Article

The medical ethics of professionalised ayurveda

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Abstract

In 1982, the Central Council for Indian Medicine (CCIM) issued guidelines on medical education and practice and a code of ethics for practitioners of Indian medicine, i.e. ayurveda, unani and siddha. These were at least partly based on the traditions of the respective medical systems and have been revised and adapted over the years. The ethical guidelines, however, followed standards set by the World Medical Association in the Declaration of Geneva of 1948 and the International Code of Ethics of 1949 and have not been updated since they were first issued. Rather than being a self-expression of the indigenous medical professions and their traditional values, the CCIM code of ethics aligned itself with international standards, thus ideologically placing the Indian systems of medicine on a par with biomedicine. This echoes developments in the early history of ayurvedic professionalisation, which was strongly influenced by the regulation and formalisation of medicine in Britain. In this article, I will trace the historical development of ayurvedic professional ethics, highlighting links with British health care regulations and international developments in the field of medical ethics.

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... Lastly, understanding the role of the State is critical for situating medical pluralism in India and, in particular, the politics of tradition and regulatory devices of modernity (Attewell, 2007;Benner, 2005;Cant & Sharma, 1999;Jeffery, 1979). Notions of medical pluralism can tend toward the reification of tradition as a repository of 'authentic' knowledge and practice, fixed and immutable across time and space (Das,1999a(Das, ,1999b. ...
... While we do not suggest this means traditional practices in their current form are thus inauthentic, any analysis of traditional medicine must incorporate the role of the State within and around what is 'traditional'. The championing of Ayurveda and Unani, for example, is deeply embedded in political and ideological objectives (Alavi, 2005;Benner, 2005). Gandhi pushed for a coming together of traditional and modern medical systems, to alleviate some of the tensions between communities. ...
... Lastly, understanding the role of the State is critical for situating medical pluralism in India and, in particular, the politics of tradition and regulatory devices of modernity (Attewell, 2007;Benner, 2005;Cant & Sharma, 1999;Jeffery, 1979). Notions of medical pluralism can tend toward the reification of tradition as a repository of 'authentic' knowledge and practice, fixed and immutable across time and space (Das,1999a(Das, ,1999b. ...
... While we do not suggest this means traditional practices in their current form are thus inauthentic, any analysis of traditional medicine must incorporate the role of the State within and around what is 'traditional'. The championing of Ayurveda and Unani, for example, is deeply embedded in political and ideological objectives (Alavi, 2005;Benner, 2005). Gandhi pushed for a coming together of traditional and modern medical systems, to alleviate some of the tensions between communities. ...
Article
Ethics deals with the set of values of rights accomplish. Medical ethics is a practical branch of ethics that analyses clinical medicine's observance and connected methodical examination. Medical ethics is based on standards that professionals can pass on in the case of any bewilderment or divergence. The four pillars of medical ethics are Beneficence (doing well), non-maleficence (to do no harm), Autonomy (giving the patient the freedom to choose freely, where they are able) Justice (ensuring fairness). Although the modern-day world predisposes these four philosophies, they are adapted as universal and absolute ethics in the medical field. Clinical ethics is beached in the certainty that medicine is an innately moral endeavour. Ayurvedic ethics take an appealing situation within the little dialogue in the Indian history of medical ethics. The expression 'Ayurvedic ethics' is here used in contrast to the codified beliefs of the noble Ayurved profession as rightly said as 'Ayurvedic professional ethics'.
Article
When is it right for a doctor to lie to a patient? What is more important: a patient's health, or his dignity? When should a patient refuse to follow the doctor's orders? What is acceptable medical risk? Whose fault is it if a patient dies under a doctor's care? Who cares for the patient? And who pays the bill? About two thousand years ago, physicians in ancient India could find answers to these questions in the then new, and now classic ayurvedic textbooks. Held in great respect, and used for ayurvedic training even today, the early ayurvedic treatises offer many guidelines on good medical practice: They define what made a physician a good physician, or a patient a good patient. They describe the formal procedures of medical education and lay out the rules for subsequent practice. They determine the duties or obligations doctors and patients had to each other, providing a catalogue of rules of professional conduct that physicians were bound to, including guidelines on appropriate interactions both with patients as well as with colleagues. Translating and discussing the original Sanskrit texts of the core ayurvedic treatises, the book offers a survey and analysis of the ayurvedic moral discourses on professional conduct in a medical setting and explores in what relationship the ethical tenets found in the ayurvedic works stand to those from other broadly contemporaneous South Asian sources.
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