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The Biomes of Russia - map

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Abstract

The map of "The Biomes of Russia" is the result of many years of joint work of botanists and zoologists of the Department of Biogeography in various areas and cartographic support of the extensive problem of the "Geography of biodiversity". The Biomes of Russia map illustrates the patterns of spatial differentiation of biotic cover of Russia, determined by indicators characterizing the flora and fauna of the country. The map is based on the biome concept (Walter, Bruce, 1980) and the idea of the geographical dimension of geosystems (Sochava, 1978). A biome is a large zonal ecosystem that combines a number of interconnected, smaller ecosystems, and which reflects the interaction of regional biota with climate and landscape structure. A biome’s biotic components evolve in relationship with, and dependent on, its abiotic components. Biomes reflect the ecological potential of a territory more fully than their separate components. The map of zonal biomes (zonobiomes) and mountain biomes (first order orobiomes) is represented by the ecosystems of the regional dimension within the zones on the plains, and in accordance with the types of altitudinal zonation in the mountains, respectively. For most of the biomes, geographical variations were highlighted: for plain these were considered underzones, and for orobiomes they were considered in accordance with the variants of altitudinal belt spectra. Characteristics of regional biomes and geographic options include bioclimatic indicators shown on climate charts and the ecological structure of the biotic cover with a quantitative assessment of biological diversity for the main groups of terrestrial organisms. Quantitative assessment of plant species aims to give a general (comparative) idea of the modern floristic richness of biomes. It is given for vascular plants (with regard to two indicators), mosses, lichens, as well as for terrestrial vertebrates: mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians.
... The study area covers almost the entire diversity of forest types represented in the European part of Russia (Supplementary Material,Fig. S1)[14]. The material was collected at the 3000-km long transect in five forest types: 1) Mediterranean forests (MF), the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar Region; 2) broadleaved forests (BF), the Voronezh and Lipetsk Regions; 3) southern taiga (ST), the Moscow and Tver Regions; 4) middle taiga (MT), the Republic of Karelia and the Leningrad Region; 5) northern taiga (NT), the Murmansk Region. ...
Article
We assessed the impact of forest fires on macrofauna taxonomic richness, abundance and total biomass in 20 forests burnt five years ago and 20 respective control plots along a 3000-km-long north-south transect in European Russia that covered five major forest types (Mediterranean and broadleaved forests , southern, middle, and northern taiga). In parallel we assessed basic soil abiotic parameters in these stands. Within forest type, the spatial variance of macrofauna total biomass was 1.8 times higher in the burnt forests than in the controls. Due to this increase of variance in the burnt forests, the main effect of forest type on soil macrofauna parameters was generally weaker. Among different soil abiotic parameters , higher level of uniformity of macrofaunal community parameters between different forest types was explained by the labile P and N content in the soil, water-holding capacity and soil moisture. Presence of open areas within the burnt forests seems to be the leading driver of the increased similarity of soil macrofauna communities across different forest types. Forest fires thus act as a powerful force that raises within-forest-type soil macroinvertebrate beta-diversity and associated biomass fluctuations. At the same time burning reduces soil macrofauna gamma-diversity due to increased faunistic similarity between different forest types. This has potentially important implications for the functioning of soil macroinvertebate communities in the pyrogenic forests and its dependency on macroclimatic conditions.
... The study area covers almost the entire diversity of forest biomes represented in the European part of Russia (Supplementary material,Fig. S1) (Ogureeva et al., 2015). The material was collected along a 3000-km long transect in five forest biomes: 1) The Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar Region, Mediterranean forests (Pinus pityusa or Pinus nigra, Carpinus orientalis or Junipers exelsa, Pistacia mutica) on Leptosols rendzic or Cambisols chromic soils; 2) the Voronezh and Lipetsk Regions, broadleaved forests (Quercus robur) on Chernozem chernic or Phaeozem albic or Podbur soils, 3) the Moscow and Tver Regions, southern taiga (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Betula pendula) on Albeluvisol soils; 4) the Republic of Karelia and the Leningrad Region, middle taiga (Pinus sylvestris, Betula pendula) on leptosols lithic or Podzol Halpic soils; 5) the Murmansk Region, northern taiga (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies) leptosols lithic or Podzol soils. ...
Article
Fires change physical, chemical and biotic conditions of forest ecosystems. They also strongly affect soil macrofauna including key soil ecosystem engineers and regulators of soil-related processes in forest soils. However, due to a wide range of traits attributable to macroinvertebrates, the effect of forest burning on the macrofauna can be quite contrasting and still has not been quantified. We assessed the impact of forest fires on macrofauna taxonomic richness, abundance, total biomass and biomass of animals belonging to different functional traits in 20 forests burnt five years ago and 20 respective controls plots along a 3000-km-long north-south transect in European Russia which covered five major forest biomes (Mediterranean and broadleaved forests, southern, middle, and northern taiga).
Article
The biodiversity of rare, endangered, and recovering bird species has been assessed for the arid and semiarid regional biomes of Russia (the Red Book of the Russian Federation and the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (Krasnaya kniga..., 2001; IUCN, 2018)). It is shown that 104 protected species of the 118 species that live in the entire territory of Russia inhabit arid and semiarid territories. The paper identifies a group of rare species that are not or are poorly provided with protection at the level of reserves within the arid and semiarid regional biomes of Russia. The results of the study can be used to assess the regional biodiversity of rare and endangered bird species and to develop effective measures to increase the level of their protection.
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