT plus green manure planting (OPTM). Over 2 years, compared with the TRA mode, OPT and OPTM modes increased total rice yield by 10% and 19% on average and improved profit by 233.7 and 456.5 Yuan ha−1, respectively. Single emergy analysis results showed that, compared with the TRA mode, OPT and OPTM (2-year average value) modes increased production efficiency by 10% and 8%, reduced renewable fraction and emergy sustainability index by 14–19% and 18–23%, respectively, and increased environmental loading ratio by 31% and 22%. Multiple EMA analysis results showed that, compared with the TRA mode, OPT and OPTM (2-year average value) modes reduced UEVNmin by 23% and 21% and increased UEVGWP 32% and 51%, respectively. The UEVTotal revenue and UEVBenefit of OPT and OPTM increased by 8–29% and 4–37%, respectively, compared with TRA mode. The comprehensive assessment indicated that, despite OPT and OPTM modes have a range of improvements and dis-improvements versus the TRA mode, OPTM was the more sustainable mode of RR production overall. However, some sustainability indicators remained poor, and there remains scope for further optimization via, e.g., precision application of enhanced-efficiency fertilizers, application of a straw-decomposing inoculant to improve soil fertility, and use of new improved rice varieties with high regenerative ability to improve the yield of ratoon crops.
... Other than its enrichness with the above phytochemicals, pigmented rice varieties tend to have a higher protein content with a well-balanced amino acid composition, a better glycaemic index and higher levels of fibre and vitamin E (Gunaratne et al. 2013;Hedge et al. 2013;Kushwaha 2016) and also reported to have higher content of micronutrients such as Fe, Zn, Ca, Cu and Mg compared to white rice (Raghuvanshi et al. 2017;Shao et al. 2018;Hurtada et al. 2018;Priya et al.2019). The antioxidants such as glutathione, tocopherols and flavonoids present in the pericarp of pigmented rice seed also reported to play a significant role in seed longevity of rice by alleviating oxidation occurring during storage (Righetti et al. 2015). ...
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... Various bioactive compounds in pigmented rice are beneficial for the health and prevention of metabolic diseases [3]. Generally, red rice is rich in nutrients such as calcium, zinc, magnesium, protein, and fiber compared to white rice [4]. Proximate analysis shows that the vitamin B1 content of red rice is higher than black rice [5]. ...
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... Red rice contains more nutrients than white rice (milled and polished rice). Every 100 g of red rice contains protein 7 g, iron 5.5 mg, zinc 3.3 mg, and fiber 2 g [1]. High quality and nutrition rice is produced by several combinations of processing, one of them is germinated rice. ...
... This obligation is about 35% advanced than the total rice production [7]. In rice natural grain quality comprised of diverse characters that are directly or indirectly related to consumer preference [8,9]. Rice grain quality comprises the grinding, recovery, gastronomic and nutritive qualities. ...
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Aromatic rice is a special group of rice and considered the best in term of significant quality traits of rice and aroma. In this study sixteen advance lines of rice were evaluated for physical grain quality, aroma, gene of fragrance and yield attributed traits.
... In Asia, rice is one of the most important staple foods (Maclean, Dawe, Hettel, & Hardy, 2002;Raghuvanshi, Dutta, Tewari, & Suri, 2017), and it contributes to the development of agro-ecosystems and conservation of biodiversity. In Japan, for example, rice is a major part of the diet and most is grown domestically (Japan's Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (MAFF), 2015). ...
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Integrating the benefits associated with biodiversity into market mechanisms can play an important role in conservation practice. Food labeling is a widely used measure that highlights biodiversity conservation benefits to the market. However, few studies have explored the effects of labels on staple agricultural products that are associated with agro‐ecosystem conservation. We evaluated the biodiversity price premium of wildlife‐friendly rice by analyzing data from retail stores in Japan. The results showed a significant positive impact of biodiversity‐relevant labels on rice prices. Specifically, rice with this type of labeling had about 20% price premium as compared with rice that did not. The results also showed that outcome‐based certifications have the potential to work well in the market. The findings highlight the role of conservation marketing in agro‐ecosystem conservation and its potential to help balance biodiversity conservation and food security. We evaluated the biodiversity price premium of wildlife‐friendly rice by analyzing data from retail stores in Japan. The results showed a significant positive impact of biodiversity‐relevant labels on rice prices.
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Whole cereal grains have been received increasingly attention by consumers due to their potential health benefits because of their antioxidant capacity, which is probably derived from their high contents of phenolics, flavonoids and other phytochemicals. Here, we reported the contents of phenolics and flavonoids in different rice genotypes with grain size ranging from extremely small to normal size. The smaller grains had higher phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity than the normal and larger grains. The phenolic content had positive correlation with the flavonoid content (P<0.001) and the antioxidant capacity (P<0.01). The phenolic and flavonoid content had negative correlation with grain length, grain length to width ratio and 100-grain weight (P<0.01), but had no relationship with grain width and grain thickness. Thus, the phenolic content could be indirectly predicted by grain length and 100-grain weight. New rice varieties high in antioxidant levels could be obtained by breeding for extremely small grain rice.
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Total phenolics, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity from a wide collection of rice germplasm were measured, and their relations to grain color, grain size and 100-grain weight were investigated. Highly significant genotypic differences were observed in total phenolics, flavonoid contents and 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ehylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical cation antioxidant capacity. They displayed an increasing order in the white rice, red rice and black rice, yet several white rice had higher phenolics and flavonoids contents than the red rice. Significant positive pair-wise correlations were found among the phenolics, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity, and the coefficient between the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity was extremely high (r=0.96). Among all rice accessions, the grain color parameters had negative correlations with the phenolics, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity (p