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There are many theories about intelligence. In the 20th century, some
psychologists claimed that, unlike traditional intelligence, there could be some
kind of intelligence. However, Howard Gardner has done the most exhaustive,
scientific and effective study in this issue. According to the text called “The
Theory of Multiple Intelligences”, in Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences
theory, the six essential, independent mental capacities which are linguistic,
logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, and personal
intelligence. In this paper, I want to investigate the multiple intelligence theory
in more detail. After my introduction, I will explain Gardner's theory by giving
background information. I then discuss my idea in this theory with experiences.
Firstly, what is multiple intelligence exactly? The theory proposed by Howard
Gardner, the Harvard professor, in 1983. This theory of multiple intelligences
challenges the idea of a single IQ and it argues that there are multiple types of
human intelligence, each symbolizing different ways of processing information:
Verbal-linguistic intelligence refers to an individual's ability to analyze
information and use spoken or written words. Logical-mathematical
intelligence describes the ability to develop equations and proofs. Visual-
spatial intelligence describes the ability to mentally visualize objects and spatial
dimensions. Musical intelligence describes the ability to master music as well
as rhythms, tones and beats. Naturalistic intelligence refers to the ability to
identify and separate among different types of plants and animals. Bodily-
kinesthetic intelligence refers to the ability to control physical motion.
Interpersonal intelligence reflects an ability to recognize and understand other
people's moods, desires, feelings and motivations. Intrapersonal intelligence
refers to the ability to understand one’s own emotions, ideas, motivations and
self-reflection. As a result, there are 8 main intelligence types.
Secondly, I want to share my own opinions. According to other traditional
theories of intelligence, I find this theory more logical and consistent. This
theory does not limit people and values people's abilities. For instance, different
teaching styles can be used according to the students' abilities. On the other
hand, according to this theory, people can know which intelligence type is
dominant themselves. For example, a person who is aware of music intelligence
becomes a very good musician. All these examples and the other articles I read
convince me for the theory of multiple intelligences.
The results in this paper, Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligence was
conceived in the 1980s and challenged many intelligence theories. According to
this theory, there are 8 types of intelligence that are different from each other. I
agree with this theory according to the articles I read and my observations.
The text called “The Theory of Multiple Intelligences”
Gardner H 1993 Multiple intelligences, the theory in practice (USA, Harper
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