ArticleLiterature Review

New molecular targets in meningiomas: the present and the future

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Abstract

Purpose of review: Meningiomas, the most common primary brain tumor, have historically been managed with surgery and radiation. Traditional chemotherapy has not been effective. Fortunately, recent advances in genetic sequencing have led to an improved understanding of the molecular drivers in meningioma. This article aims to discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of recently discovered genetic alterations in meningiomas. Recent findings: Many of the recently discovered genetic alterations correlate with distinct clinical phenotypes. SMO, AKT and PIK3CA mutations are enriched in the anterior skull base. KLF4 mutations are specific for secretory histology, and BAP1 alterations are common in progressive rhabdoid meningiomas. Alterations in TERT, DMD and BAP1 correlate with poor clinical outcomes. Importantly, the discovery of clinically actionable alterations in a number of genes, including SMO, AKT1 and PIK3CA, has opened up novel potential avenues for therapeutic management of meningiomas. Overexpression of PD-L1 in higher grade meningiomas also provides preclinical support for the investigation of checkpoint blockade. Summary: The discovery of genetic alterations has improved our understanding of the natural history and classification of meningiomas. Clinical trials with several novel agents targeting driver mutations are currently accruing patients and they can lead to better treatment strategies.

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... TRAF7, a pro-apoptotic protein containing an N-terminal RING finger domain, an adjacent TRAF-type zinc finger domain, a coiled-coil domain, and seven C-terminal WD40 repeats, affects several signaling pathways, including the NF-k B pathway, and the ubiquitination of proteins, such as c-FLIP (29,94). TRAF7 is usually mutated together with KLF4, AKT1, or the phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-diphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit a protein (PIK3CA) (95,96). KLF4 is a transcription factor. ...
... KLF4 is a transcription factor. AKT1 activates the PI3K/mTOR pathway (96). In 2016, mutations in PIK3CA were found to be frequent drivers of certain meningiomas (97). ...
... The genes located on chromosome 1p include TP73, CDKN2C, RAD54, EPB41, GADD45A, and ALPL, while the genes inactivated on chromosome 14q are NDRG family member 2 and maternally expressed gene 3 (113). Moreover, the loss of chromosomes 9p, 6q, 10, and 18q or the abnormal gain of 1q, 9q, 12q, 15q, 17q, and 20q has been recently reported (17,96,114). ...
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Meningiomas, the most frequent primary intracranial tumors of the central nervous system in adults, originate from the meninges and meningeal spaces. Surgical resection and adjuvant radiation are considered the preferred treatment options. Although most meningiomas are benign and slow-growing, some patients suffer from tumor recurrence and disease progression, eventually resulting in poorer clinical outcomes, including malignant transformation and death. It is thus crucial to identify these “high-risk” tumors early; this requires an in-depth understanding of the molecular and genetic alterations, thereby providing a theoretical foundation for establishing personalized and precise treatment in the future. Here, we review the most up-to-date knowledge of the cellular biological alterations involved in the progression of meningiomas, including cell proliferation, neo-angiogenesis, inhibition of apoptosis, and immunogenicity. Focused genetic alterations, including chromosomal abnormalities and DNA methylation patterns, are summarized and discussed in detail. We also present latest therapeutic targets and clinical trials for meningiomas' treatment. A further understanding of cellular biological and genetic alterations will provide new prospects for the accurate screening and treatment of recurrent and progressive meningiomas.
... Therefore, tumor recurrence presents a major clinical challenge for the management of these patients, even in WHO grade I meningioma [2,3]. At present, there are no approved systemic therapies for patients with refractory meningiomas [3,4]. A better understanding of the biology of tumor progression may lead to the identification of effective systemic treatments and improve outcomes for meningioma patients with refractory tumors. ...
... Most of the canonical non-NF2 mutations (e.g., TRAF7, KLF4, AKT1, and SMO) are mutually exclusive of NF2 mutations [7]. Based on these molecular features, several clinical trials in NF-2 wild type meningiomas, including targeted therapy for actionable mutations in PIK3CA, SMO, and AKT1 are ongoing (NCT02523014) [3,4]. However, only a subset of meningiomas harbor clinically actionable alterations, and many non-NF2 mutations in high-grade tumors are not targetable; these tumors do, however, demonstrate complex copy number alterations including several chromosomal losses and gains as well as higher mutational burden and neoantigen load [8]. ...
... This treatment resulted in decreased meningioma tumor size, shedding light on the potential of immune checkpoint inhibitors for therapeutic management of aggressive meningioma. To the best of our knowledge, there are five ongoing clinical trials investigating checkpoint inhibitors in aggressive meningioma that measure the immune status outcome and PFS (Table 2) [4,42]. Among these, the treatment plan of the three clinical trials is a combination of checkpoint inhibitors with radiotherapy ( Table 2). ...
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Introduction Meningioma is the most common primary brain tumor. Most meningiomas are benign; however, a subset of these tumors can be aggressive, presenting with early or multiple tumor recurrences that are refractory to neurosurgical resection and radiotherapy. There is no standard systemic therapy for these patients, and post-surgical management of these patients is usually complicated due to lack of accurate prediction for tumor progression. Methods In this review, we summarise the crucial immunosuppressive role of checkpoint regulators, including PD-1 and PD-L1 interacting in the tumor microenvironment, which has led to efforts aimed at targeting this axis. Results Since their discovery, checkpoint inhibitors have significantly improved the outcome in many types of cancers. Currently, targeted therapy for PD-1 and PD-L1 proteins are being tested in several ongoing clinical trials for brain tumors such as glioblastoma. More recently, there have been some reports implicating increased PD-L1 expression in high-grade (WHO grades II and III) meningiomas. Several clinical trials are underway to assess the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors in the therapeutic management of patients with aggressive meningiomas. Here, we review the immune suppressive microenvironment in meningiomas, and then focus on clinical and pathological characterization and tumor heterogeneity with respect to PD-L1 expression as well as challenges associated with the assessment of PD-L1 expression in meningioma. Conclusion We conclude with a brief review of ongoing clinical trials using checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of high-grade and refractory meningiomas.
... According to previous studies, the median survival of patients with malignant mesothelioma after diagnosis is only 12-15 months (2,3). Although the survival of patients can be prolonged by existing chemotherapy drugs, the 5-year survival rate of patients with intermediate and advanced mesothelioma remains <15% (4). Early screening and accurate diagnosis are important means to prolong the survival of patients with mesothelioma. ...
Article
The diagnostic value of the 9P21 gene determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) combined with BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) and methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) expression detection by immunohistochemistry, was investigated in serous effusion samples of malignant mesothelioma. A total of 70 serous disease samples with serous effusion were collected from June 2017 to June 2020. Following biopsy specimen pathological diagnosis, samples were divided into malignant mesothelioma and benign mesothelioma. Differential expression of BAP1 and MTAP genes were identified in mesothelioma and mesenchymal hyperplasia. The 9P21 gene fragment was lost in mesothelioma. The positive rates of FISH, BAP1 and MTAP in biopsy specimens were 98.00, 94.00 and 90.00%. The specificity of the three were 96.00, 85.71 and 77.27%, the sensitivity were 90.00, 95.92 and 93.75%, and the positive rate of the combined detection of the three was 93.33%. The positive rate of serous fluid samples detected by the three methods (9P21 FISH probe combined with BAP1 and MTAP expression detected immunohistochemically) was 96.00, 92.00 and 88.00%, the specificity were 90.00, 77.27 and 71.43%, the sensitivity was 96.00, 93.75 and 89.80%, and the positive rate of the three combined detections was 91.33%. It was demonstrated that there was a high consistency between serous fluid samples and biopsy samples. According to clinicopathological analysis, sex, age, lesion site, Ki67 had little association with the occurrence and development of malignant mesothelioma, while asbestos exposure history was closely associated to the occurrence of mesothelioma. A high level of BAP1 gene was positively associated with the prognosis of mesothelioma, while a high level of MTAP gene was negatively associated with the prognosis of mesothelioma (P<0.05). Therefore, 9P21 FISH probe combined with BAP1 and MTAP can be used as a new method for the detection of malignant mesothelioma, and provide an important basis for the early diagnosis of mesothelioma.
... The risk for brain cancers include exposure to ionizing radiations, nonionizing radiations (radiofrequency fields from mobile phones), heredity syndromes and genetic susceptibility (McNeill, 2016), viral infections, hormonal contraceptives, statins, alcohol, high body-mass index and excess of vitamin D intake (Bondy et al., 2008). Brain cancers have different types such as gliomas (Mercer et al., 2009), glioblastomas (Davis, 2016), meningioma (Venur et al., 2018), medulloblastoma (Millard and De Braganca, 2016), schwannomas (Sarma et al., 2002), pituitary adenoma (Sen et al., 2017) and craniopharyngioma (Grob et al., 2019) (Figure 1). Among these, gliomas and glioblastomas are the two most aggressive types of brain cancer which represent a significant medical problem with their dramatically rising prevalence and burden (Shah and Kochar, 2018). ...
Chapter
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Brain cancers are highly lethal and fatal human cancers due to various hurdles imposed by the brain's physiology and anatomy on therapeutic implications. Higher relapse rates and poor prognosis in brain cancers complicate the situation, leading to high mortalities. Therefore, it is the need of the hour to develop efficient therapeutic strategies against brain cancers. The exploitation of nutraceuticals is an emerging approach for the cure of cancers due to their safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. This chapter focuses on the significance and mechanism of anti-brain cancer nutraceuticals such as juglone, formononetin, eugenol, curcumin, and biochanin. The anti-brain cancer activity of nutraceuticals is governed by the modulation of various cell signaling molecules such as apoptosis-related factors (caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax, Bid, Reactive oxygen species), cell cycle regulators (Cyclin D1, p53), protein kinases (FAK, p-ERK, p38 MAPK), enzymes (MMP-2, MMP-9), transcriptional factors (c-myc, Wnt, β-catenin), and cytokines (TGF-β). The reported data recommend multitarget activity of nutraceuticals which might play an essential role in developing nutraceuticals to novel pharmacological drugs shortly.
... The risk for brain cancers includes exposure to ionizing radiations, non-ionizing radiations (radiofrequency fields from mobile phones), heredity syndromes and genetic susceptibility (McNeill, 2016), viral infections, hormonal contraceptives, statins, alcohol, high body-mass index, and excess of vitamin D intake (Bondy et al., 2008). Brain cancers have a different type,s such as gliomas (Mercer et al., 2009), glioblastomas (Davis, 2016), meningioma (Venur et al., 2018), medulloblastoma (Millard and De Braganca, 2016), schwannomas (Sarma et al., 2002), pituitary adenoma (Sen et al., 2017) and craniopharyngioma (Grob et al., 2019) (Figure 1). Among these, gliomas and glioblastomas are the two most aggressive types of brain cancer, representing a significant medical problem with their dramatically rising prevalence and burden (Shah and Kochar, 2018). ...
... The risk for brain cancers includes exposure to ionizing radiations, non-ionizing radiations (radiofrequency fields from mobile phones), heredity syndromes and genetic susceptibility (McNeill, 2016), viral infections, hormonal contraceptives, statins, alcohol, high body-mass index, and excess of vitamin D intake (Bondy et al., 2008). Brain cancers have a different type,s such as gliomas (Mercer et al., 2009), glioblastomas (Davis, 2016), meningioma (Venur et al., 2018), medulloblastoma (Millard and De Braganca, 2016), schwannomas (Sarma et al., 2002), pituitary adenoma (Sen et al., 2017) and craniopharyngioma (Grob et al., 2019) (Figure 1). Among these, gliomas and glioblastomas are the two most aggressive types of brain cancer, representing a significant medical problem with their dramatically rising prevalence and burden (Shah and Kochar, 2018). ...
... The risk for brain cancers includes exposure to ionizing radiations, non-ionizing radiations (radiofrequency fields from mobile phones), heredity syndromes and genetic susceptibility (McNeill, 2016), viral infections, hormonal contraceptives, statins, alcohol, high body-mass index, and excess of vitamin D intake (Bondy et al., 2008). Brain cancers have a different type,s such as gliomas (Mercer et al., 2009), glioblastomas (Davis, 2016), meningioma (Venur et al., 2018), medulloblastoma (Millard and De Braganca, 2016), schwannomas (Sarma et al., 2002), pituitary adenoma (Sen et al., 2017) and craniopharyngioma (Grob et al., 2019) (Figure 1). Among these, gliomas and glioblastomas are the two most aggressive types of brain cancer, representing a significant medical problem with their dramatically rising prevalence and burden (Shah and Kochar, 2018). ...
... Although the discussion is mostly focused on malignant gliomas in this review, molecular targeted drugs for other types of brain tumors, such as meningioma, are also under development. 11) Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation Frequent mutations of genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) have been discovered by comprehensive gene sequencing in glioblastomas, 12) and appear to be frequent in lower-grade gliomas (grades II and III) as well as in secondary glioblastomas. 13,14) These mutations are observed in IDH1/IDH2, and the hotspot mutation, IDH1 R132H, is predominant in gliomas. ...
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As a result of rapid progress in genome medicine technologies, such as the evolution of DNA sequencing and the development of molecular targeted drugs, the era of precision cancer medicine has begun. In 2019, a nationwide genome medicine system was established and cancer gene panel sequencing began being covered by national health insurance in Japan. However, patients with brain tumors have not benefited much from genome medicine, even though gliomas contain many potential molecular targets, such as alterations in EGFR, IDH1/2, BRAF, and Histone H3K27. Targeted therapies for these molecules are currently under enthusiastic development; however, such attempts have not yet achieved remarkable success. To date, only a limited number of targeted drugs for brain tumors such as immune checkpoint, neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK), and Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors are available, and only in limited cases. Several obstacles remain in the development of drugs to treat brain tumors, including the difficulties in conducting clinical trials because of the relatively rare incidence and in drug delivery through the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Furthermore, general problems for numerous types of cancer, such as tumor heterogeneity, also exist for brain tumors. We hope that overcoming these issues could enable precision genome medicine to be more beneficial for patients with brain tumors such as malignant gliomas. In addition, careful consideration of ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSIs) is important as it is indispensable for maintaining good relationships with patients, which is one of the keys for genome medicine promotion.
... Each grade has unique molecular features that have been reviewed by previous studies (1,8). Grade I meningiomas show high mutation rates of some genes ( Table 2), including neurofibromin 2 (NF2), the proto-oncogene v-Akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1), the ubiquitin ligase tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 7 (TRAF7), the oncogene phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), the pluripotency transcription factor Kruppellike factor 4 (KLF4), and the gene for the catalytic subunit of RNA polymerase II (POLR2A) (9,10). TRAF7 mutations occur in 25% of WHO grade I and II meningiomas (11). ...
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Meningioma is the most common intracranial tumor, and recent studies have drawn attention to the importance of further research on malignant meningioma. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) grading, meningioma is classified into 15 subtypes with three grades of malignancy. However, due to a lack of descriptions of molecular subtypes, genetic mutations, or other features, there were deficiencies in the WHO classification. The DNA methylation-based meningioma classification published in 2017 used DNA copy number analysis, mutation profiling, and RNA sequencing to distinguish six clinically relevant methylation classes, which contributed to a better prediction of tumor recurrence and prognosis. Further studies indicated that gene variation and gene mutations, such as those in neurofibromin 2 (NF2) and BRCA1, were related to the high WHO grade, malignant invasion, and recurrence. Among the mutant genes described above, some have been associated with differential DNA methylation. Herein, we searched for articles published in PubMed and Web of Science from January 2000 to May 2020 by entering the keywords "meningioma," "methylation," and "gene mutation," and found a number of published studies that analyzed DNA methylation in meningiomas. In this review, we summarize the key findings of recent studies on methylation status and genetic mutations of meningioma and discuss the current deficits of the WHO grading. We also propose that a methylation-based meningioma classification could provide clues in the assessment of individual risk of meningioma recurrence, which is associated with clinical benefits for patients.
... Genetic alterations such as mutations in AKT1, PIK3CA, SMO, and NF2 are being targeted in a phase II trial using vismodegib and FAK inhibitor GSK2256098 in trial NCT02523014. Other genetic alterations that are treatment targets have been tested in clinical trials (60). ...
Article
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Meningiomas are common tumors that account for approximately one third of CNS tumors diagnosed every year. They are classified by the World Health Organization in grades I-III. Higher grades have an increased rate of growth, invasiveness, rate of recurrence, and worse outcomes than lower grades. Most meningiomas are grade I, while approximately 18% of meningiomas are grade II and III in hospital-based series. Meningiomas are typically “benign” tumors that are treated with surgery and radiation. However, when they recur or are unresectable, treatment options are very limited, especially since they are chemotherapy-resistant. Recent advances in the treatment of cancers with immunotherapy have focused on checkpoint blockade as well as other types of immunotherapy. There is emerging evidence supporting the use of immunotherapy as a potentially effective treatment strategy for meningioma patients. The immune microenvironment of meningiomas is a complex interplay of genetic alterations, immunomodulatory protein expression, and tumor-immune cell interactions. Meningiomas are known to be infiltrated by immune cells including microglia, macrophages, B-cells, and T-cells. Several mechanisms contribute to decreased anti-tumor immune response, allowing tumor growth and evasion of the immune system. We discuss the most current knowledge on the immune micro-environment of meningiomas, preclinical findings of immunotherapy in meningiomas, meningioma immunotherapy clinical trials, and also offer insight into future prospects for immunotherapies in menigniomas.
... It is well-described that tumors with high somatic mutational burden, or "hot" tumors, tend to generate higher systemic expression of surface neoantigens and thereby provoke a stronger anti-tumor immune response (26). Multiple series have demonstrated that there is a critical subset of grade II and III meningiomas, while still poorly defined, that fall into this category of "hot" tumors exhibiting substantial genetic instability and therefore are more likely to demonstrate positive responses to immunotherapy or even immunogenic responses to RT alone (27,28). While initial discussion of these potential cases is critical and hypothesis-generating, further molecular characterization of these "responder" tumors is warranted. ...
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Background: Localized radiation therapy (RT) is known to infrequently cause off-target or “abscopal” effects at distant metastatic lesions. The mechanism through which abscopal effects occur remains unknown, but is thought to be caused by a humoral immune response to tumor-specific antigens generated by RT. Combination treatment regimens involving RT and immunotherapy to boost the humoral immune response have demonstrated synergistic effects in promoting and accelerating abscopal effects in metastatic cancer. Nevertheless, abscopal effects, particularly after RT alone, remain exceedingly rare. Case Presentation: We report the case of an 84-year-old man with an atypical meningioma, who demonstrated a radiographically significant response to an untreated second intracranial lesion, likely also a meningioma, after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to a separate, detatched resection cavity. Serial annual MRI imaging starting at 2- to 3.5-year (most recent) post-IMRT follow-up demonstrated a persistent decrease in both tumor size and surrounding edema in the untreated second lesion, suggestive of a possible abscopal effect. Conclusions: We describe here the first report of a potential abscopal effect in meningioma, summarize the limited literature on the topic of abscopal effects in cancer, and detail the existing hypothesis on how this phenomenon may occur and possibly relate to the development of future treatments for patients with metastatic disease.
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Benign and malignant tumors can be an important cause of myelopathy. Patients may present with a wide range of neurologic symptoms including back and neck pain, weakness, sensory abnormalities, and bowel and bladder dysfunction. Management can be challenging depending on the location and underlying biology of the tumor. Neuroimaging of the spine is an important component of diagnostic evaluation and patient management both during initial evaluation and when monitoring after treatment. This article provides a systematic and practical review of neoplasms that can cause myelopathy. Unique imaging and biological features of distinct tumors are discussed, and their management strategies are reviewed.
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Neuroonkologische Therapieentscheidungen werden interdisziplinär getroffen. Für Neurologen relevante aktuelle Aspekte und Entwicklungen ergeben sich vor allem durch die Integration molekularer Diagnostik in die Klassifikation der Hirntumore, die für Gliome vor allem in den Studien verdeutlicht wird und exemplarisch auch für Meningeome vorgestellt wird. Ergebnisse der wichtigsten klinischen Studien werden vorgestellt und bewertet.
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Progressive meningiomas that have failed surgery and radiation have a poor prognosis and no standard therapy. While meningiomas are more common in females overall, progressive meningiomas are enriched in males. We performed a comprehensive molecular characterization of 169 meningiomas from 53 patients with progressive/high-grade tumors, including matched primary and recurrent samples. Exome sequencing in an initial cohort (n = 24) detected frequent alterations in genes residing on the X chromosome, with somatic intragenic deletions of the dystrophin-encoding and muscular dystrophy-associated DMD gene as the most common alteration (n = 5, 20.8%), along with alterations of other known X-linked cancer-related genes KDM6A (n =2, 8.3%), DDX3X, RBM10 and STAG2 (n = 1, 4.1% each). DMD inactivation (by genomic deletion or loss of protein expression) was ultimately detected in 17/53 progressive meningioma patients (32%). Importantly, patients with tumors harboring DMD inactivation had a shorter overall survival (OS) than their wild-type counterparts [5.1 years (95% CI 1.3–9.0) vs. median not reached (95% CI 2.9–not reached, p = 0.006)]. Given the known poor prognostic association of TERT alterations in these tumors, we also assessed for these events, and found seven patients with TERT promoter mutations and three with TERT rearrangements in this cohort (n = 10, 18.8%), including a recurrent novel RETREG1–TERT rearrangement that was present in two patients. In a multivariate model, DMD inactivation (p = 0.033, HR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.0–6.6) and TERT alterations (p = 0.005, HR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.5–9.9) were mutually independent in predicting unfavorable outcomes. Thus, DMD alterations identify a subset of progressive/high-grade meningiomas with worse outcomes.
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Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is the leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. Endocrine therapy is the standard of care for the most common subtype of MBC, hormone-receptor positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) disease. Advances in treating this type of MBC have focused on improving the efficacy of endocrine therapy by adding agents that target specific molecular pathways of breast cancer cell growth and survival. The combination of the aromatase inhibitor exemestane and the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, everolimus, more than doubled median progression-free survival compared with exemestane alone (7.8 vs 3.2 months, respectively; hazard ratio 0.45 [95% confidence interval 0.38-0.54]; log rank P < 0.0001) in the BOLERO-2 study in postmenopausal women with HR+, HER2- locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer that had recurred or progressed on prior non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor therapy. In addition, everolimus plus exemestane was associated with a manageable safety profile. The results of BOLERO-2 led to regulatory approval of everolimus plus exemestane. Additional everolimus-based combinations have been or are under investigation in the HR+, HER2- MBC setting, including combinations with letrozole, fulvestrant, ribociclib, tamoxifen, and chemotherapy. This review summarizes key data on everolimus-based combinations focusing on efficacy, safety, biomarkers, quality of life, and health economic outcomes. These data are discussed in the context of the changing MBC treatment algorithm to provide insights into the clinical relevance of everolimus-based combinations.
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Background Recent studies have reported mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (TERTp) in meningiomas. We sought to determine the frequency, clonality and clinical significance of telomere gene alterations in a cohort of patients with progressive/higher-grade meningiomas. Methods We characterized 64 temporally- and regionally-distinct specimens from 26 WHO grade III meningioma patients. On initial diagnoses, the meningiomas spanned all WHO grades (3 grade I, 13 grade II and 10 grade III). The tumor samples were screened for TERTp and ATRX/DAXX mutations, and TERT rearrangements. Additionally, TERTp was sequenced in a separate cohort of 19 patients with radiation-associated meningiomas. We examined the impact of mutational status on patients’ progression and overall survival. Results Somatic TERTp mutations were detected in six patients (6/26 = 23%). Regional intratumoral heterogeneity in TERTp mutation status was noted. In 4 patients, TERTp mutations were detected in recurrent specimens but not in the available specimens of the first surgery. Additionally, a TERT gene fusion (LPCAT1-TERT) was found in one sample. In contrary, none of the investigated samples harbored an ATRX or DAXX mutation. In the cohort of radiation-induced meningiomas, TERTp mutation was detected in two patients (10.5%). Importantly, we found that patients with emergence of TERTp mutations had a substantially shorter OS than their TERTp wild-type counterparts (2.7 years, 95% CI 0.9 – 4.5 years versus 10.8 years, 95% CI 7.8 -12.8 years, p=0.003). Conclusions In progressive/higher-grade meningiomas,TERTp mutations are associated with poor survival, supporting a model in which selection of this alteration is a harbinger of aggressive tumor development. In addition, we observe spatial intratumoral heterogeneity of TERTp mutation status, consistent with this model of late emergence in tumor evolution. Thus, early detection of TERTp mutations may define patients with more aggressive meningiomas. Stratification for TERT alterations should be adopted in future clinical trials of progressive/higher-grade meningiomas.
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Introduction: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 3% of adult malignancies and 90-95% of neoplasms arising from the kidney. In the last 10 years, clinical trials have established multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as the standard first-line treatment in patients with metastatic disease. Multiple agents are now available for treatment in subsequent lines.The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors (e.g., everolimus alone or with lenvatinib) are among the most effective options. Areas covered: This paper provides a complete and updated overview on mTOR inhibitors for the treatment of advanced RCC. The authors revised the results of the most recent completed clinical trials and provided information about ongoing trials. Expert opinion: mTOR pathway still represents an important driver for RCC management. Combination of everolimus and lenvatinib is considered a category 1 choice with cabozantinib and nivolumab for subsequent therapy in metastatic RCC according to NCCN guidelines v2.2017. These three treatments (levantinib/everolimus, cabozantinib, and nivolumab) all resulted in a superior efficacy compared to everolimus alone. Moreover, mTOR inhibitors, and in particular temsirolimus for poor risk patients, are available choices for treatment in non-clear cell carcinomas together with TKIs.
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High-grade meningiomas frequently recur and are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. To determine the factors that promote the development and evolution of these tumors, we analyzed the genomes of 134 high-grade meningiomas and compared this information with data from 587 previously published meningiomas. High-grade meningiomas had a higher mutation burden than low-grade meningiomas but did not harbor any statistically significant mutated genes aside from NF2. High-grade meningiomas also possessed significantly elevated rates of chromosomal gains and losses, especially among tumors with monosomy 22. Meningiomas previously treated with adjuvant radiation had significantly more copy number alterations than radiation-induced or radiation-naïve meningiomas. Across serial recurrences, genomic disruption preceded the emergence of nearly all mutations, remained largely uniform across time, and when present in low-grade meningiomas, correlated with subsequent progression to a higher grade. In contrast to the largely stable copy number alterations, mutations were strikingly heterogeneous across tumor recurrences, likely due to extensive geographic heterogeneity in the primary tumor. While high-grade meningiomas harbored significantly fewer overtly targetable alterations than low-grade meningiomas, they contained numerous mutations that are predicted to be neoantigens, suggesting that immunologic targeting may be of therapeutic value.
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Meningioma is the most common primary brain tumor and carries a substantial risk of local recurrence. Methylation profiles of meningioma and their clinical implications are not well understood. We hypothesized that aggressive meningiomas have unique DNA methylation patterns that could be used to better stratify patient management. Samples (n = 140) were profiled using the Illumina HumanMethylation450BeadChip. Unsupervised modeling on a training set (n = 89) identified 2 molecular methylation subgroups of meningioma (MM) with significantly different recurrence-free survival (RFS) times between the groups: a prognostically unfavorable subgroup (MM-UNFAV) and a prognostically favorable subgroup (MM-FAV). This finding was validated in the remaining 51 samples and led to a baseline meningioma methylation classifier (bMMC) defined by 283 CpG loci (283-bMMC). To further optimize a recurrence predictor, probes subsumed within the baseline classifier were subject to additional modeling using a similar training/validation approach, leading to a 64-CpG loci meningioma methylation predictor (64-MMP). After adjustment for relevant clinical variables [WHO grade, mitotic index, Simpson grade, sex, location, and copy number aberrations (CNAs)] multivariable analyses for RFS showed that the baseline methylation classifier was not significant (p = 0.0793). The methylation predictor, however, was significantly associated with tumor recurrence (p < 0.0001). CNAs were extracted from the 450k intensity profiles. Tumor samples in the MM-UNFAV subgroup showed an overall higher proportion of CNAs compared to the MM-FAV subgroup tumors and the CNAs were complex in nature. CNAs in the MM-UNFAV subgroup included recurrent losses of 1p, 6q, 14q and 18q, and gain of 1q, all of which were previously identified as indicators of poor outcome. In conclusion, our analyses demonstrate robust DNA methylation signatures in meningioma that correlate with CNAs and stratify patients by recurrence risk.
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Objective Meningiomas located in the skull base are surgically challenging. Recent genomic research has identified oncogenic SMO and AKT1 mutations in a small subset of meningiomas. Methods The authors performed targeted sequencing in a large cohort of patients with anterior skull base meningiomas (n = 62) to better define the frequency of SMO and AKT1 mutations in these tumors. Results The authors found SMO mutations in 7 of 62 (11%) and AKT1 mutations in 12 of 62 (19%) of their cohort. Of the 7 meningiomas with SMO mutations, 6 (86%) occurred in the olfactory groove. Meningiomas with an SMO mutation presented with significantly larger tumor volume (70.6 ± 36.3 cm3) compared with AKT1-mutated (18.2 ± 26.8 cm3) and wild-type (22.7 ± 23.9 cm3) meningiomas, respectively. Conclusions Combined, these data demonstrate clinically actionable mutations in 30% of anterior skull base meningiomas and suggest an association between SMO mutation status and tumor volume. Genotyping of SMO and AKT1 is likely to be high yield in anterior skull base meningiomas with available surgical tissue.
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Background Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is important in cancer growth, survival, invasion, and migration. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of the FAK inhibitor, GSK2256098, in cancer patients. Patients and methods The dose of GSK2256098 was escalated, in cohorts of patients with advanced cancer, from 80 to 1500 mg, oral twice daily (BID), until the MTD was determined. Serial blood samples were obtained from all patients, and the PK was determined. Paired tumor biopsies were obtained in select patients, and the level of phospho-FAK (pFAK) was determined. Results Sixty-two patients (39 males, 23 females; median age 61 y.o., range 21–84) received GSK2256098. Dose-limiting toxicities of grade 2 proteinuria (1000 mg BID), grade 2 fatigue, nausea, vomiting (1250 mg BID), and grade 3 asthenia and grade 2 fatigue (1500 mg BID) were reported with the MTD identified as 1000 mg BID. The most frequent adverse events (AEs) were nausea (76%), diarrhea (65%), vomiting (58%), and decreased appetite (47%) with the majority of AEs being grades 1–2. The PK was generally dose proportional with a geometric mean elimination half-life range of 4–9 h. At the 750, 1000, and 1500 mg BID dose levels evaluated, the pFAK, Y397 autophosphorylation site, was reduced by ∼80% from baseline. Minor responses were observed in a patient with melanoma (−26%) and three patients with mesothelioma (−13%, −15%, and −17%). In the 29 patients with recurrent mesothelioma, the median progression-free survival was 12 weeks with 95% CI 9.1, 23.4 weeks (23.4 weeks merlin negative, n = 14; 11.4 weeks merlin positive, n = 9; 10.9 weeks merlin status unknown, n = 6). Conclusions GSK2256098 has an acceptable safety profile, has evidence of target engagement at doses at or below the MTD, and has clinical activity in patients with mesothelioma, particularly those with merlin loss.
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While immunotherapy may offer promising new approaches for high grade meningiomas, little is currently known of the immune landscape in meningiomas. We sought to characterize the immune microenvironment and a potentially targetable antigen mesothelin across WHO grade I-III cases of meningiomas, and how infiltrating immune populations relate to patient outcomes. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarrays constructed from 96 meningioma cases. The cohort included 16 WHO grade I, 62 WHO grade II, and 18 WHO grade III tumors. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against CD3, CD8, CD20, CD68, PD-L1, and mesothelin. Dual staining using anti-PD-L1 and anti-CD68 antibodies was performed, and automated cell detection and positive staining detection algorithms were utilized. Greater degree of PD-L1 expression was found in higher grade tumors. More specifically, higher grade tumors contained increased numbers of intratumoral CD68−, PD-L1+ cells (p = 0.022), but did not contain higher numbers of infiltrating CD68+, PD-L1+ cells (p = 0.30). Higher PD-L1+/CD68− expression was independently predictive of worse overall survival in our cohort when accounting for grade, performance status, extent of resection, and recurrence history (p = 0.014). Higher expression of PD-L1+/CD68− was also present in tumors that had undergone prior radiotherapy (p = 0.024). Approximately quarter of meningiomas overexpressed mesothelin to levels equivalent to those found in pancreatic carcinomas and malignant mesotheliomas. The association with poor survival outcomes in our study suggests that PD-L1 may play a significant biologic role in the aggressive phenotype of higher grade meningiomas. Thus, immunotherapeutic strategies such as checkpoint inhibition may have clinical utility in PD-L1 overexpressing meningiomas.
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Meningiomas that progress after standard therapies are challenging with limited effective chemotherapy options. This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy of everolimus plus bevacizumab in patients with recurrent, progressive meningioma after treatment with surgical resection and local radiotherapy when appropriate. Patients with recurrent meningioma (WHO grade I, II, or III) following standard treatments with surgical resection and radiotherapy received bevacizumab (10 mg/kg IV days 1 and 15) and everolimus (10 mg PO daily) each 28 day cycle. Evaluation of response occurred every 2 cycles. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included response rate, overall survival and safety. Seventeen patients with a median age of 59 years (29–84) received study treatment. WHO grades at study entry included: I, 5 (29 %); II, 7 (41 %); III, 4 (24 %); unknown, 1 (6 %). Patients received a median of 8 cycles (1–37); all patients are off study treatment. A best response of SD was observed in 15 patients (88 %), and 6 patients had SD for >12 months. Overall median PFS was 22 months (95 % CI 4.5–26.8) and was greater for patients with WHO grade II and III compared to grade I tumors (22.0 months vs 17.5 months). Four patients discontinued treatment due to toxicity (proteinuria, 2; colitis, 1, thrombocytopenia, 1). However, other grade 3 toxicity was uncommon, and no patient had grade 4 toxicity. The combination of everolimus and bevacizumab was well-tolerated, and produced stable disease in 88 % of patients; the median duration of disease stabilization of 10 months (2–29). The median PFS from this prospective trial was similar to previous retrospective reports of bevacizumab in the treatment of recurrent meningioma.
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Purpose: VS-6063 (also known as defactinib or PF-04554878) is a second-generation inhibitor of focal adhesion kinase and proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2. This phase 1 study evaluated the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity of VS-6063 in Japanese subjects with advanced solid tumor malignancies in a first-in-Asian study setting. Methods: VS-6063 was administered orally twice daily (b.i.d.) in 21-day cycles to cohorts of three subjects each with a standard 3 + 3 dose-escalation design until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Blood samples for pharmacokinetics were collected on Day 1 and 15. The assessments were performed using CTCAE v4.0 for adverse events (AEs), and the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors, version v1.1 (RECIST v1.1) for tumor response. Results: Nine patients were treated across three dose levels (200-600 mg BID). No dose-limiting toxicities were observed at any dose level. Most frequent treatment-related AEs were Grade 1/2 unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, fatigue, decreased appetite, and diarrhea. Only one subject in the 200 mg BID cohort experienced reversible and transient Grade 3 unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. PK analyses confirmed that the exposure at the recommended Phase 2 dose (RP2D) of 400 mg BID was comparable with exposures previously reported in non-Japanese subjects. Durable stable disease of approximately 24 weeks was confirmed in two subjects (malignant mesothelioma and rectal cancer). Conclusions: VS-6063 was well tolerated at all dose levels investigated in this first-in-Asian study. These data support the administration of VS-6063 to Japanese subjects at the RP2D in clinical trials involving solid tumor malignancies.
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Introductory Paragraph BAP1 and ASXL1 interact to form a polycomb deubiquitinase complex that removes monoubiquitin from histone H2A lysine 119 (H2AK119Ub). However, BAP1 and ASXL1 are mutated in distinct cancer types, consistent with independent roles in regulating epigenetic state and malignant transformation. Here we demonstrate that Bap1 loss results in increased trimethylated histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), elevated Ezh2 expression, and enhanced repression of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) targets. These findings contrast with the reduction in H3K27me3 seen with Asxl1 loss. Conditional deletion of Bap1 and Ezh2 in vivo abrogates the myeloid progenitor expansion induced by Bap1 loss alone. Loss of Bap1 results in a marked decrease in H4K20 monomethylation (H4K20me1). Consistent with a role for H4K20me1 in EZH2 transcriptional regulation, expression of SETD8, the H4K20me1 methyltransferase, reduces EZH2 expression and abrogates the proliferation of BAP1-mutant cells. Further, mesothelioma cells that lack BAP1 are sensitive to EZH2 pharmacologic inhibition, suggesting a novel therapeutic approach for BAP1-mutant malignancies.
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The appropriate use of adjuvant therapy in patients with gross totally resected atypical meningioma requires an accurate assessment of recurrence risk. We sought to determine whether cytogenetic/genetic characterization may facilitate better estimation of the probability of recurrence. We first analyzed our clinical database, including high-resolution DNA copy number data, to identify 11 common copy number aberrations in a pilot cohort of meningiomas of all grades. We summed these aberrations to devise a cytogenetic abnormality score (CAS) and determined the CAS from archived tissue of a separate cohort of 32 patients with gross totally resected atypical meningioma managed with surgery alone. Propensity score adjusted Cox regression was used to determine whether the CAS was predictive of recurrence. An association between higher CAS and higher grade was noted in our pilot cohort with heterogeneity among atypical tumors. Among the 32 patients who underwent gross total resection of an atypical meningioma, the CAS was not significantly associated with age, gender, performance status, or tumor size/location but was associated with the risk of recurrence on univariable analysis (hazard ratio per aberration = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.08-2.14; P = .02). After adjustment, the impact of the dichotomized number of copy aberrations remained significantly associated with recurrence risk (hazard ratio = 4.47; 95% CI = 1.01-19.87; P = .05). The number of copy number aberrations is strongly associated with recurrence risk in patients with atypical meningioma following gross total resection and may inform the appropriate use of adjuvant radiation therapy in these patients or be useful for stratification in clinical trials. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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Background: The efficacy of systemic antineoplastic therapy on recurrent World Health Organization (WHO) grades II and III meningiomas is unclear. Methods: We performed a retrospective multicenter analysis of serial cranial MRI in patients with recurrent WHO II and III meningiomas treated with antineoplastic systemic therapies. Growth rates for tumor volume and diameter, as well as change rates for edema size, were calculated for all lesions. Results: We identified a total of 34 patients (23 atypical, 11 anaplastic meningiomas) with a total of 57 meningioma lesions who had been treated at 6 European institutions. Systemic therapies included bevacizumab, cytotoxic chemotherapy, somatostatin analogues, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Overall, tumor growth rates decreased during systemic therapy by 51% for tumor diameter and 14% for tumor volume growth rates compared with the period before initiation of systemic therapy. The most pronounced decrease in meningioma growth rates during systemic therapy was evident in patients treated with bevacizumab, with a reduction of 80% in diameter and 59% in volume growth. Furthermore, a decrease in size of peritumoral edema after initiation of systemic therapy was exclusively observed in patients treated with bevacizumab (-107%). Conclusions: Our data indicate that systemic therapy may inhibit growth of recurrent WHO grades II and III meningiomas to some extent. In our small cohort, bevacizumab had the most pronounced inhibitory effect on tumor growth, as well as some anti-edematous activity. Prospective studies are needed to better define the role of medical therapies in this tumor type.
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Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial adult tumor. All Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2)-associated meningiomas and ~60% of sporadic meningiomas show loss of NF2 tumor suppressor protein. There are no effective medical therapies for progressive and recurrent meningiomas. Our previous work demonstrated aberrant activation of mTORC1 signaling that led to ongoing clinical trials with rapamycin analogs for NF2 and sporadic meningioma patients. Here we performed a high-throughput kinome screen to identify kinases responsible for mTORC1 pathway activation in NF2-deficient meningioma cells. Among the emerging top candidates were the mTORC2-specific target serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) and p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). In NF2-deficient meningioma cells, inhibition of SGK1 rescues mTORC1 activation, and SGK1 activation is sensitive to dual mTORC1/2 inhibitor AZD2014, but not to rapamycin. PAK1 inhibition also leads to attenuated mTORC1 but not mTORC2 signaling, suggesting that mTORC2/SGK1 and Rac1/PAK1 pathways are independently responsible for mTORC1 activation in NF2-deficient meningiomas. Using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, we generated isogenic human arachnoidal cell lines (ACs), the origin cell type for meningiomas, expressing or lacking NF2. NF2-null CRISPR ACs recapitulate the signaling of NF2-deficient meningioma cells. Interestingly, we observe increased SGK1 transcription and protein expression in NF2-CRISPR ACs and in primary NF2-negative meningioma lines. Moreover, we demonstrate that the dual mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibitor, AZD2014 is superior to rapamycin and PAK inhibitor FRAX597 in blocking proliferation of meningioma cells. Importantly, AZD2014 is currently in use in several clinical trials of cancer. Therefore, we believe that AZD2014 may provide therapeutic advantage over rapalogs for recurrent and progressive meningiomas.
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Immune checkpoint inhibitors, which unleash a patient's own T cells to kill tumors, are revolutionizing cancer treatment. To unravel the genomic determinants of response to this therapy, we used whole-exome sequencing of non-small cell lung cancers treated with pembrolizumab, an antibody targeting programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). In two independent cohorts, higher nonsynonymous mutation burden in tumors associated with improved objective response, durable clinical benefit, and progression-free survival. Efficacy also correlated with the molecular smoking signature, higher neoantigen burden, and DNA repair pathway mutations; each factor was also associated with mutation burden. In one responder, neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses paralleled tumor regression, suggesting that anti-PD-1 therapy enhances neoantigen-specific T cell reactivity. Our results suggest that the genomic landscape of lung cancers shape response to anti-PD-1 therapy. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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The goal of targeted therapy is to match a selective drug with a genetic lesion that predicts for drug sensitivity. In a diverse panel of cancer cell lines, we found that the cells most sensitive to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibition lack expression of the neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor gene product, Merlin. Merlin expression is often lost in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), an asbestos-induced aggressive cancer with limited treatment options. Our data demonstrate that low Merlin expression predicts for increased sensitivity of MPM cells to a FAK inhibitor, VS-4718, in vitro and in tumor xenograft models. Disruption of MPM cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) contacts with blocking antibodies suggests that weak cell-cell adhesions in Merlin-negative MPM cells underlie their greater dependence on cell-ECM-induced FAK signaling. This provides one explanation of why Merlin-negative cells are vulnerable to FAK inhibitor treatment. Furthermore, we validated aldehyde dehydrogenase as a marker of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in MPM, a cell population thought to mediate tumor relapse after chemotherapy. Whereas pemetrexed and cisplatin, standard-of-care agents for MPM, enrich for CSCs, FAK inhibitor treatment preferentially eliminates these cells. These preclinical results provide the rationale for a clinical trial in MPM patients using a FAK inhibitor as a single agent after first-line chemotherapy. With this design, the FAK inhibitor could potentially induce a more durable clinical response through reduction of CSCs along with a strong antitumor effect. Furthermore, our data suggest that patients with Merlin-negative tumors may especially benefit from FAK inhibitor treatment.
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A prospective, two-stage phase II trial with octreotide in patients with recurrent high-grade meningioma was conducted. The radiographic partial response (RPR) was set as the primary study endpoint, whereas progression-free survival at 6 months (PFS6) was defined as the secondary endpoint. Nine patients (eight men; median age 65) with histological high-grade meningioma (five with grade II and four with grade III) and progression after prior surgery and radiotherapy were included. All had positive brain octreotide SPECT scanning. Octreotide was administered intramuscularly once every 28 days at a dose of 30 mg for the first two cycles and 40 mg for subsequent cycles until progression. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed every 3 months. Progression and RPR were defined as an increase of ≥25 % and as a decrease of ≥50 % in two-dimensional maximum diameters, respectively. Patients received a median of three octreotide cycles (range 1-8) without grade ≥2 toxicities. No RPRs were observed. Stable disease was the best response in 33.3 % (n = 3). All patients had progressive disease at 10 months of follow-up. Median time to progression was 4.23 months (range 1-9.4), and the PFS6 was 44.4 % (n = 4). Our study failed to provide evidence to support the use of monthly long-acting somatostatin analogue schedule in recurrent high-grade meningiomas, as none of our patients demonstrated RPR. The modest median PFS of 4-5 months along with the unknown natural history of recurrent meningiomas render the use of this therapy against these aggressive brain tumors uncertain.
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Tumor recurrence remains the major clinical complication of meningiomas, the majority of recurrences occurring among WHO grade I/benign tumors. In the present study, we propose a new scoring system for the prognostic stratification of meningioma patients based on analysis of a large series of meningiomas followed for a median of >5 years. Tumor cytogenetics were systematically investigated by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization in 302 meningioma samples, and the proposed classification was further validated in an independent series of cases (n = 132) analyzed by high-density (500K) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Overall, we found an adverse impact on patient relapse-free survival (RFS) for males, presence of brain edema, younger patients (<55 years), tumor size >50 mm, tumor localization at intraventricular and anterior cranial base areas, WHO grade II/III meningiomas, and complex karyotypes; the latter 5 variables showed an independent predictive value in multivariate analysis. Based on these parameters, a prognostic score was established for each individual case, and patients were stratified into 4 risk categories with significantly different (P < .001) outcomes. These included a good prognosis group, consisting of approximately 20% of cases, that showed a RFS of 100% ± 0% at 10 years and a very poor-prognosis group with a RFS rate of 0% ± 0% at 10 years. The prognostic impact of the scoring system proposed here was also retained when WHO grade I cases were considered separately (P < .001). Based on this risk-stratification classification, different strategies may be adopted for follow-up, and eventually also for treatment, of meningioma patients at different risks for relapse.
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Background Meningiomas often harbor an immune cell infiltrate that can include substantial numbers of T and B cells. However, their phenotype and characteristics remain undefined. To gain a deeper understanding of the T and B cell repertoire in this tumor, we characterized the immune infiltrate of 28 resected meningiomas representing all grades.Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to grossly characterize and enumerate infiltrating lymphocytes. A molecular analysis of the immunoglobulin variable region of tumor-infiltrating B cells was used to characterize their antigen experience. Flow cytometry of fresh tissue homogenate and paired peripheral blood lymphocytes was used to identify T cell phenotypes and characterize the T cell repertoire.ResultsA conspicuous B and T cell infiltrate, primarily clustered in perivascular spaces, was present in the microenvironment of most tumors examined. Characterization of 294 tumor-infiltrating B cells revealed clear evidence of antigen experience, in that the cardinal features of an antigen-driven B cell response were present. Meningiomas harbored populations of antigen-experienced CD4+ and CD8+ memory/effector T cells, regulatory T cells, and T cells expressing the immune checkpoint molecules PD-1 and Tim-3, indicative of exhaustion. All of these phenotypes were considerably enriched relative to their frequency in the circulation. The T cell repertoire in the tumor microenvironment included populations that were not reflected in paired peripheral blood.Conclusion The tumor microenvironment of meningiomas often includes postgerminal center B cell populations. These tumors invariably include a selected, antigen-experienced, effector T cell population enriched by those that express markers of an exhausted phenotype.
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We report genomic analysis of 300 meningiomas, the most common primary brain tumors, leading to the discovery of mutations in TRAF7, a proapoptotic E3 ubiquitin ligase in nearly one-fourth of all meningiomas. Mutations in TRAF7 commonly occurred with a recurrent mutation (K409Q) in KLF4, a transcription factor known for its role in inducing pluripotency, or with AKT1(E17K), a mutation known to activate the PI3K pathway. SMO mutations, which activate Hedgehog signaling, were identified in ~5% of non-NF2 mutant meningiomas. These non-NF2 meningiomas were clinically distinctive-nearly always benign, with chromosomal stability, and originating from the skull base. In contrast, the vast majority of atypical meningiomas were NF2-mutant, showing genomic instability and localizing to the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. Collectively, these findings identify distinct meningioma subtypes, suggesting novel avenues for targeted therapeutics.
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Meningiomas are the most common primary nervous system tumor. The tumor suppressor NF2 is disrupted in approximately half of all meningiomas, but the complete spectrum of genetic changes remains undefined. We performed whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing on 17 meningiomas and focused sequencing on an additional 48 tumors to identify and validate somatic genetic alterations. Most meningiomas had simple genomes, with fewer mutations, rearrangements and copy-number alterations than reported in other tumors in adults. However, several meningiomas harbored more complex patterns of copy-number changes and rearrangements, including one tumor with chromothripsis. We confirmed focal NF2 inactivation in 43% of tumors and found alterations in epigenetic modifiers in an additional 8% of tumors. A subset of meningiomas lacking NF2 alterations harbored recurrent oncogenic mutations in AKT1 (p.Glu17Lys) and SMO (p.Trp535Leu) and exhibited immunohistochemical evidence of activation of these pathways. These mutations were present in therapeutically challenging tumors of the skull base and higher grade. These results begin to define the spectrum of genetic alterations in meningiomas and identify potential therapeutic targets.
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Inactivating mutations in the neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor gene results in the development of schwannomas and meningiomas. Using NF2-deficient meningioma cells and tumors, together with the normal cellular counterparts that meningiomas derive, arachnoid cells, we identified merlin as a novel negative regulator of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). We now show that merlin positively regulates the kinase activity of mTORC2, a second functionally distinct mTOR complex, and that downstream phosphorylation of mTORC2 substrates, including Akt, is reduced upon acute merlin deficiency in cells. In response to general growth factor stimulation, Akt signaling is attenuated in merlin RNA interference-suppressed human arachnoid and Schwann cells by mechanisms mediated by hyperactive mTORC1 and impaired mTORC2. Moreover, Akt signaling is impaired differentially in a cell type-dependent manner in response to distinct growth factor stimuli. However, contrary to activation of mTORC1, the attenuated mTORC2 signaling profiles exhibited by normal arachnoid and Schwann cells in response to acute merlin loss were not consistently reflected in NF2-deficient meningiomas and schwannomas, suggesting additional genetic events may have been acquired in tumors after initial merlin loss. This finding contrasts with another benign tumor disorder, tuberous sclerosis complex, which exhibits attenuated mTORC2 signaling profiles in both cells and tumors. Finally, we examined rapamycin, as well as the mTOR kinase inhibitor, Torin1, targeting both mTOR complexes to identify the most efficacious class of compounds for blocking mTOR-mediated signaling and proliferation in merlin-deficient meningioma cells. These studies may ultimately aid in the development of suitable therapeutics for NF2-associated tumors.
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Inactivating mutations of the neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) gene, NF2, result predominantly in benign neurological tumors, schwannomas and meningiomas, in humans; however, mutations in murine Nf2 lead to a broad spectrum of cancerous tumors. The tumor-suppressive function of the NF2 protein, merlin, a membrane-cytoskeleton linker, remains unclear. Here, we identify the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) as a novel mediator of merlin's tumor suppressor activity. Merlin-deficient human meningioma cells and merlin knockdown arachnoidal cells, the nonneoplastic cell counterparts of meningiomas, exhibit rapamycin-sensitive constitutive mTORC1 activation and increased growth. NF2 patient tumors and Nf2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts demonstrate elevated mTORC1 signaling. Conversely, the exogenous expression of wild-type merlin isoforms, but not a patient-derived L64P mutant, suppresses mTORC1 signaling. Merlin does not regulate mTORC1 via the established mechanism of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt or mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated TSC2 inactivation and may instead regulate TSC/mTOR signaling in a novel fashion. In conclusion, the deregulation of mTORC1 activation underlies the aberrant growth and proliferation of NF2-associated tumors and may restrain the growth of these lesions through negative feedback mechanisms, suggesting that rapamycin in combination with phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors may be therapeutic for NF2.
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Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptors (PDGFR) are frequently coexpressed in meningiomas, potentially contributing to their pathogenesis. The North American Brain Tumor Consortium conducted a phase II study to evaluate the therapeutic potential of imatinib mesylate (Gleevec), a PDGFR inhibitor, in patients with recurrent meningiomas. Patients were stratified into benign (WHO grade I) meningiomas or atypical (WHO grade II) and malignant (WHO grade III) meningiomas. The primary end point was 6-month progression-free survival (6M-PFS). Patients requiring enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs were ineligible. Patients received imatinib at a dose of 600 mg/day for the first 4-week cycle and then gradually increased to 800 mg/day for subsequent cycles, if there were no unacceptable toxicities. Plasma concentrations of imatinib and its active metabolite, CGP74588, were assessed. Twenty-three heavily pretreated patients were enrolled into the study (13 benign, 5 atypical, and 5 malignant meningiomas), of whom 22 were eligible. The study was closed prematurely due to slow accrual. Tissue was available only from a minority of patients, but in these specimens there was uniform distribution of PDGFR, the drug target. Imatinib was generally well tolerated. Of 19 patients evaluable for response, 10 progressed at the first scan, and 9 were stable. There were no complete or partial responses. Overall median PFS was 2 months (range, 0.7-34 months); 6M-PFS was 29.4%. For benign meningiomas, median PFS was 3 months (range, 1.1-34 months); 6M-PFS was 45%. For atypical and malignant meningiomas, median PFS was 2 months (range, 0.7-3.7 months); 6M-PFS was 0%. Cycle 1 trough concentrations of imatinib and CGP74588 were 2,129 +/- 1,600 ng/ml and 517 +/- 326 ng/ml, respectively. Single-agent imatinib was well tolerated but had no significant activity in recurrent meningiomas. Trough plasma concentrations of imatinib exceeded those associated with imatinib activity in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Article
2011 Background: After iterative surgeries and radiotherapy (RT)/radiosurgery (RS) failure, aggressive meningiomas remain an unmet medical need. We have shown in vitro that everolimus (EVE) combined to octreotide (OCT) is active in meningiomas. Methods: Prospective multicentric single arm phase II study (NCT02333565) including pts with recurrent meningioma with documented progression ( > 10% increase of tumor surface over 6 months) after surgery and RT/RS. EVE was orally administrated at 10mg/day and OCT by IM injection 30 mg/28 days. MRI was performed every 3 months with planned central review of imaging including volumetric progression at inclusion and during treatment. The primary endpoint was PFS6. The criteria for success was defined as a PFS6 > 40%. Results: 20 pts were included, aged 30-75 years (median 55) with 37 progressive intra cranial meningiomas (WHO: 2 grade I, 27 grade II, 8 grade III) including 4 NF2 pts. Median KPS was 70%. All pts previously underwent at least one surgery and more than 1 in 18/20 patients. 19/20 pts were treated with radiotherapy or radiosurgery and 5 pts with prior chemotherapy. 1 pt was not evaluable at 3 months. With a median f/u of 12.3 months (2-24 months), PFS6 was 58.2% (95% CI 33.5-76.5%) and PFS12 was 38% (95% CI 16-60%). Volumetric analysis at 3 months demonstrated a decrease in tumor volume superior to 10% in 8 tumors (4 pts). Pre therapeutic growth rate was decreased of more than 50% in 29/35 tumors (18/20 pts) during the first 3 months. Inclusion (I)-to-3 months tumor growth rate (mean at 1.9%/month) was significantly lower than pre inclusion (Pre-I)-to-I growth rate (mean at 18.5%/month) (p = 0.0003). 3 highly aggressive tumors (3 pts) were separately assessed: Pre-I-to-I growth rate superior to 1000%/month was decreased to 3%, 15% and 44%/month in the first 3 months. Toxicity included 7 grade III AE (stomatitis, 3; pneumopathy, 1). AE of special interest included stomatitis (10, 50%), rash (8, 40%), abdominal pain and diarrhea (11, 55%) and nausea and vomiting (4, 20%). Conclusions: Everolimus and octreotide combination appears active in refractory aggressive and progressive meningiomas with acceptable and manageable toxicity and should request further evaluation. Clinical trial information: NCT02333565.
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Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumours found in adults Meningiomas can have an aggressive course characterized by local progression and, infrequently, metastasis to other organs, even when treated with surgery and radiotherapy Key genetic and epigenetic alterations have been identified in meningiomas that strongly associate with clinicopathologic features, such as localization and prognosis, and could represent targets for drug treatment Prospective clinical trials are evaluating novel drugs on the basis of advances in the understanding of the pathobiology of treatment-resistant meningiomas
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Meningiomas are the most frequent primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Although approximately 80% of the tumors are slow growing and benign, some subtypes are associated with a less favorable outcome. An adequate classification system aims at providing a tool for estimating recurrence and overall survival of meningioma patients. The 2016 version of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification for CNS tumors constitutes a hallmark for neuropathological tumor classification since genetic alterations and histopathology are combined for a final diagnosis. Although this mainly applies to neuroepithelial tumors in meningioma research and classification the connection of histomorphological features and genetic profiles becomes more and more evident. Here we report on advances and controversies of meningioma classification in the 2016 edition of the WHO classification of CNS tumors. Furthermore we provide an outlook how a future meningioma classification system might look like.
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High-throughput analyses have revealed the presence of activating mutations in the AKT1 gene in a subpopulation of meningiomas. We report a female patient with multiple intracranial tumor manifestations and histologically verified meningotheliomatous meningioma in the lung. The tumor was continuously growing at multiple sites despite six surgical resections, radiotherapy, and two lines of systemic therapy. Following detection of an AKT1E17K mutation in three independent tumor samples by sequencing, treatment with AZD5363, a selective AKT inhibitor, was initiated. Ex vivo cultured meningioma cells exhibited sensitivity to the drug as shown by pAKT accumulation on immunoblots. Treatment with AZD5363 resulted, for the first time, in stable disease and minor radiographic response. The patient has been on that treatment for more than one year with ongoing clinical and radiographic response. This is the first report of an AKT1-mutant meningioma responding to AKT inhibition, suggesting that molecular screening may result in clinical benefit.
Article
Purpose AKT1 E17K mutations are oncogenic and occur in many cancers at a low prevalence. We performed a multihistology basket study of AZD5363, an ATP-competitive pan-AKT kinase inhibitor, to determine the preliminary activity of AKT inhibition in AKT-mutant cancers. Patients and Methods Fifty-eight patients with advanced solid tumors were treated. The primary end point was safety; secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and response according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Tumor biopsies and plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) were collected in the majority of patients to identify predictive biomarkers of response. Results In patients with AKT1 E17K–mutant tumors (n = 52) and a median of five lines of prior therapy, the median PFS was 5.5 months (95% CI, 2.9 to 6.9 months), 6.6 months (95% CI, 1.5 to 8.3 months), and 4.2 months (95% CI, 2.1 to 12.8 months) in patients with estrogen receptor–positive breast, gynecologic, and other solid tumors, respectively. In an exploratory biomarker analysis, imbalance of the AKT1 E17K–mutant allele, most frequently caused by copy-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity targeting the wild-type allele, was associated with longer PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.41; P = .04), as was the presence of coincident PI3K pathway hotspot mutations (HR, 0.21; P = .045). Persistent declines in AKT1 E17K in cfDNA were associated with improved PFS (HR, 0.18; P = .004) and response ( P = .025). Responses were not restricted to patients with detectable AKT1 E17K in pretreatment cfDNA. The most common grade ≥ 3 adverse events were hyperglycemia (24%), diarrhea (17%), and rash (15.5%). Conclusion This study provides the first clinical data that AKT1 E17K is a therapeutic target in human cancer. The genomic context of the AKT1 E17K mutation further conditioned response to AZD5363.
Article
We have recently shown that the BAP1 (BRCA1-associated protein-1) tumor suppressor gene is inactivated in a subset of clinically-aggressive meningiomas that display rhabdoid histomorphology. Immunohistochemistry for BAP1 protein provides a rapid and inexpensive method for screening suspected cases. Notably, some patients with BAP1-mutant meningiomas have germline BAP1 mutations and the BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome (BAP1-TPDS). It appears that nearly all patients with germline BAP1 mutations develop malignancies by age 55, most frequently uveal melanoma, cutaneous melanoma, pleural or peritoneal malignant mesothelioma or renal cell carcinoma, although other cancers have also been associated with the BAP1-TPDS. Therefore, when confronted with a patient with a potentially high-grade rhabdoid meningioma, it is important that neuropathologists assess the BAP1 status of the tumor and that the patient's family history of cancer is carefully ascertained. In the appropriate clinical setting, genetic counseling and germline BAP1 DNA sequencing should be performed. A cancer surveillance program for individuals that carry germline BAP1 mutations may help identify tumors such as uveal melanoma, cutaneous melanoma and renal cell carcinomas at early and treatable stages. Because BAP1-mutant meningiomas are rare tumors, multi-institutional efforts will be needed to evaluate therapeutic strategies and to further define the clinico-pathologic features of these tumors.
Article
Background: The WHO classification of brain tumours describes 15 subtypes of meningioma. Nine of these subtypes are allotted to WHO grade I, and three each to grade II and grade III. Grading is based solely on histology, with an absence of molecular markers. Although the existing classification and grading approach is of prognostic value, it harbours shortcomings such as ill-defined parameters for subtypes and grading criteria prone to arbitrary judgment. In this study, we aimed for a comprehensive characterisation of the entire molecular genetic landscape of meningioma to identify biologically and clinically relevant subgroups. Methods: In this multicentre, retrospective analysis, we investigated genome-wide DNA methylation patterns of meningiomas from ten European academic neuro-oncology centres to identify distinct methylation classes of meningiomas. The methylation classes were further characterised by DNA copy number analysis, mutational profiling, and RNA sequencing. Methylation classes were analysed for progression-free survival outcomes by the Kaplan-Meier method. The DNA methylation-based and WHO classification schema were compared using the Brier prediction score, analysed in an independent cohort with WHO grading, progression-free survival, and disease-specific survival data available, collected at the Medical University Vienna (Vienna, Austria), assessing methylation patterns with an alternative methylation chip. Findings: We retrospectively collected 497 meningiomas along with 309 samples of other extra-axial skull tumours that might histologically mimic meningioma variants. Unsupervised clustering of DNA methylation data clearly segregated all meningiomas from other skull tumours. We generated genome-wide DNA methylation profiles from all 497 meningioma samples. DNA methylation profiling distinguished six distinct clinically relevant methylation classes associated with typical mutational, cytogenetic, and gene expression patterns. Compared with WHO grading, classification by individual and combined methylation classes more accurately identifies patients at high risk of disease progression in tumours with WHO grade I histology, and patients at lower risk of recurrence among WHO grade II tumours (p=0·0096) from the Brier prediction test). We validated this finding in our independent cohort of 140 patients with meningioma. Interpretation: DNA methylation-based meningioma classification captures clinically more homogenous groups and has a higher power for predicting tumour recurrence and prognosis than the WHO classification. The approach presented here is potentially very useful for stratifying meningioma patients to observation-only or adjuvant treatment groups. We consider methylation-based tumour classification highly relevant for the future diagnosis and treatment of meningioma. Funding: German Cancer Aid, Else Kröner-Fresenius Foundation, and DKFZ/Heidelberg Institute of Personalized Oncology/Precision Oncology Program.
Article
RNA polymerase II mediates the transcription of all protein-coding genes in eukaryotic cells, a process that is fundamental to life. Genomic mutations altering this enzyme have not previously been linked to any pathology in humans, which is a testament to its indispensable role in cell biology. On the basis of a combination of next-generation genomic analyses of 775 meningiomas, we report that recurrent somatic p.Gln403Lys or p.Leu438_His439del mutations in POLR2A, which encodes the catalytic subunit of RNA polymerase II (ref. 1), hijack this essential enzyme and drive neoplasia. POLR2A mutant tumors show dysregulation of key meningeal identity genes, including WNT6 and ZIC1/ZIC4. In addition to mutations in POLR2A, NF2, SMARCB1, TRAF7, KLF4, AKT1, PIK3CA, and SMO, we also report somatic mutations in AKT3, PIK3R1, PRKAR1A, and SUFU in meningiomas. Our results identify a role for essential transcriptional machinery in driving tumorigenesis and define mutually exclusive meningioma subgroups with distinct clinical and pathological features.
Article
Background: Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumor in adults. Identification of SMO and AKT1 mutations in meningiomas has raised the possibility of targeted therapies for some patients. The frequency of such mutations in clinical cohorts and the presence of other actionable mutations in meningiomas are important to define. Methods: We used high-resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization to prospectively characterize copy-number changes in 150 meningiomas and then characterized these samples for mutations in AKT1, KLF4, NF2, PIK3CA, SMO, and TRAF7. Results: Similar to prior reports, we identified AKT1 and SMO mutations in a subset of non-NF2-mutant meningiomas (ie, ∼9% and ∼6%, respectively). Notably, we detected oncogenic mutations in PIK3CA in ∼7% of non-NF2-mutant meningiomas. AKT1, SMO, and PIK3CA mutations were mutually exclusive. AKT1, KLF4, and PIK3CA mutations often co-occurred with mutations in TRAF7. PIK3CA-mutant meningiomas showed limited chromosomal instability and were enriched in the skull base. Conclusion: This work identifies PI3K signaling as an important target for precision medicine trials in meningioma patients.
Article
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification and grading system attempts to predict the clinical course of meningiomas based on morphological parameters. However, because of high interobserver variation of some criteria, more reliable prognostic markers are required. Here, we assessed the TERT promoter for mutations in the hotspot regions C228T and C250T in meningioma samples from 252 patients. Mutations were detected in 16 samples (6.4% across the cohort, 1.7%, 5.7%, and 20.0% of WHO grade I, II, and III cases, respectively). Data were analyzed by t test, Fisher’s exact test, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazard model. All statistical tests were two-sided. Within a mean follow-up time in surviving patients of 68.1 months, TERT promoter mutations were statistically significantly associated with shorter time to progression (P < .001). Median time to progression among mutant cases was 10.1 months compared with 179.0 months among wild-type cases. Our results indicate that the inclusion of molecular data (ie, analysis of TERT promoter status) into a histologically and genetically integrated classification and grading system for meningiomas increases prognostic power. Consequently, we propose to incorporate the assessment of TERT promoter status in upcoming grading schemes for meningioma.
Article
Purpose: Progesterone receptors are expressed in approximately 70% of meningiomas. Mifepristone is an oral antiprogestational agent reported to have modest activity in a phase II study. This multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial conducted by SWOG was planned to define the role of mifepristone in the treatment of unresectable meningioma. Patients and methods: Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive either mifepristone or placebo for 2 years unless disease progressed. Patients who were stable or responding to protocol therapy after 2 years had the option to continue with the same blinded therapy. Serial follow-up allowed assessment of efficacy and toxicity. Time to treatment failure and overall survival were ascertained for all randomly assigned patients. On progression, patients receiving placebo could cross over and receive active drug. Results: Among 164 eligible patients, 80 were randomly assigned to mifepristone and 84 to placebo. Twenty-four patients (30%) were able to complete 2 years of mifepristone without disease progression, adverse effects, or other reasons for discontinuation. Twenty-eight patients (33%) in the placebo arm completed the 2-year study. There was no statistical difference between the arms in terms of failure-free or overall survival. Conclusion: Long-term administration of mifepristone was well tolerated but had no impact on patients with unresectable meningioma.
Article
Background: No proven effective medical therapy for surgery and radiation-refractory meningiomas exists. Sunitinib malate (SU011248) is a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor, abundant in meningiomas. Methods: This was a prospective, multicenter, investigator-initiated single-arm phase II trial. The primary cohort enrolled patients with surgery and radiation-refractory recurrent World Health Organization (WHO) grades II-III meningioma. An exploratory cohort enrolled patients with WHO grade I meningioma, hemangiopericytoma, or hemangioblastoma. Sunitinib was administered at 50 mg/d for days 1-28 of every 42-day cycle. The primary endpoint was the rate of 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6), with secondary endpoints of radiographic response rate, safety, PFS, and overall survival. Exploratory objectives include analysis of tumoral molecular markers and MR perfusion imaging. Results: Thirty-six patients with high-grade meningioma (30 atypical and 6 anaplastic) were enrolled. Patients were heavily pretreated (median number of 5 recurrences, range 2-10). PFS6 rate was 42%, meeting the primary endpoint. Median PFS was 5.2 months (95% CI: 2.8-8.3 mo), and median overall survival was 24.6 months (95% CI: 16.5-38.4 mo). Thirteen patients enrolled in the exploratory cohort. Overall toxicity included 1 grade 5 intratumoral hemorrhage, 2 grade 3 and 1 grade 4 CNS/intratumoral hemorrhages, 1 grade 3 and 1 grade 4 thrombotic microangiopathy, and 1 grade 3 gastrointestinal perforation. Expression of VEGFR2 predicted PFS of a median of 1.4 months in VEGFR2-negative patients versus 6.4 months in VEGFR2-positive patients (P = .005). Conclusion: Sunitinib is active in recurrent atypical/malignant meningioma patients. A randomized trial should be performed.
Article
Background The outcomes of patients with surgery- and radiation-refractory meningiomas treated with medical therapies are poorly defined. Published reports are limited by small patient numbers, selection bias, inclusion of mixed histologic grades and stages of illness, and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria changes. This analysis seeks to define outcome benchmarks for future clinical trial design.MethodsA PubMed literature search was performed for all English language publications on medical therapy for meningioma. Reports were tabulated and analyzed for number of patients, histologic grade, prior therapy, overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS), and radiographic response.ResultsForty-seven publications were identified and divided by histology and prior therapies, including only those that treated patients who were surgery and radiation refractory for further analysis. This included a variety of agents (hydroxyurea, temozolomide, irinotecan, interferon-α, mifepristone, octreotide analogues, megestrol acetate, bevacizumab, imatinib, erlotinib, and gefitinib) from retrospective, pilot, and phase II studies, exploratory arms of other studies, and a single phase III study. The only outcome extractable from all studies was the PFS 6-month rate, and a weighted average was calculated separately for WHO grade I meningioma and combined WHO grade II/III meningioma. For WHO I meningioma, the weighted average PFS-6 was 29% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.3%-37.7%). For WHO II/III meningioma, the weighted average PFS-6 was 26% (95% CI: 19.3%-32.7%).Conclusions This comprehensive review confirms the poor outcomes of medical therapy for surgery- and radiation-refractory meningioma. We recommend the above PFS-6 benchmarks for future trial design.
Article
Meningiomas are common central nervous system tumors. WHO defines three grades, predictive of the risk of recurrence. These tumors can relapse frequently and sometimes undergo malignant transformation. Maintenance of telomere length is a key process in malignant progression and mutations in TERT promoter have recently been identified in various cancer type. We sequenced the TERT promoter in 85 meningiomas from 73 patients. We found a high incidence of TERT promoter mutations in patients with meningiomas undergoing malignant histological progression (28%, n=5/18 patients). In this subset of patients with histological progression, TERT promoter mutations were found in both the lowest and highest-grade tumors, and both in NF2 mutated and non-mutated samples. In contrast, one mutation was identified in 35 meningiomas without recurrence or progression, belonging to various histological grades. This sample was an aggressive meningioma in a patient who died shortly after surgery. Interestingly, tumors showing relapse without histological progression were not mutated for TERT promoter (n=20). Finally, TERT promoter mutations were associated with a marked increase in TERT expression. Thus, TERT promoter mutations are pivotal genetic alterations involved in malignant progression of meningiomas and could be used as a biomarker to identify meningiomas at risk of malignant transformation.
Article
To evaluate the mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) pathway in meningiomas and to explore mTORC1 as a therapeutic target in meningioma cell lines and mouse models. Tissue microarrays (53 meningiomas of all WHO grades) were stained for phosphorylated polypeptides of mTOR, Akt, and the mTORC1 targets 4EBP1 and p70S6K, the latter being the consensus marker for mTORC1 activity. Expression of proteins and mRNAs was assessed by Western blotting and real-time PCR in 25 tumors. Cell lines Ben-Men-1 (benign), IOMM-Lee and KT21 (malignant), and pairs of merlin-positive or -negative meningioma cells were used to assess sensitivity toward mTORC1 inhibitors in methyl-tetrazolium and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) assays. The effect of temsirolimus (20 mg/kg daily) on tumor weight or MRI-estimated tumor volume was tested by treatment of eight nude mice (vs. 7 controls) carrying subcutaneous IOMM-Lee xenografts, or of eight (5) mice xenotransplanted intracranially with IOMM-Lee (KT21) cells in comparison to eight (5) untreated controls. All components of the mTORC1 pathway were expressed and activated in meningiomas, independent of their WHO grade. A significant dosage-dependent growth inhibition by temsirolimus and everolimus was observed in all cell lines. It was slightly diminished by merlin loss. In the orthotopic and subcutaneous xenograft models, temsirolimus treatment resulted in about 70% growth reduction of tumors (P < 0.01), which was paralleled by reduction of Ki67 mitotic index (P < 0.05) and reduction of mTORC1 activity (p70S6K phosphorylation) within the tumors. mTORC1 inhibitors suppress meningioma growth in mouse models, although the present study did not measure survival. Clin Cancer Res; 19(5); 1180-9. ©2012 AACR.
Article
Meningiomas are among the most frequent intracranial tumors. The secretory variant of meningioma is characterized by glandular differentiation, formation of intracellular lumina and pseudopsammoma bodies, expression of a distinct pattern of cytokeratins and clinically by pronounced perifocal brain edema. Here we describe whole-exome sequencing analysis of DNA from 16 secretory meningiomas and corresponding constitutional tissues. All secretory meningiomas invariably harbored a mutation in both KLF4 and TRAF7. Validation in an independent cohort of 14 secretory meningiomas by Sanger sequencing or derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) assay detected the same pattern, with KLF4 mutations observed in a total of 30/30 and TRAF7 mutations in 29/30 of these tumors. All KLF4 mutations were identical, affected codon 409 and resulted in a lysine to glutamine exchange (K409Q). KLF4 mutations were not found in 89 non-secretory meningiomas, 267 other intracranial tumors including gliomas, glioneuronal tumors, pituitary adenomas and metastases, 59 peripheral nerve sheath tumors and 52 pancreatic tumors. TRAF7 mutations were restricted to the WD40 domains. While KLF4 mutations were exclusively seen in secretory meningiomas, TRAF7 mutations were also observed in 7/89 (8 %) of non-secretory meningiomas. KLF4 and TRAF7 mutations were mutually exclusive with NF2 mutations. In conclusion, our findings suggest an essential contribution of combined KLF4 K409Q and TRAF7 mutations in the genesis of secretory meningioma and demonstrate a role for TRAF7 alterations in other non-NF2 meningiomas.
Article
One-third of all primary central nervous system tumors in adults are meningiomas. Rarely, meningiomas occur at multiple sites, usually occurring in individuals with type 2 neurofibromatosis (NF2). We sequenced the exomes of three unrelated individuals with familial multiple spinal meningiomas without NF2 mutations. We identified two individuals with heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex subunit gene SMARCE1. Sequencing of SMARCE1 in six further individuals with spinal meningiomas identified two additional heterozygous loss-of-function mutations. Tumors from individuals with SMARCE1 mutations were of clear-cell histological subtype, and all had loss of SMARCE1 protein, consistent with a tumor suppressor mechanism. Our findings identify multiple-spinal-meningioma disease as a new discrete entity and establish a key role for the SWI/SNF complex in the pathogenesis of both meningiomas and tumors with clear-cell histology.
Article
Meningiomas are among the most common primary central nervous system tumours in adults. Studies focused on the molecular basis for meningioma development are hampered by a lack of information with regard to the cell of origin for these brain tumours. Herein, we identify a prostaglandin D synthase-positive meningeal precursor as the cell of origin for murine meningioma, and show that neurofibromatosis type 2 (Nf2) inactivation in prostaglandin D2 synthase (PGDS) (+) primordial meningeal cells, before the formation of the three meningeal layers, accounts for the heterogeneity of meningioma histological subtypes. Using a unique PGDSCre strain, we define a critical embryonic and early postnatal developmental window in which biallelic Nf2 inactivation in PGDS (+) progenitor cells results in meningioma formation. Moreover, we identify differentially expressed markers that characterize the two major histological meningioma subtypes both in human and mouse tumours. Collectively, these findings establish the cell of origin for these common brain tumours as well as a susceptible developmental period in which signature genetic mutations culminate in meningioma formation.
Article
Meningiomas are the most common primary brain tumor in adults. Although the majority of these tumors can be effectively treated with surgery and radiation therapy, an important subset of patients have inoperable tumors, or develop recurrent disease after surgery and radiotherapy, and require some form of medical therapy. There are increasing numbers of studies evaluating various medical therapies but the results remain disappointing. Chemotherapies and hormonal therapies have been generally ineffective, although somatostatin analogues may have therapeutic potential. There is also increasing interest in targeted molecular therapies. Agents inhibiting platelet derived growth factor receptors and epidermal growth factor receptors have shown little efficacy, but molecular agents inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors appear to have some promise. As with other tumors, advances in the medical therapies for meningiomas will require improved understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors, more predictive preclinical models, and efficient mechanisms for conducting clinical trials, given the small population of eligible patients.
Article
Meningiomas are extremely common adult brain tumors originating from meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord. While most are slowly growing Word Health organization (WHO) grade I tumors, rare variants (clear cell, chordoid, papillary, and rhabdoid), as well as brain invasive (WHO grade II), atypical (WHO grade II), and anaplastic (WHO grade III) meningiomas are considerably more aggressive. This review summarizes the histopathological and genetic features of meningiomas, including differential diagnosis, pitfalls, and grading challenges. Early stages of meningioma tumorigenesis are closely linked to inactivation of one or more members of the 4.1 superfamily, including the neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and 4.1B (DAL-1) genes, which interact with the 14-3-3 protein family. Other chromosome 22q genes implicated include BAM22, BCR (breakpoint cluster region), and TIMP-1, the last of which is implicated in higher-grade meningiomas. Atypical meningiomas also commonly show chromosomal losses of 1p, 6q, 10, 14q, and 18q, as well as multiple chromosomal gains. While most relevant genes remain unknown, two chromosome 14q candidates (MEG3 and NDRG2) have recently been identified. In addition to alterations of CDKN2A, p14 ARF , and CDKN2B tumor suppressor genes on 9p21, a contribution of the wingless (wnt) pathway with alterations of the E-cadherin and beta-catenin proteins, as well as alterations of the hedgehog signaling pathway have been implicated in anaplastic meningiomas. The integration of histopathological appearance, complex genetic/genomic data, and outcome will likely result in the identification of clinically distinct meningioma subgroups, which in turn can facilitate the development of targeted therapeutic strategies.
Article
Intracranial meningiomas are common, they frequently recur after surgery or radiotherapy, and there are limited data regarding the treatment of intracranial meningiomas with chemotherapy. A phase 2 study was designed to estimate the 6-month progression-free survival of patients with recurrent, treatment-refractory, World Health Organization grade 1 meningiomas who were treated with interferon-alpha. Thirty-five patients with recurrent meningiomas ranging in age from 36 years to 88 years (median age, 61 years) were treated according to a prospective phase 2 study. All patients had received prior surgery, radiotherapy, (involved-field radiotherapy in 35 patients andstereotactic radiotherapy in 22 patients), and chemotherapy (hydroxyurea in 19 patients and other in 17 patients). On radiographic documentation of progressive disease, interferon-alpha (at a dose of 10 million U/m(2) administered subcutaneously every other day) was initiated. A complete blood count and chemistry panel was obtained before every cycle, and cranial magnetic resonance images were obtained every 3 months. The most common grade 3 and 4 toxicities were fatigue (6 patients; 17%), anemia (3 patients; 8.6%), and leukopenia (3 patients; 8.6%) (toxicities were graded according to the National Cancer Institute's Common Toxicity Criteria [version 3.0]). Three patients went off study because of toxicity, and 7 patients required a dose reduction. There were no treatment-related deaths or delays in therapy reported. All patients were assessable for response. No patient demonstrated a neuroradiographic complete or partial response. Twenty-six patients demonstrated stable disease after the first 3 cycles of interferon-alpha, and 9 patients had progressive disease. The progression-free survival rate was 54% at 6 months and 31% at 12 months. The median time to tumor progression was 7 months (range, 2-24 months). The median survival was 8 months (range, 3-28 months). Treatment with interferon-alpha for recurrent meningiomas was found to be tolerated moderately well and was modestly effective.
Article
A molecular genetic approach employing polymorphic DNA markers has been used to investigate the role of chromosomal aberrations in meningioma, one of the most common tumors of the human nervous system. Comparison of the alleles detected by DNA markers in tumor DNA versus DNA from normal tissue revealed chromosomal alterations present in primary surgical specimens. In agreement with cytogenetic studies of cultured meningiomas, the most frequent alteration detected was loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 22. Forty of 51 patients were constitutionally heterozygous for at least one chromosome 22 DNA marker. Seventeen of the 40 constitutionally heterozygotic patients (43%) displayed hemizygosity for the corresponding marker in their meningioma tumor tissues. Loss of heterozygosity was also detected at a significantly lower frequency for markers on several other autosomes. In view of the striking association between acoustic neuroma and meningioma in bilateral acoustic neurofibromatosis and the discovery that acoustic neuromas display specific loss of genes on chromosome 22, we propose that a common mechanism involving chromosome 22 is operative in the development of both tumor types. Fine-structure mapping to reveal partial deletions in meningiomas may provide the means to clone and characterize a gene (or genes) of importance for tumorigenesis in this and possibly other clinically associated tumors of the human nervous system.