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Nistor, E., Bampidis, V., Pentea, M., Prundeanu, H., Ciolac, V., 2012. Nutritional quality of pork produced by Mangalitsa breed. Scientific Papers: Animal Science and Biotechnologies 45 (2), 386–389 (Weblink: Pork lipids are an important source of conjugated linoleic acid, which in light of recent studies can provide protection against some forms of cancer and heart disease because of its antioxidant properties. Pork is an excellent source of vitamins and trace elements, ensuring between 10% (pantothenic acid) and 65% (for thiamine - vitamin B1) of daily recommended dose. It is also an excellent source of pyridoxine, cyanocobalamin, biotin, niacin - soluble vitamins necessary for healthy metabolism. Minerals contained in pork provides between 9% (for iron) and 36% (for zinc) of the recommended daily dose, but also of phosphorus and magnesium. Mangalitsa fat content is 12-16% less saturated fatty acids and 8-10% more unsaturated fatty acids (like n-3 and n-6) than the modern pig breeds. Significant differences were recorded among ratio content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in Red and Blonde Mangalitsa (35.88% and 38.42% respectively). In comparation with other modern breeds both Mangalitsa had a higher ratio of unsaturated fatty acids. The amount of fats in meat and offal from Mangalitsa ranging from 8 g/100 g in pork leg to 80g/100g in lard, while cholesterol is found from 50 mg/100g to 130 mg/100g in the same products.
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Nistor E. et. al./Scientific Papers: Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 2012, 45 (2)
Nutritional Quality of Pork Produced by Mangalitsa Breed
Eleonora Nistor1, Vasileios Bampidis2, Marius Pentea1,
Horia Prundeanu3, Valeria Ciolac1
1Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine from Timişoara,
Faculty of Animal Sciences and Biotechnologies, 300645-Timisoara, Calea Aradului, 119, Romania
2Alexander Technological Educational Institute, School of Agricultural Technology,
Department of Animal Production, P.O.Box 14561, GR 57400-Sindos, Thessaloniki, Greece
3University of Medicine and Pharmacy „Victor Babeş”, Timişoara, Faculty of Medicine,
300041-Timisoara P-ta Eftimie Murgu, 2, Romania
Pork lipids are an important source of conjugated linoleic acid, which in light of recent studies can provide protection
against some forms of cancer and heart disease because of its antioxidant properties. Pork is an excellent source of
vitamins and trace elements, ensuring between 10% (pantothenic acid) and 65% (for thiamine - vitamin B1) of daily
recommended dose. It is also an excellent source of pyridoxine, cyanocobalamin, biotin, niacin - soluble vitamins
necessary for healthy metabolism. Minerals contained in pork provides between 9% (for iron) and 36% (for zinc) of
the recommended daily dose, but also of phosphorus and magnesium. Mangalitsa fat content is 12-16% less saturated
fatty acids and 8-10% more unsaturated fatty acids (like n-3 and n-6) than the modern pig breeds. Significant
differences were recorded among ratio content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in Red and Blonde Mangalitsa
(35.88% and 38.42% respectively). In comparation with other modern breeds both Mangalitsa had a higher ratio of
unsaturated fatty acids.
The amount of fats in meat and offal from Mangalitsa ranging from 8 g/100 g in pork leg to 80g/100g in lard, while
cholesterol is found from 50 mg/100g to 130 mg/100g in the same products.
Keywords: fatty acids, lipids, pork, Mangalitsa
1. Introduction
Pig farming industry has a significant share in
many regions of the world, with millions of pigs
produced annually, providing thousands of jobs.
In the past 50 years, this sector has produced
remarkable changes that were not registered in any
other species. For example, it suffices to mention
that today there are pig populations with 50% less
fat, than those from 50 years ago [1].
Pork represents approximately 38% of animal
protein consumed daily in the world. It is used in
various forms around the globe, from the ordinary
American hamburger to the Italian prosciuttos.
* Corresponding author: Eleonora Nistor
Tel: +40 728 214495, Fax: +40 256 200296,
Pork proteins are first quality protein that provides
all essential amino acids [2].
Pork lipids (representing on average about 7.5
g/100 g meat), are an important source of
conjugated linoleic acid, which in light of recent
studies (Department of Food Science and
Technology at the University of Nebraska, USA )
can provide protection against some forms of
cancer and heart disease because of its antioxidant
properties [3].
Pork is an excellent source of vitamins and trace
elements, ensuring the needs between 10%
(pantothenic acid) and 65% (for thiamine -
vitamin B1) of the recommended daily dose. It is
also an excellent source of pyridoxine,
cyanocobalamin, biotin, niacin - soluble vitamins
necessary for healthy metabolism [4].
Minerals contained in pork provides between 9%
(for iron) and 36% (for zinc) of the recommended
Nistor E. et. al./Scientific Papers: Animal Sciences and Biotechnologies, 2012, 45 (2)
daily dose, but also of phosphorus and magnesium
[5]. Consumers usually are looking for the exotic
food (Argentine muscles, Norwegian salmon,
Swiss cheese, etc.) or the daily source of zinc,
important both for the functioning of the pancreas
and to increase body immunity, being involved in
the formation of antibodies, and they forget that
they have a traditional source in the diet of many
countries – pork [6].
In general, consumers consider organic products
as very healthy, of good quality and tasty. Meat
and products from traditional breeds, like
Mangalitsa pig, have a good image in the public
and media.
Consumed in moderate amounts, pork is a good
source of energy, with beneficial effects on skin,
eyes, nervous system, bones and mental
performance. The content of essential
antioxidants, pork provides better immunity to the
organism [7].
In the last decades, along with improved breeds of
pigs, some European countries (Hungary,
Switzerland, Austria, Germany, Spain and UK)
and more recently the United States have revived
primitive race Mangalitsa breeding, due to the
special qualities of the products obtained from this
breed [8].
Because Mangalitsa is a fat type breed, the aim of
our reserches was to know the fat, cholesterol and
fatty acids content of meat obtained from this
breed and from modern breeds respectively [9].
2. Materials and methods
Investigation was carried out on pigs of
Mangalitsa breed (n=9, 536 age days), Large
White (n=6, 273 age days), Landrace (n=8, 254
age days), Duroc (n = 7, 265 age days), Pietrain
(n=6, 270 age days) and Large Black (n=5, 281
age days). Pigs were chosen from four farms in
Hungary and three pig farms in Romania.
In the abattoir for each hog were established the
live weights, and hot carcass after slaughtering.
For the chemical analysis the samples of muscle
and fat tissues were taken from the pork leg, chop,
neck, muscles and lard. In samples of muscle and
fat tissues the fat and cholesterol were determined.
Total lipids of samples were extracted by using
chloroform methanol (2:1, v/v).
An aliquot of total lipid extract was used. Then,
the fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by a gas
chromatography. Oven temperature was at 200°C
and carrier gas velocity was 25 cm/s.
The injection port was at 250°C and the detector
was maintained at 300°C. Results were expressed
as percentages of the total fatty acid detected
based on the total peak area.
Diagram was created by using Microsoft Office
2003 Excel.
3. Results and discussion
Most consumers want a healthy diet, so it is
important to know the contents in fat and
cholesterol for the consumed products.
The amount of fats and cholesterol in meat and
lard from Mangalitsa are presented in Table 1.
Table 1. The amount of fats and cholesterol in meat and offal sold from Mangalitsa
Components Fat, g/100g Cholesterol, mg/100g
Pork leg 8.0 50
Chop 9.5 54
Neck 17 55
Muscles 21 67
Lard 80 130
Amount recommended 80 (g/individual/day) 300 (mg/individual/day)
Compared to the amount of fat found in various
portions of meat, it is found that, except lard
which have 80gfat/100g, is equal to an adult needs
per day/individual, in other meat pieces, the
amount of fat is small, with maximum 21g/100g
in muscles. Although Mangalitsa is a breed for fat,
cholesterol content of meat and even of lard is
well below the recommended daily dose for an
individual of 300mg/day. Lard is the richest in
cholesterol, having a content of 130mg/100g. The
smallest content of the test portions was found in
the pork leg - 50 mg cholesterol/100g.
The fat is high-quality and gives the meat flavor.
The fat in meat or fat is regarded as giving the
Nistor E. et. al./Scientific Papers: Animal Sciences and Biotechnologies, 2012, 45 (2)
palatability and „sweetness” of the meat.
Mangalitsa fat content is 12-16% less saturated
fatty acids and 8-10% more unsaturated fatty acids
(like n-3 and n-6) than the modern pig breeds [10].
Fatty acid composition of back fat samples from
Red and Blonde Mangalitsa and five modern pure
breeds were analysed. The same feeding strategy
and fattening rations were fed to all of the animals
(Figure 1).The highest ratio of saturated fatty
acids was found in Duroc breed (42.95%) while
Red Mangalitsa with 35.88% had the lowest ratio.
Seenger (2011) [11], found a lower ratio for
saturated fatty acids in Duroc of, 41.2% and
36.87% in Large White. However, in Swallow-
bellied Mangalitsa the ratio of 40.94% was much
higher than in Red or Blonde Mangalitsa. In a
comprehensive study Szabó and Farkas (2006)
[12] analyzed the fatty acid composition of back
fat samples from 7 purebred (including Blonde
and Red Mangalitsa) and 3 crossbred genotype.
Large white
Large black
Blond Mangalitsa
Redish Mangalitsa
57.95 56.85 55.67 56.34 56.71 59.94 62.76
40.75 41.66 42.95 41.83 41.93 38.42
Saturated fatty acids Unsaturated fatty acids
Figure 1. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in back fat of several modern pig breeds and Mangalitsa
They found the lowest ratio of satturated fatty acid
in Red Mangalitsa (36.99%) and the highest ratio
in Duroc x Cornwall hybrid (44.65%). Among the
pure breed Szabó and Farkas found the highest
ratio for satturated fatty acid of 43.175 in Duroc
Analyzing the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids by
breeds, it could be conclude that the values of Red
Mangalitsa were the highest (62.76%). In
Landrace, the ratio of unsaturated fatty acid was
the lowest, with a value of 41.66%. A higher ratio
of unsaturated fatty acids was found by Szabó and
Farkas (2006) [12] in Red Mangalitsa (63.01%)
and the lowest in a Duroc x Cornwall hybrid
(55.35%). For pure Landrace breed they found a
ratio much higher of 57.16%.
It is well-known that the lower saturated fatty acid
content and higher unsaturated fatty acid
proportion is advantageous for human health [13].
Quantity of fatty acids in fat obtained from
Mangalitsa varieties are influenced by diet,
because the consumption of green pasture mass,
increases fatty acid content, especially omega 3
Due to these qualities of Mangalitsa meat, lard and
other products are becoming more and more
known and sought after by the consumers [15]. It
is therefore very important for producers and
consumers to have access to reliable information
and certification of products obtained.
Nistor E. et. al./Scientific Papers: Animal Sciences and Biotechnologies, 2012, 45 (2)
4. Conclusions
By using a controlled diet, meat and fat from
Mangalitsa have a special chemical composition,
with monounsaturated fat in a much higher rate
compared to other breeds of pigs.
In accordance with the present trend, it is
important to preserve healthy products derived
from traditional breeds which suitable for an
extensive production system.
For improvement of production traits such as
(precocity, prolificacy, and body weight) can be
taking into account Mangalitsa crossing with other
modern breeds such as, Large White, Duroc and
In future, additional researches are needed on
muscle quality, as well as fat quality, sensory
and nutritional properties of meat. Fatty acid
profile of meat should be investigated in detail,
with special emphasis on the influence of
traditional feed (ie grazing, acorns, chestnuts) on
the profile of fatty acids in meat and potential
health benefits to consumers.
Consumer preference for traditional meat products
must also be able to determine market demand and
thus increasing number of pigs.
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... Daily application of indigenous microorganism (IMO) solution on deep litter floors in pig houses has been suggested to improve pig production, and produce lean pork with low fat content. In fact, this is increasingly being practiced in Uganda by smallholder farmers (Nistor et al., 2012;Ndyomugyenyi and Kyasimire, 2015). The objective of this study was to assess nutrient profiles in pork of pigs raised on IMO treated deep litter floor. ...
... The over 80% of the fatty acids in pork of pigs raised on both IMO treated and untreated deep litter floor being unsaturated (Table 1), suggests that they can easily be utilised by human (Dugan et al., 2015). This also suggests that they are less likely to elevate blood cholesterol concentrations, which increase the risk of coronary heart disease (Nistor et al., 2012;Dugan et al., 2015). ...
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Pork meat consumption and its products are constrained by high fat content, particularly high composition of saturated fatty acids. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of indigenous micro-organism (IMO) treatment of deep litter floor, on nutrient content in pork of pigs raised on IMO treated and untreated deep litter floor. Twenty four three-months old pigs (Large White x Landrace) were raised on deep litter floor; one floor type treated with IMO solution and the control not treated. Significant (P<0.05) differences were observed in the amount of saturated, mono-unsaturated, poly-unsaturated, cis, trans and omega-6, 7 and 9 fatty acids in pork of pigs raised on IMO treated and untreated deep litter floor; with more unsaturated fatty acids in pork of pigs raised on deep litter floor without IMO treatment (63%) than pigs kept on deep litter floor with IMO (37%). Therefore, deep litter floor treatment with IMO solution does not affect nutrient contents in pork, but enhances the composition of unsaturated fatty acids. Further research should be conducted on the mechanisms by which deep litter floor whether treated or untreated with IMO solution modifies fatty acids composition in pork.
... 3.4.The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids is one of the ways to describe the relative composition of the fatty acid profile (Azain, 2001;Nistor et al., 2012). The total amount of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acid and the ratio between FA, especially SFA:PUFA, are often used to determine the quality of fat with higher levels of saturation indicating a more desirable quality, while increased unsaturation indicate an undesirable quality of fat. ...
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... Meat quality assessment in Mangalitsa pigs has been very general and shown that meat from these pigs have higher intramuscular fat content compared to a commercial pig breed (Stanišić et al., 2016). Nistor et al. (2012) found significant differences in the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in RM and BM meat (35.88%:62.76% and 38.42%:59.94%, ...
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... compared to our which was of 38.17% (Seenger, 2007). The highest levels of saturated fatty acids revealed by previous studies were found in Duroc breed (Nistor et al., 2012;Kim et al. 2020). ...
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... Meat quality assessment in Mangalitsa pigs has been very general and shown that meat from these pigs have higher intramuscular fat content compared to a commercial pig breed (Stanišić et al., 2016). Nistor et al. (2012) found significant differences in the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in RM and BM meat (35.88%:62.76% and 38.42%:59.94%, ...
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... The commercial value of indigenous pigs to improve pig production has been gaining impetus (Nistor et al., 2012;Hlatini et al., 2020;Huang et al., 2020;Kasprzyk and Bogucka, 2020). This is due to the high demand for pork because of the ever-increasing human population coupled with climate change and pandemic diseases such as existing COVID-19. ...
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The objective of the study was to determine the growth performance response to reduced dietary protein level and to identify the optimum level of protein for the performance in growing Windsnyer pigs. Maize-soybean-based diets were formulated to contain a protein level of 193 g/kg, 173.7 g/kg, 154.4 g/kg, 135.1 g/kg, 115.8 g/kg and 96.5 g/kg. The 193 g/kg (control diet) is the standard recommended by the National Research Council. The amino acid levels and net energy value were similar in all treatments. The study was conducted with five growing Windsnyer pigs per each protein inclusion level. The trial was carried out with individually caged pigs aged 4 months, weighing about 23 (SD = 1.39) kg. The experiment lasted a period of 8 weeks excluding 2 weeks of the adaptation period. The feed and water were offered ad libitum. The average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), final body weight (FBW) and metabolic body weight (BW 0.75) were measured. Polynomial regression and piecewise regressions were used to analyse data. Decremental levels of protein did not affect (p > 0.05) ADFI and ADG. Reduced levels of protein influenced FBW, BW 0.75 and FCR (p < 0.05). A decreasing quadratic response was observed in FCR, as CP decreased from 193 g/kg to 135.1, FCR improved from 3.18 to 2.13 then suddenly decreased with the CP level. There was a quadratic increase in BW 0.75 and FBW as inclusion levels of protein were reduced (p < 0.05). They increased from 193 g/kg (FBW 39.5 and BW 0.75 12.8) protein level until 135.1 g/kg (FBW 45.1 and BW 0.75 14.6) then begun to decrease as dietary protein level was decreased further. Using stepwise piece (broken stick) methods, the optimum protein level for FCR was estimated to be at 135.1 g/kg (p < 0.05). The maximum level of dietary protein for BW and BW 0.75 was obtained at 135.1 g/kg. Reduction of the CP level in the Windsnyer pig diet beyond 138.3, 132.1 and 132.3 g/kg hinders the FCR, FBW and BW 0.75 , respectively. Protein levels can be reduced from the standard recommendation level of 193 g/kg to 135.1 g/kg without compromising the growth performance of growing Windsnyer pigs.
... However, although today not widely used for meat production, Mangalitza exhibit particular features, which make this breed special and of particular interest in genomics. On the one hand, it is known as a fat type pig, producing fine quality meat as a delicacy with a considerably high proportion of intramuscular fat and a high amount of unsaturated fatty acids compared to other pig breeds 47 . In that respect, it was no surprise that we identified several genes in Mangalitza consensus ROHR, which were proposed to have an impact on fat metabolism including lipase I (LIPI) and phospholipase A2 group IID (PLA2G2D) influencing fatty acid composition of meat 48,49 or phospholipase A2 group V (PLA2G5), hydroxysteroid 11-beta dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) and diacylglycerol kinase delta (DGKD), which have a crucial role in insulin resistance and the susceptibility for obesity [50][51][52] . ...
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Selection for desirable traits and breed-specific phenotypes has left distinctive footprints in the genome of pigs. As representative of a breed with strong selective traces aiming for robustness, health and performance, the Mangalitza pig, a native curly-haired pig breed from Hungary, was investigated in this study. Whole genome sequencing and SNP chip genotyping was performed to detect runs of homozygosity (ROH) in Mangalitza and Mangalitza-crossbreeds. We identified breed specific ROH regions harboring genes associated with the development of the curly hair type and further characteristics of this breed. Further analysis of two matings of Mangalitza with straight-coated pig breeds confirmed an autosomal dominant inheritance of curly hair. Subsequent scanning of the genome for variant effects on this trait revealed two variants potentially affecting hair follicle development and differentiation. Validation in a large sample set as well as in imputed SNP data confirmed these variants to be Mangalitza-specific. Herein, we demonstrated how strong artificial selection has shaped the genome in Mangalitza pigs and left traces in the form of selection signatures. This knowledge on genomic variation promoting unique phenotypes like curly hair provides an important resource for futures studies unraveling genetic effects for special characteristics in livestock.
... Given the unlimited market availability, a wide assortment of products and the large supply of meat, the production of high-quality meat which, in the first place, can meet the consumers' expectations has been a very important topic (Nis-tor et al., 2012;Joo et al., 2013;Miar et al., 2014). In the last decade, the breeding of local breeds which show poorer lean meat percentage and are used for the production of culinary meat and products made in a traditional way has raised greater interest in the United States and some European countries (Hungary, Switzerland, Austria, Germany, Spain, Great Britain and Poland) (Bocian et al., 2012;Nistor et al., 2012)). Raw meat, obtained from autochthonous breeds, shows good quality (Maiorano et al., 2007;Szulc et al., 2012;Kasprzyk et al., 2013). ...
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The objective of this article was the evaluation of selected properties of meat quality including the characteristics of longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle microstructure of Pulawska breed pigs and fatteners of the DanBred and Naima hybrids which are used in national meat production. Three genetic groups of fatteners were studied in the experiment: group I - DanBred hybrid; group II - Naima hybrid; and group III - the Pulawska breed. Pig fattening took place under the same environmental conditions from the starting weight of 30 kg ± 2 kg to 103-105 kg. For the analysis of muscle fibre characteristics and meat quality from each group, 30 animals were selected ( 1 : 1 ). Physico-chemical properties and ultrastructure were evaluated in samples collected from the LL muscle. A statistically significant impact ( P < 0.01 ) of a genetic group on pH 45 , content of water, protein and ash, as well as on the colour of meat, the number of STOs (slow-twitch oxidatives) and the diameter of FTG (fast-twitch glycolytic) muscle fibres, was found. Meat of the Pulawska breed, compared to DanBred and Naima, showed a statistically significant ( P < 0.01 ) higher (by 2.05 % and 2.49 %, respectively) nutritional value expressed as protein content and mineral components. Overall, these results imply better biological properties of Pulawska meat than DanBred and Naima hybrids. The higher STO and lower FTG found in muscles from Pulawska pigs might partially explain meat quality differences found between the breeds in the present study. The data of the current study indicated that meat quality characteristics and muscle microstructure of fatteners showed differences, and these differences may be used for alternative pork meat production for the consumer.
... They determined that the content of unsaturated fatty acids exceeded 60% in mangalitsa fat and reached almost the same percentage in crosses (Parunovič et al., 2015). Nistor et al. (2012) report that mangalitsa lard has 12-16% less saturated fatty acids and 8-10% more unsaturated fatty acids (omega 3 and omega 6) than modern breeds of pigs. Research results of Debreceni et al. (2016) suggest that the use of the mangalitsa for crossbreeding with pork meat breeds can improve the quality of the meat and fat of hybrids that are desirable for the production of special meat products. ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of consumption of lard processed from crossbreed of the original mangalitsa genotype and the breed of meat type pigs on selected biochemical parameters: total cholesterol (T-C), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols (TAG). Twenty-nine probands participated in the study, of which 14 women and 15 men (aged 21 - 59) who consumed regularly lard four times a week during 5 weeks. By evaluating the lipid profile of probands, we observed elevated hypercholesterolemia at the beginning of the study in 43% women and 27% men. Statistically significant differences were recorded in this group of probands, where we recorded a decrease in TC of 0.55 mmol.L-1 in the whole sample of probands with p <0.05 probability in the 2nd sample of study after 5 weeks of consumption of lard. Borderline high (up to 3.35 mmol.L-1) was found in 21% of women and 33% of men, and above LDL cholesterol was found in 79% of women and 60% of men. This high level of LDL cholesterol is considered a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. We can conclude from the results that regular consumption of lard has significantly reduced the total cholesterol levels, especially in women, this effect has been associated with lowering LDL cholesterol (p <0.01) and lowering HDL cholesterol.
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The inverse-square law (ISL) is used widely in physics, astronomy, celestial mechanics, cosmology, and other branches of sciences from the very beginning of classic physics up to date. But the development of modern physics and cosmology reveals that ISL becomes a big source of two problems. First, crucial cosmic-scale problems concerning gravity such as the accelerating expansion of the universe, the anomaly in galaxy rotation speed, the missing baryon problem, and dark matter remain unsolved. Second, Coulomb’s electrostatic law, DLVO theory, Lennard-Jones 12-6 potential, and Yukawa potential were described imperfectly the nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. The reasons connect to the ISL and the inverse-proportional law (IPL) consequence of which these laws will be deducted slowly from scientific and practical applications. In this paper, a possibility using the open hysteresis instead of ISL and IPL is proposed. The open hysteresis law can work from particle physics to cosmology.
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Ninety crossbred (Large White × Landrace) female pigs were used to compare the effects on ultimate pork quality of different magnesium (Mg) compounds [magnesium aspartate (MgAsp) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4)], Mg dose (1.6 and 3.2 g elemental Mg), and Mg supplementation period (2 and 5 days) in pigs subjected to an acute stressor pre-slaughter. Pigs fed the Mg-supplemented diets had lower muscle lactic acid concentrations at 24 h post-slaughter than pigs fed the control diet. There were no significant differences in muscle glycogen concentrations in the Longissimus thoracis (LT) at 5 min, 40 min, or 24 h post-slaughter between the control and Mg-supplemented diets. Pigs fed the Mg-supplemented diets produced less pale colour pork (i.e. darker colour) and had reduced drip loss and reduced incidence of pale, soft, exudative (PSE) pork in the LT muscle compared with pigs fed the control diet. Within the Mg diets, pigs fed the MgAsp-supplemented diet produced less pale LT muscle colour than pigs fed the MgSO4-supplemented diet. There were no significant differences in LT pork quality parameters (colour and percent drip loss) regardless of whether the high or low Mg dose or the 2- or 5-day supplementation period was used. This experiment has shown that the use of dietary MgAsp supplementation at a dose of 1.6 g elemental Mg (20 g MgAsp) for 2 days prior to slaughter significantly improved pork quality and reduced the incidence of PSE pork.
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Objective of this paper was to evaluate phenotypic variability of carcass side traits and quality of meat of fatteners (male castrated heads) of Moravka breed (M) and Mangalitsa (swallow-belly Mangalitsa - LM). The quantity and content of meat were determined based on dissection of left carcass sides (Walstra and Merkus, 1996). Also, nutritive properties of musculus longissimus dorsi (m.l.d.) were established. Obtained data were processed using GLM procedure of the program package SAS 9.1.3 (SAS Inst.Inc., 2002-2003). Results of the study show that Moravka fatteners had longer carcass sides (+6.82 and + 5.00 cm) compared to Mangalitsa breed, corrected to average body weight at slaughtering. Fatteners of M breed had in average higher total mass of back-loin part (+0.685, P<0.05) and average quantity of muscles in the same part of carcass side (+0.631 kg, P<0.01), compared to fatteners of LM breed. Also, they had higher quantity of muscle in belly-rib part (+0.237 kg, P<0.05) compared to LM. Share of muscle tissue in back-loin and belly-rib carcass side parts corrected for WCC, was higher in M carcass sides than in LM (P<0.01). Conversely, muscle tissue content in shoulders of Mangalitsa was higher (+4.8% ; P<0.05) than in Moravka. Share of muscle tissue in carcass sides of M pigs was by 4.3% higher compared to LM carcass sides. In m.l.d. of Moravka water content was higher (+6.1%, P<0.01), content of total lipids (-6.5%, P<0.05) and cholesterol (-19.68 mg/100 g, P<0.001) was lower than in Mangalitsa.
Fat content and fatty acid composition were investigated in Musculus gluteus medius of pigs from two different breeds: traditional Hungarian Mangalica and a crossbreed of Hungarian Large White and Dutch Landrace. Animals of both varieties were divided into two groups and were kept individually on control or experimental mixtures of feeds. Experimental feed contained significantly higher amount of linoleic and linolenic acid than the control one. Significantly higher fat content was detected in meat of Mangalica pigs kept on both feed mixtures than in those of crossbred. The proportion of saturated fatty acids was nearly the same in the meat of both genotypes. More monounsaturated fatty acids were detected in Mangalica meat than in crossbred ones expressed in percent of total fatty acids and absolute amount, as well. As a result of experimental diet, percentage and absolute amount of oleic acid decreased significantly in both genotypes. Less polyunsaturated fatty acids expressed as percent of total acids were observed in the muscle of Mangalica than in those of crossbred ones. Absolute amount and the proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially linoleic and linolenic acids) increased significantly as a result experimental diets. The ratio of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids changed beneficially in both genotypes consuming a diet containing 20% full-fat soy from 13.6:1 to 10.0:1 in Mangalica and from 15.4:1 to 10.3:1 in crossbred genotype. According to present results, it has became clear that the fatty acid composition of the meat of the traditional Hungarian Mangalica can be successfully modified by the diet, and this manipulation can make the meat healthier in spite of its high fat content.
In the first part of the paper, the Total Food Quality Model is used as a frame of reference for analysing the way in which consumers perceive meat quality, drawing mainly on European studies involving beef and pork. The way in which consumers form expectations about quality at the point of purchase, based on their own experience and informational cues available in the shopping environment, is described, as well as the way in which quality is experienced in the home during and after meal preparation. The relationship between quality expectations and quality experience and its implications for consumer satisfaction and repeat purchase intent is addressed. In the second part of the paper, and building on the insights obtained on subjective quality perception, possibilities for consumer-oriented product development in the meat sector are addressed. Issues dealt with here are branding, differentiation by taste, healthiness and convenience, and by process characteristics like organic production and animal welfare.
The suitability of backfat high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for salami manufacture was assessed. Eighty pigs (barrows and gilts) were fed four diets, containing 21, 25, 28 and 28 g PUFA/kg feed, originating mainly from soybeans and/or soybean oil in the first three diets and from linseed in the fourth. Salami was prepared with backfat from these pigs, according to gender and dietary treatment. Samples were taken throughout the ripening. The taste panel rejected the two high PUFA (diet 3 and 4) levels; moreover fishy off-flavours were detected for dietary treatment four. Twenty-five grams PUFA/kg feed, corresponding with 23% PUFA in backfat or 15% PUFA in salami, results in acceptable taste, if linoleic acid is the predominant PUFA. However, all PUFA levels resulted in salamis too soft to be commercialized, as evidenced by a fatty film on the salami slicing machine.
Interest in meat fatty acid composition stems mainly from the need to find ways to produce healthier meat, i.e. with a higher ratio of polyunsaturated (PUFA) to saturated fatty acids and a more favourable balance between n-6 and n-3 PUFA. In pigs, the drive has been to increase n-3 PUFA in meat and this can be achieved by feeding sources such as linseed in the diet. Only when concentrations of α-linolenic acid (18:3) approach 3% of neutral lipids or phospholipids are there any adverse effects on meat quality, defined in terms of shelf life (lipid and myoglobin oxidation) and flavour. Ruminant meats are a relatively good source of n-3 PUFA due to the presence of 18:3 in grass. Further increases can be achieved with animals fed grain-based diets by including whole linseed or linseed oil, especially if this is "protected" from rumen biohydrogenation. Long-chain (C20-C22) n-3 PUFA are synthesised from 18:3 in the animal although docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) is not increased when diets are supplemented with 18:3. DHA can be increased by feeding sources such as fish oil although too-high levels cause adverse flavour and colour changes. Grass-fed beef and lamb have naturally high levels of 18:3 and long chain n-3 PUFA. These impact on flavour to produce a 'grass fed' taste in which other components of grass are also involved. Grazing also provides antioxidants including vitamin E which maintain PUFA levels in meat and prevent quality deterioration during processing and display. In pork, beef and lamb the melting point of lipid and the firmness/hardness of carcass fat is closely related to the concentration of stearic acid (18:0).
Meat labelling can be an important way of informing the consumer on the quality attributes of meat. However, the type of information consumers demand is not well known and there is a lack of consumer-oriented information. Thus, meat labelling requires special attention. The objectives of this paper were: to identify the type of information that is most demanded by European consumers on beef and lamb labelling; to analyse the relationships between the importance of informational cues and other aspects concerning consumer attitudes towards meat consumption and meat quality, and socio-demographic characteristics; and to identify groups of consumers according to their labelling preferences. The information cues considered most important related to the deadline for meat consumption and the origin of meat. Other important cues were nutritional information, maturation time, name of cut and, especially for beef consumers, information on the system of production and on the traceability and the quality control of the meat. Some groups or segments of consumers were identified that had significant differences in relation to the type of information demanded, purchasing motives, quality preferences, sources of information on quality they trusted most and socio-economic features. They could be briefly profiled as: 'quality/safety orientated'; 'traditional'; 'quality unconcerned/ convenience-driven' and 'origin motivated' consumers.
The influence of free-range rearing, RN genotype and sex on different pig meat quality traits, including intramuscular fatty acid composition and levels of lipid oxidation products, were studied. A total of 60 Hampshire crossbred pigs were reared outdoors for two months with access to green feed, while 60 others were kept indoors, in a 120-m(2)-large pen, throughout the rearing period. From these 120 animals a subsample of 44 animals was chosen for meat quality analysis. Of the three factors studied, the RN genotype had the largest influence on basic technological meat quality traits, whereas the rearing conditions and sex had limited effects. However, outdoor rearing resulted in higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the intramuscular fat (P=0.026) and in an increased level of vitamin E (P=0.030) compared with the pigs that had been reared indoors. The sex and RN genotype of the animals also had an effect on the fatty acid profile: females had higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids (P=0.003) as well as lower levels of saturated fatty acids (P=0.011) than castrated males. Carriers of the RN(-) allele expressed a higher sum of omega-3 fatty acids (P=0.047) and C22:5 (P=0.012) than did the non-carriers. In a storage study where meat from free-range and indoor reared pigs was stored for 3 months at-20°C, it was shown that the lipid oxidation product malondialdehyde was formed at increased levels in animals that had a higher lean meat percentage than others, i.e. females that were carriers of the RN(-) gene and that were reared outdoors.