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Potency of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis Peruviana) Juice in Improving Antioxidant and Adiponectin Level of High Fat Diet Streptozotocin Rat Model

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Abstract

Background and aims: Quercetin belonging flavonoid has a role to improve diabetic condition. Research aimed to examine and to compare Cape Gooseberry (CG) juice and quercetin supplement on Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and adiponectin level of high fat diet-Streptozotocin (HFD-STZ) induced rat. Material and method: CG juice 5 ml/kg/d (X1) and 25 ml/kg/d (X2) groups; and quercetin supplement 2.2 mg/kg/d (X3) and 30 mg/kg/d (X4) groups were compared with both of positive (K+) and negative (K-) control. Treatments were given by orally gavage for 28 days to 36 Wistar rats which each group consisted of 6 rats. TAC and adiponectin level were measured by ABTS and ELISA method respectively. Results: There was significantly increase of TAC in treatment groups compared with K(+) (p<0.05). X2 had TAC level significantly higher than X1 (p=0.025). Moreover, adiponectin level of treatment groups were significantly higher than K(+) (p<0.05). Furthermore, X2 had adiponectin level significantly higher than X3 (p<0.001). Conclusion: CG juice 25 ml/kg/d presented better effect than CG juice 5 ml/kg/d, although quercetin 30 mg/kg/d showed the best effects toward both of TAC and adiponectin.

Desa Bae Bendo Rt4 Rw 2 Kecamatan Bae, Kabupaten Kudus, Jawa tengah, Indonesia (ZIP code: 59327).
Phone: +62823-2535-8329; corresponding author e-mail: luthfia.dewi2019@gmail.com
POTENCY OF CAPE GOOSEBERRY (PHYSALIS PERUVIANA) JUICE
IN IMPROVING ANTIOXIDANT AND ADIPONECTIN LEVEL
OF HIGH FAT DIET STREPTOZOTOCIN RAT MODEL
Luthfia Dewi 1, , Mohammad Sulchan 1, Kisdjamiatun 2
1 Department of Nutrition Science, Faculty of Medicine Diponegoro University,
Semarang, Indonesia
2 Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine Diponegoro University,
Semarang, Indonesia
received:
May 15, 2018
accepted:
August 18, 2018
available online:
September 23, 2018
Abstract
Background and aims: Quercetin belonging flavonoid has a role to improve diabetic
condition. Research aimed to examine and to compare Cape Gooseberry (CG) juice and
quercetin supplement on Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and adiponectin level of high
fat diet-Streptozotocin (HFD-STZ) induced rat. Material and method: CG juice 5 ml/kg/d
(X1) and 25 ml/kg/d (X2) groups; and quercetin supplement 2.2 mg/kg/d (X3) and 30
mg/kg/d (X4) groups were compared with both of positive (K+) and negative (K-) control.
Treatments were given by orally gavage for 28 days to 36 Wistar rats which each group
consisted of 6 rats. TAC and adiponectin level were measured by ABTS and ELISA
method respectively. Results: There was significantly increase of TAC in treatment
groups compared with K(+) (p<0.05). X2 had TAC level significantly higher than X1
(p=0.025). Moreover, adiponectin level of treatment groups were significantly higher
than K(+) (p<0.05). Furthermore, X2 had adiponectin level significantly higher than X3
(p<0.001). Conclusion: CG juice 25 ml/kg/d presented better effect than CG juice 5
ml/kg/d, although quercetin 30 mg/kg/d showed the best effects toward both of TAC and
adiponectin.
key words: adiponectin, high fat diet, Streptozotocin, total antioxidant capacity
Background and aims
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is
metabolic disease characterized by increasing
blood glucose. People possessed DMT2 have
higher comorbidity and mortality than healthy
people. Prevalence of diabetes increases these
decades. An estimated prevalence of diabetes
mellitus in Southeast Asia by International
Diabetes Federation is 151 billion by 2045 [1].
The incidence of diabetes in Indonesia was 10
million in 2015 [2]. Insulin resistance is the main
pathophysiology of DMT2 [3]. Insulin resistance
caused by high fat diet (HFD) contributes in
increasing of reactive oxygen species (ROS)
through fatty acid oxidized metabolism [4,5].
Adiponectin provides on glucose uptake and β-
oxidation through AMPK activation [6].
Nonetheless, low adiponectin synthesis occurs in
insulin resistance and DMT2 condition [7,8].
© 2018 ILEX PUBLISHING HOUSE, Bucharest, Roumania
http://rjdnmd.org
Rom J Diabetes Nutr Metab Dis. 25(3):253-260
doi: 10.2478/rjdnmd-2018-0029
254 Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition & Metabolic Diseases / Vol. 25 / no. 3 / 2018
Furthermore, oxidative stress occurs in
hyperglycemia diabetic due to decreasing of
potency antioxidant [9]. Total antioxidant status
is suitable biomarker to assess oxidative stress
by giving applicable information of cumulative
antioxidant capacity in extracellular fluid
compared individual element [10].
Application of traditional medicine from
nature is popular these days [11]. Cape
gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is an
uncommon consumed berry by Indonesian. Cape
gooseberry (CG), belongs to Solanaceae family,
was proved possessing anti-diabetic feature by
various mechanisms improving insulin
sensitivity; inhibiting intestinal carbohydrase
enzyme and β-cell pancreas defect [11-14].
Quercetin is one of flavonoid in CG whose
potency to suppress oxidative stress in DMT2.
CG juice contains 89.4 µg/mg quercetin (CG :
water = 1:5) [15]. Juice is one of easy methods
to consume fruit and an effective way to promote
fruit consumption [16].
To our knowledge, comparison between CG
juice and quercetin supplement research toward
Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and
adiponectin concentration in DMT2 has not
examined yet, therefore present study was
carried out to show the role of CG juice in
DMT2 rat HFD-STZ model. TAC and
adiponectin level were investigated by ABTS
and ELISA method respectively.
Material and method
Plant Material
CG fruits were collected from Ciwidey,
West Bandung District, Indonesia in January
2018. The plant was identified and authenticated
by its taxonomy characteristics in Sistematika
Tumbuhan Laboratory, Biology Faculty of
Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia.
Chemicals and Reagents
STZ (C8H15N3O7) and nicotinamide were
purchased from Nacalai Tesque, Japan.
Cholesterol, Na-CMC, and Quercetin 2-(3,4-
Dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-1-
benzopyran-one,3,3’,4’,5,6-Pentahydroxyl-
favone, Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside were
purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, Japan. TAC kit
was purchased from Randox Laboratory, United
Kingdom. Rat adiponectin ELISA kit was
purchased from Bioassay Technology
Laboratory, China. NaCl was purchased from
Merck, Germany.
Preparation of CG Juice
Fruits in similar ripening stages were
selected in juice processing. First, CG fruits
were washed to get rid of impurities. Whole 70 g
CG fruits were blended in a blender (National,
Japan) without any water addition; therefore 1
mL juice contains 1.07 g CG fruits. The seeds
and skin residues were removed by filter and
cheesecloth. Juice was shaken before DPPH
radical scavenging activity and administration
(5 ml/kg/d and 25 ml/kg/d) by gavage [13].
DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity
DPPH radical scavenging activity assay is
subjected to determine the antioxidant capacity
of juice compared with quercetin supplement.
DPPH analysis used in the experiment was
according to Koleangan et al. (2013) [17].
Results were given in IC50 value. Data
presented in Table 1 shows that IC50 value of
CG juice and quercetin was 84.065 µg/mL and
7.869 µg/mL respectively.
Table 1. IC50 value of CG juice and quercetin
for antioxidant capacity.
Sample
IC50 (µg/mL)
CG juice
84.065
Quercetin
7.869
Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition & Metabolic Diseases / Vol. 25 / no. 3 / 2018 255
Animal Laboratory
Healthy male Wistar rat, 8-12 months,
weighing 150-200 g was purchased from Central
Food and Nutrition Laboratory, Yogyakarta,
Indonesia. Rats were housed in individual
stainless-steel cages at regulated temperature
(210C). They were kept under suitable
ventilation and a photoperiod 12-h light/ 12-h
darkness scheduled light from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m.
Rats were fed by 20 g/d standard laboratory
feeding Comfeed II (7% fat) during non-HFD
period. They were supplied by ad-libitum water
throughout the experiment. Animal laboratory
were provided the human care according to
Animal Laboratory Guideline of Pangan dan
Gizi Laboratory, Gadjah Mada University,
Indonesia.
Experimental Design
After a week acclimatization, rats were
divided into six groups (six rats each group).
Group 1 (K-): rats didn’t receive any treatments.
Group 2 (K+): rats received HFD-STZ. Group 3
(X1): rats received HFD-STZ and CG juice 5
ml/kg/d. Group 4 (X2): rats received HFD-STZ
and CG juice 25 ml/kg/d. Group 5 (X3): rats
received HFD-STZ and quercetin 2.2 mg/kg/d.
Group 6 (X4): rats received HFD-STZ and
quercetin 30 mg/kg/d. After two weeks on HFD
(43.6% fat), rats were fasted overnight and
treated with nicotinamide (NA: 110 mg/kg, i.p.)
and streptozotocin (STZ: 45 mg/kg, i.p.). HFD
treatment was suspected to lead insulin
resistance, while NA/STZ was suspected to
make β-cell impairment [18,19]. After dietary
manipulation, rats were injected intraperitoneally
by NA followed by STZ 15 minutes later. STZ
was dissolved into citrate buffer (pH 4.5). CG
juice and quercetin treatments were
administrated (three days after STZ-induced) by
oral gavage for four weeks. Quercetin was
dissolved into 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl
cellulose.
This experimental design was reviewed and
approved by Medical Faculty of Diponegoro
University-Dr.Kariadi Semarang Hospital
research committee proved by ethical clearance
certificate number 06/EC/FK-RSDK/I/2018.
Blood Sampling
Three days after STZ injection and the end
of experiment (seven weeks), overnight fasting
blood glucose was taken through plexus orbitals.
Blood samples were collected in centrifugation
tube and were centrifuged 4000 rpm in 15
minutes. TAC and adiponectin level were
analyzed by ABTS and ELISA method
respectively.
Statistical analysis
Results were expressed as either mean ± SD
or median (interquartile ranges). Statistical
significance was calculated using one-way
analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post
hoc Bonferroni regarding of distributed data
normally. Nevertheless, Kruskal wallis followed
by Mann Whitney was used to calculate
statistical significance of abnormal data
distribution. All the statistical analysis was
analyzed by SPSS 21 software. Differences data
were considered significant at p<0.05 and
confidence interval 95%.
Results
All rats were still alive during the study. The
body weight and blood glucose level in the end
of acclimatization on average were 178.56 g and
74 mg/dL respectively. HFD-STZ successfully
increased body weight (221.52 g; p<0.001) and
blood glucose (218.44 mg/dL; p<0.001).
The effect of CG juice as well as quercetin
treatment on TAC level in the experimental
group of HFD-STZ induced rat is shown in
Figure 1 followed by Table 2. K(+) rats
256 Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition & Metabolic Diseases / Vol. 25 / no. 3 / 2018
significantly decreased in TAC level compared
with K(-) rats (p=0.007). An increase of TAC
level was recorded in treatment groups compared
with K(+) (p<0.05), although quercetin 30
mg/kg/d showed the highest TAC level in the
end of study. CG juice treatment in X2 improved
TAC level better than CG juice treatment in X1
(p=0.025), but that was not significantly
different with TAC level in X3 (p=0.906).
Moreover, TAC level in K(-) showed a slightly
decrease in the end of study (-0.15 mmol/L).
Figure 1. Effect of CG juice and quercetin supplement towards TAC (mmol/L) level.
TAC level change (mmol/L) before and after treatment in X1, X2, X3,X4, K(+), and K(-) were 0.15 (0.00-
0.44); 0.59 (0.30-0.59); 0.47 (0,15-0,59); 0.78 (0.59-0.88); -0.14 ((-0.30)-0.00); and -0.15 ((-0.30)-0.00).
Table 2. Mann Whitney test of TAC level change (mmol/L) before and after
treatment in X1, X2, X3, X4, K(+), and K(-) groups.
Groups
p value
X1
X2
X3
X4
K(+)
K(-)
X1
-
0.025*
0.043*
0.009*
0.023*
0.014*
X2
-
-
0.906
0.017*
0.008*
0.007*
X3
-
-
-
0,017*
0,008*
0,007*
X4
-
-
-
-
0.008*
0.008*
K(+)
-
-
-
-
-
0.007*
K(-)
-
-
-
-
-
-
*p<0.05 = significant level
Both of CG juice and quercetin treatment
also successfully improved adiponectin level of
HFD-STZ induced rats (Figure 2 followed by
Table 3). Figure 2 showed that HFD-STZ
ameliorated adiponectin level of K(+) compared
with K(-) (p=0.044). Adiponectin level in X4
rats significantly elevated among other treatment
groups (p<0.05). Our results also revealed that
treatment in X2 rats significantly improved
adiponectin level compared with both of CG
juice treatment in X1 (p<0.001) and quercetin
supplementation in X3 (p<0.001). Furthermore,
adiponectin level of K(-) in the end of study
attenuated by 1.5 mg/L.
Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition & Metabolic Diseases / Vol. 25 / no. 3 / 2018 257
Figure 2. Effect of CG juice and quercetin supplement towards adiponectin (mg/L) level.
Adiponectin level change (mg/L) before and after treatment in X1, X2,X3, X4, K(+), and K(-) were -
0.5±0.67; 4.4±0.50; 6.3±0.36; 1,9 ± 0,43; -1.9±1.04; -1.5±0.43.
Table 3. Post-hoc Bonferroni test of adiponectin level change (mg/L) before
and after treatment in X1, X2, X3, X4, K(+), and K(-) groups
Groups
p value
X1
X2
X3
X4
K(+)
K(-)
X1
-
0.000*
0,000*
0.000*
0.021*
0.237
X2
-
0,000*
0.001*
0.000*
0.000*
X3
-
-
-
0,000*
0,000*
0,000*
X4
-
-
-
-
0.000*
0.000*
K(+)
-
-
-
-
-
0.044*
K(-)
-
-
-
-
-
-
*p<0.05 = significant level
Discussion
In the present study, it was observed that CG
juice and quercetin supplement treatment
enhanced TAC and adiponectin level in HFD-
STZ induced rats. Experimental results suggest
that CG juice and quercetin supplement
treatment could improve diabetic condition in
HFD-STZ rat model. In this study, HFD-STZ
exerts possible stress oxidative overproduction
as verified by the decrease of TAC level. One of
modeling DMT2 in rats is using HFD-STZ [18-
20]. Hyperglycemia in diabetes leads antioxidant
status disturbance related to ROS overproduction
and subsequently disrupts body defense. Low
antioxidant status and body defense disruption
induce stress oxidative production [9,21]. Low
antioxidant enzymes activity such as catalase,
superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase,
and glutathione reductase, are affected by
hyperglycemia in diabetes [22]. ROS possesses
toxic properties related to its high reactivity to
enzymes and results in tissue damage [23].
Moreover, NADPH activity is high in
uncontrolled diabetes. Consequently, it results
anion radical superoxide elevation and
subsequently increases stress oxidative
production [24].
Dietary antioxidant in food that present in
significant amounts is able to increase
antioxidant system in body and subsequently
258 Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition & Metabolic Diseases / Vol. 25 / no. 3 / 2018
decreases ROS production in diabetic rat
laboratory animal. Dietary antioxidants
commonly in fruits have protective effect of
oxidative damage in diabetes [25]. CG is one of
berries that suggested has potent antioxidant
because of its flavonoid content. Dkhil et al.
(2014) demonstrated that flavonoid content in
CG extract was 93.7 mg quercetin equivalent/g
extract [11]. Hydrogen donor from exogenous
antioxidant scavenging radical component is part
of hydroxyl group, hence it forms stable radical
fenoxil [26]. Quercetin is part of flavonoid,
therefore it considered as an exogenous
antioxidant that binds Fe and subsequently
prevents ROS production in Harber-Weiss/
Fenton reaction. Additionally, quercetin can
protect the cell through superoxide forming in
enzymatic reaction[27]. CG juice and quercetin
supplement may help improvement of
endogenous antioxidant synthesis to protect
cells. In this context, elevated antioxidant
activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and
glutathione peroxidase in quercetin
supplementation was reported by Suganya et al.
(2018)[28]. Elevating TAC level in CG juice
treatment groups may also be affected by its
quercetin content. Hassan et al. (2017) reported
that quercetin presence in CG juice belongs to
substantial flavonoid compound[29]. The main
flavonoids identified in CG fruits are quercetin
(0.1-10.9 mg/kg), rutin (1.7-6.7 mg/kg),
myricetin (1.1-1.3 mg/kg), epicatechin (0.2-0.6
mg/kg), and catechin (3.8-6.7 mg/kg)[2830].
CG juice also contains bioactive compounds
such as withanolides and carotenoid[28,31].
Moreover, the decrease of TAC in K(-) might be
the standardized laboratory diet lack of
antioxidant content, therefore it is essential for
healthy condition to intake exogenous
antioxidant, thus endogenous antioxidant can be
maintained. A study performed by Egert et al.
(2008) related quercetin supplementation to
healthy subjects enhanced quercetin plasma
quercetin concentrations [33].
Adiponectin belongs to hormone involved in
glucose metabolism and is secreted by adipocyte
that has role in insulin sensitivity improvement
through its receptor binding [6,32]. Adiponectin
helps glucose uptake and β-oxidation through
AMPK activation, but its synthesis declines in
insulin resistance condition and DMT2 [6-8]. In
the present work, HFD-STZ decreased
adiponectin level, but CG juice and quercetin
supplement treatments successfully ameliorated
adiponectin level. Low adiponectin level in the
present study considered as increasing oxidative
state and was associated with high ox-LDL level
in DMT2 [34]. The present work results are in
accordance with another study reporting that
quercetin supplementation 25 mg/kg/d
significantly elevated adiponectin level
compared with HFD-induced rat group [35].
Furthermore, the study undertaken by Jeong et
al. (2012) reported that quercetin treatment
0.08% of diet successfully increased
adiponectin percentage by 34% [9]. A
mechanisms that could possibly explain
quercetin role in increasing adiponectin level is
elevation of mRNA PPAR-γ concentration [35].
Moreover, bioactive contents in CG juice were
postulated that those have main role in elevating
adiponectin level. The previous study by
Esfahani et al. (2014) reported that there was
positive association between low adiponectin
and low GSH [34]. Adiponectin level of K(-) in
the end of study (11.9 mg/L) was considered as
normal although it decreased 1.5%. Normal
adiponectin level in normal subject is 7-12 mg/L
[36]. Decreasing of adiponectin level in the end
of study was postulated the standard diet
laboratory Comfeed II containing low
antioxidant that led adiponectin level decrease.
We provide new insight by which CG juice
improving TAC and adiponectin in HFD-STZ
Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition & Metabolic Diseases / Vol. 25 / no. 3 / 2018 259
induced rat. Further studies are needed to
understand the plausible mechanism by which
CG juice attenuates both TAC and adiponectin
level.
Conclusions
In conclusion, these results performed the
beneficial effect of CG juice in improving
antioxidant and adiponectin level of HFD-STZ
rat model.
Disclosure. The author declares no conflict
in interest.
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Molecules 22(5): 714, 2017.
... 374 Fruits fresh juice had high antidiabetic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. 375 Dried fruit pomace was fed to high-cholesterol dietinduced hypercholesterolemia in rats resulting in body weight control. 376 Fresh fruits were crushed and processed as pulp, which promoted insulin-dependent skeletal muscle glucose uptake. ...
... 361 Ethanolic extracts of different plant parts (fruit, seed, root, stem and leaf) were prepared separately. All extracts had notable 375 Filtered fresh fruite juice ameliorated rabbit eye inflammation. 377 Flowers petroleum ether extract was prepared, and its anti-inflammatory activity was tested by two methods: TNBS-induced colitis in rats and inhibition of NO production induced by LPS. ...
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Solanaceae is one of the most studied among all plant families. Plants of this family are very rich with medicinally active natural products, some of them, with nutritional importance. Some of these compounds are psychoactive and mind altering. Alkaloids, physalins and withanolides are the major notable active natural products present in these plants. In this review article, we will present the vast majority of published research about these plants. This work will include biological and medicinal activities, extended presentation of natural products, their activities and in some cases, their synthesis, biosynthesis and production, along with other chemical aspects. Despite all the wideness of this article, we have introduced limited (but not ignored. presentations of two important aspects of this plant family, mainly due to the large size of this article. One, ethnobotany and ethnomedicine uses of these plants, and two, the influence of various cultivation conditions on these plants, and the results of these conditions.
... Thirty rats were equally and randomly divided into five groups (n = 6 rats per group), as shown in Table 1. The applied doses of PJ and Met were according to Dewi and Sulchan (2018) and Waisundara et al. (2008), respectively. ...
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Neuropathy is considered a critical complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Scientific studies are needed to relieve these painful complications. The current study aims to estimate the ameliorative role of Physalis juice (PJ) against neurological impairment in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Type 1 DM was induced after one week of injecting rats with 55 mg STZ/kg body weight. PJ-treated rats were orally administered 5 ml PJ/kg body weight per day for 28 days after induction of diabetes. A small piece of the cerebral cortex of rats was fixed and used for histopathological investigations. The remaining portion of the cerebral cortex was homogenized for biochemical and molecular analyses. As compared to the controls, STZ-injected rats showed significant elevations in the levels of blood glucose, tumor necrosis factor alfa, interleukin-1β, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and expression levels of caspase-3 and B-cell lymphoma-2 associated X-protein. Additionally, remarkable declines in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, monoamines, B-cell lymphoma-2, glutathione, as well as the activities and gene expression levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in STZ-treated rats were reported. Moreover, some histopathological alterations were observed in the brain cortex of the STZ-treated rats. On the other hand, the administration of PJ substantially reduced the blood glucose and alleviated the above-mentioned alterations in all the studied parameters of the cerebral cortex. In conclusion, an oral administration of 5 ml PJ/kg revealed a neuroprotective action against neurodegenerative diabetes-induced complications in rats, which might be due to the reported antioxidative and anti-inflammatory actions of PJ. Thus, further therapeutic studies are recommended to apply PJ in the treatment regimen of diabetes.
... There is no study in the literature on the protective effect of P. peruviana L. extract against DNA damage. Considering the protective effects of P. peruviana L. extract against renal damage, inflammation, cancer formation, and oxidative stress caused by toxic agents in the literature; 125 mg/L and 250 mg/L concentrations, which were thought to be low and effective, were preferred (Ahmed 2014;Castro et al. 2015;El-Meghawry et al. 2015;Dewi and Sulchan 2018). ...
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In this study, the toxic effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG), which is the sodium salt of glutamic acid and used as a flavor-enhancing additive in foods, and the protective role of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) extract against these effects were investigated using Allium cepa L. test material with physiological, cytogenetic, and biochemical parameters. In the study, physiological changes were evaluated by determining root length, weight gain, and rooting percentage; genetic changes were evaluated by chromosomal abnormalities, micronucleus (MN) formation, mitotic index ratio (MI), and DNA damage. Oxidative stress was evaluated by determining the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). Further, the relationships between oxidative stress and other parameters in the study were investigated. The antimutagenic effect of P. peruviana L. extract was evaluated as inhibition caused by MSG-induced chromosomal abnormalities (CAs) and DNA damage. In the study, six groups, including one control and five applications, were formed. The bulbs of Allium cepa L. in the control group were treated with tap water; the bulbs in the administration groups treated with 1000 mg/L MSG, 125 mg/L, and 250 mg/L concentrations of P. peruviana L. extract and MSG (1000 mg/L) in combination with P. peruviana L. extracts (125 mg/L and 250 mg/L) for 72 h. At the end of the application, compared to the control group, MSG application caused decreases in rooting percentage, weight gain, root length and MI, increases in frequencies of MN formation, chromosomal abnormalities, and DNA damage. In the biochemical analysis, it was determined that there were increases in MDA, SOD, and CAT levels and a decrease in GSH level. P. peruviana L. extract ameliorated MSG toxicity by showing improvement in all these parameters depending on the application concentration. As a result, considering the toxic effects of MSG, it has been understood that the use as a food additive should be abandoned and the use of P. peruviana L. in addition to daily nutrition has been found to be a good antioxidant nutrient in reducing the effects of exposed toxic substances.
... Out of which, matairesinol, arctin, (À)-arctigenin, and gramine, showed high affinity for Adi-poR1 whereas, parthenolide, taxifoliol, deoxyschizandrin, and syringing, showed high affinity for AdipoR2 [131]. Cape gooseberry juice is instrumental in improving APN level and antioxidant profile in high-fat diet streptozotocin rat model when administered orally [132]. When conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was treated as an adjunct in overweight mild asthmatics, AHR significantly improved with a reduction in leptin/APN ratio [133]. ...
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After two decades of its discovery, numerous facts of adiponectin (APN) biology has been uncovered, yet, APN remains an elusive adipokine. Findings from clinical studies and animal models established APN's ameliorative role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and pulmonary disease (PD) but the same condition is prognostic for mortality in the same set of patients which cornered APN towards a dubious state. A repertoire of mechanisms associated with the positive association of APN in both lean/cachectic or obese CVD and PD patients from past publications are evaluated. Newer pharmacological agent may be explored to regulate elevated blood APN concentration in COPD or CHF patients whereas administration of recombinant APN as well as growth hormone may augment blood APN concentration in obese subjects associated with low blood and intracellular APN concentration. However, some APN directed therapy in clinical as well as in pre-clinical setup has pronounced some contentious effects. After reviewing the mechanisms of the contentious role of APN functioning in pathologic conditions of CVD and PD in both lean and obese conditions, the authors came to conclusion that APN directed therapy may be utilized with caution keeping in mind the different age group, sex and the different CVD as well as pulmonary diseases they are suffering from.
... : antimicrobial(El-Beltagi et al. 2019;Hegazy et al. 2019), antioxidant (BazalarPereda et al. 2019;da Silva et al. 2016;Eken et al. 2016;El-Beltagi et al. 2019;Ertürk et al. 2017;Licodiedoff et al. 2013;Olivares-Tenorio et al. 2017b;Ramadan et al. 2008;Vega-Galvez et al. 2014), analgesic(Sharma et al. 2015), anti-diabetic and hypocholesterolemic(Dewi et al. 2018;Hassan et al. 2017b;Puspaningtyas 2014;Ramadan 2012;Ramadan et al. 2013;Zhang et al. 2013), hepatorenoprotective (El-Gengaihi et al. 2013; Sharma et al. 2015; Zhang et al. 2013), anti-tumor (Dkhil et al. 2014; El-Beltagi et al. 2019; El-Gengaihi et al. 2013; Hassan et al. 2017a; Hassan et al. 2017b; Ramadan et al. 2017; Sathyadevi and Subramanian 2015), anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory (Sang-ngern et al. 2016; Zhang et al. 2013), and others(Cirigliano et al. 2008;Lim 2013;Zhang and Tong 2016). Substantial research has been devoted to the identification, extraction and fractionation of withanolides from the aerial parts of P. peruviana plants in the last two decades, and the number of newly reported structures (such as physalins A, B, D, F, phyperunolids A-F, peruvianoxid, physaperuvins G-J, M, N, 4β ...
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The main objective of this mini-review was to synthesize recent data about the phytochemical composition, the nutritional properties, and the biological and pharmacological activities of a now cosmopolitan genus, Physalis (Solanaceae), being in the focus of intensive research over the last two decades. Six Physalis species with nutritional and pharmacological promise are considered in particular – P. peruviana L., P. philadelphica Lam., P. ixocarpa Brot. ex Horm., P. angulata L., P. pubescens L., and P. alkekengi L. Summarized contemporary data on the metabolite profile and the biological activities of Physalis species support their century-long use in traditional medicine and human nutrition. The fruit represent a rich source of minerals, vitamins, fibers, carotenoids, proteins, fructose, sucrose esters, pectins, flavonoids, polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols and many other beneficial nutrients. Individual phytochemicals and complex fractions isolated from Physalis plants demonstrate various biological and pharmacological activities, the most promising of which include antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, hepato-renoprotective, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and others. Most of these activities are associated with the presence of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, physalins, withanolides, and other bioactive compounds. The accumulated data disclose the potential of Physalis spp. as highly functional foods, as profitable crops for many regions over the world, and as sources of valuable secondary metabolites for phytopharmacy, novel medicine and cosmetics. Information provided by this review is also important for a more intensive promotion of Physalis species in Bulgaria and for future studies on their composition and benefits.
... Kandungan antioksidan dan gizi dalam buah ciplukan antara lain flavonoid, fenol, withanolides, phytosterol, flavonoid glikosida, saponin, tannin, alkaloid, vitamin A, B dan C, magnesium, kalium, fosfor, zat besi dan zinc (Ramadan et al. 2013). Ciplukan merupakan sumber antioksidan kuat yang mempunyai nilai IC50 84,065 µg/mL dalam 70 gram ciplukan (Dewi et al. 2018). Total kandungan flavonoid dan fenolik dalam ciplukan antara lain 167,19 mg/100 g DW dan 71,22 mg/100 g DW. ...
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p> This study was a true e xperimental study using the randomized controlled group method with a pre - post test design . The Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (5 rats/ group ): K (+) Captopril 0 , 45 mg/200 g BW, goldenberry juice 1 , 8 ml/200 g BW (P1) , cucumber juice 1 , 8 ml/200 g BW (P2) , and 1 , 8 ml/200 g BW ( P3, combination juice 50%:50%). Systolic blood pressure measured by blood pressure analyzer with the tail-cuff method. The result of systolic blood pressure analyzed by Paired t-Test to determine the mean difference of systolic blood pressure before and after 8% NaCl induction. One Way ANOVA test followed by Post Hoc Duncan to determine the mean difference of systolic blood pressure between groups. Goldenberry, cucumber, and combination juice have a significant effect of reducing systolic blood pressure in hypertension with p = 0 , 000 (<0 , 05). Goldenberry juice was the most effectively on reducing systolic blood pressure in hypertension with 42.21%. </p
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Physalis peruviana L. is among plant species possessing evident nutritional, nutraceutical, and commercial interests. This review highlights the complexity of the chemical composition supporting the multiple pharmacotherapeutic indications and dietary values of this plant through evidence-based studies from Google Scholar, PubMed/Medline, SciFinder, Science Direct, Scopus, the Wiley online library, and Web of Science. The literature mentions at least 40 compounds isolated from different parts; others are still under investigation. High yields in carotenoids, amino acids, minerals, vitamin C, vitamin E, and essential fatty acids have healthy nutritional benefits. Various phytoconstituents, particularly withanolides, exhibit anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic potentials, as well as cardiovascular and liver protective effects. Prospective studies reveal that the leaves would also provide various beneficial bioactive chemicals worth being isolated. However, clinical evidence-based studies are seldom. Therefore, adequate pharmaceutical formulations and more in-depth controlled clinical trials are needed to fill the gap.
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Change in gut microbiome diversity (the so-called dysbiosis) is correlated with insulin resistance conditions. Exercise is typically one of the first management for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is generally well-known for improved glucose regulation. The new design of prebiotic and probiotic, like synbiotic form, to target specific diseases is needed for additional studies. While the effectiveness of exercise and the combination of exercise and synbiotic prescription seems promising, this review discusses the possibility of these agents to increase the diversity of gut microbiota and therefore could enhance short-chain fatty acid (SCFA). In particular, the interaction of synbiotic towards gut microbiota, the mechanism of exercise in improving gut microbiota, and the prospect of the synergistic effect of the combination of synbiotic and exercise to improve insulin sensitivity is addressed.
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Exotic fruits play an important role in nutrition as an excellent base for low calorie and dietetic products. Highly valued for its unique flavor, texture and color, recent research has shown cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) to be high in many beneficial compounds. The diversity of functional applications to which P. peruviana can be put gives this fruit great importance. The food industry has used cape gooseberry in different products including beverages, yogurts and jams. With the rapidly growing popularity of this unique fruit it is important to have a comprehensive reference for its nutritional benefits. This review provides a valuable source for current knowledge on bioactive phytochemicals and further development of P. peruviana for functional foods as well as nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is strongly associated with obesity. The adipose tissue secretes bioactive adipokines leading to low grade inflammation, amplified by oxidative stress, which promotes the formation of advanced glycation end products and eventually leads to dyslipidemia and vascular complications. The aim of this study was to correlate anthropometric, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in newly diagnosed (ND) T2DM patients and to investigate the role of oxidative stress in T2DM associated with obesity. A group of 115 ND- T2DM patients was compared to a group of 32 healthy subjects in terms of clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters. ND-T2DM patients had significantly lower adiponectin, glutathione (GSH) and gluthatione peroxidase (GPx) and elevated insulin, proinsulin, HOMA-IR index, proinsulin/insulin (P/I) and proinsulin/adiponectin (P/A) ratio, fructosamine, and total oxidant status (TOS). The total body fat mass was positively correlated with total oxidant status (TOS). Positive correlations were found between TOS and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and between TOS and glycaemia. Negative correlations were identified between: GPx and glycaemia, GPx and HbA1c, and also between GSH and fructosamine. The total antioxidant status was negatively correlated with the respiratory burst. The identified correlations suggest the existence of a complex interplay between diabetes, obesity and oxidative stress.
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Many studies have indicated that consumption of vegetables and fruits are positively related to lower incidence of several chronic noncommunicable diseases. Although composition of fruit and vegetable juices is different from that of the edible portion of fruits and vegetables, they contain polyphenols and vitamins from fruits and vegetables. Drinking vegetable and fruit juices is very popular in many countries, and also an efficient way to improve consumption of fruits and vegetables. The studies showed that fruit and vegetable juices affect cardiovascular risk factors, such as lowering blood pressure and improving blood lipid profiles. The main mechanisms of action included antioxidant effects, improvement of the aspects of the cardiovascular system, inhibition of platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory effects, and prevention of hyperhomocysteinemia. Drinking juices might be a potential way to improve cardiovascular health, especially mixtures of juices because they contain a variety of polyphenols, vitamins, and minerals from different fruits and vegetables. This review summarizes recent studies on the effects of fruit and vegetable juices on indicators of cardiovascular disease, and special attention is paid to the mechanisms of action.
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Epidemiological evidence suggests that whole grain intake is associated with reduced risk of oxidative stress-related chronic disease. It remains unclear that whole grains can improve antioxidant activity in vivo. This study was to investigate the hypolipidemic and antioxidant capability of sorghum, purple rice and rhubarb rice. Our results indicated that sorghum contained the highest total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and total anthocyanin content, and had highest free radical scavenging activity and reducing power than those of the purple rice and rhubarb rice in vitro. Compared with high fat diet group, animals feeding with sorghum had a 24.47% reduction in serum cholesterol, 32.72% reduction in triglyceride, and 27.27% increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, respectively (p < 0.05). Sorghum was more effective than purple rice and rhubarb rice in improving in vivo antioxidant and lipid profile. These results suggested that sorghum could be used for the prevention of oxidative stress-related chronic diseases.
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress attributes a crucial role in diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction. The present study investigated the effects of quercetin, a potent antioxidant on the attenuation of ER stress-induced endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of quercetin for six weeks to diabetic rats dose-dependently reduced the blood glucose levels and improved insulin secretion. Histopathological examination of pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats showed pathological changes such as shrunken islets, reduction in islet area and distorted β-cells, which were found to be restored by quercetin treatment. In addition, quercetin reduced the pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced endothelial dysfunction as assessed by immunohistochemical analysis of C/ERB homologous protein (CHOP) and endothelin-1 (ET-1). Moreover, quercetin administration progressively increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor, VEGFR2 in diabetes rats. Quercetin-mediated decrease in the NO∙ (nitric oxide) and cyclic 3',5'- guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels were also observed in the diabetic rats. Moreover, quercetin treatment reduced the lipid peroxidation in the diabetic rats, meanwhile increased the total antioxidant capacity in the pancreas from diabetic rats. Altogether, these results demonstrated the vasoprotective effect of quercetin against STZ-induced ER stress in the pancreas of diabetic rats.
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Prevalence of diabetes, a serious public health problem is rapidly increasing worldwide. Type-2 diabetes is the common form of diabetes characterized by insulin resistance and abnormalities in insulin production. Despite the current development of therapeutic agents, there is no effective treatment without side effects; it is therefore necessary to find new prevention strategies and better treatments. For this purpose animal models of diabetes are appropriate tools, of which rodents due to the short generation time and economic considerations are the first choice. The aim of this review is to present features of a frequently used model of type-2 diabetes in rat, induced by a high fat diet and streptozotocin, taking into account its advantages/disadvantages and presenting a practical guide.
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Background: Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) fruit is highly nutritious with high content of health-promoting compounds including minerals, phenolic compounds, as well as vitamins A and C. Physalis peruviana fruits were used as mutagenic, antispasmodic, anticoagulant, and antileucemis agents. Objective: The objective of the present work was to study the role of cape gooseberry juice (CG) as a natural modulator agent for adverse aspects associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Results: The results recorded that HCC rats had a significant disturbance in blood indices. An elevation in serum level of the inflammatory (TNF-ά, CRP, and Argenase), hepatic apoptotic markers (P53, Bax, and Caspase 3) and a reduction of Blc2% were recorded in HCC rats. The results exhibited the significant disturbance and arrest in hepatic cell cycle (% of M1: SubG1 phase, M2: G0/1 phase of diploid cycle, M3: S phase, and M4: G2/M phase) as well as liver cell viability status in HCC rats. Numerous histopathological alterations were detected in hepatic tissues of HCC rats such as inflammation, damage of hepatocytes, dilated congested central vein with degenerated endothelial cells and congested blood sinusoids in addition to collagen fibers in hepatocytes and central vein indicating hepatic fibrosis. The tested parameters were little improved upon treatment of HCC rats with Adriamycin (ADR, Doxorubicin is a generic name of a drug). HCC rats received CG showed an improvement in all tested parameters. The effects of CG were through down regulation of p53 expression and up-regulation of Bcl2 domain protected hepatic structure from extensive damage. Conclusion: CG plus ADR exhibited an enhanced antitumor impact in HCC and this combination might have an important value in the treatment of HCC. CG was more effective than ADR, and it has a remarkable role in the management of hepatic disorders besides its success as a chemo-sensitizer for ADR treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
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The exposure of cells, tissues and extracellular matrix to harmful reactive species causes a cascade of reactions and induces activation of multiple internal defence mechanisms (enzymatic or non-enzymatic) that provide removal of reactive species and their derivatives. The non-enzymatic antioxidants are represented by molecules characterized by the ability to rapidly inactivate radicals and oxidants. This paper focuses on the major intrinsic non-enzymatic antioxidants, including metal binding proteins (MBPs), glutathione (GSH), uric acid (UA), melatonin (MEL), bilirubin (BIL) and polyamines (PAs).
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Goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) is an exotic fruit that is valued due to its high antioxidant activity and phenolic content. In order to preserve the bioactive contents, microencapsulation is a proper method to extend its shelf life. The aim of this study was to encapsulate goldenberry juice using maltodextrin mixed with gum arabic, alginate and pectin to enhance its stability at simulated digestion fluids. Different maltodextrin/gum arabic, alginate, pectin ratios (10:0, 9:1, 8:2) and core to coating ratios (3:10) were used and homogenized before freeze-drying for 48 h to obtain the microcapsules. The microcapsules were characterized through particle morphology, particle size distribution, phenolic contents, encapsulation efficiency, antioxidant activity, digestion behavior in the gastric-intestinal fluids, chromatographic and colorimetric analysis. The microcapsules prepared with maltodextrin and pectin had greater volume mean diameter (43.1 μm) compared to those containing gum arabic and alginate. Goldenberry juice microcapsules, prepared by freeze-drying method, was shown to retain more than 75% phenolic compounds for all gum types. In vitro digestion studies showed that the release of phenolic compounds from microcapsules was higher in the simulated intestinal fluid than in gastric medium.
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The frequency of obesity is enormously growing worldwide .Obesity results when energy intake exceeds, energy expenditure. Excess adiposity is a major risk factor in the progress of various metabolic disorders accounting insulin resistance, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovarian disease and several types of cancers. Obesity is characterized by pro-inflammatory condition in which hypertrophied adipose tissue along with immune cells contribute to increase the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Immune cells are the key players in inducing low grade chronic inflammation in obesity and are main factor responsible for pathogenesis of insulin resistance resulting type 2 diabetes. The current review is aimed to investigate the mechanism of pro-inflammatory responses and insulin resistance involving immune cells and their products in obesity.