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Abstract

This research note introduces the new Democratization Articles Dataset, a survey of peer-reviewed articles on democratization published over the past 25 years from five of the leading comparative politics journals. The data highlight significant gender and location authorship imbalances, while also noting a steady increase in the proportion of female authors as well as team collaboration over the past 25 years. Democratization studies also appear to be largely event driven, with more attention paid to the Post-Soviet countries and democratic transitions in the 1990s, and increased attention to MENA countries and the study of authoritarianism since 2000. The field is also evolving methodologically, with a greater proportion of articles investigating a causal claim, relying on statistical and experimental techniques, and detailing sample selection criteria. Yet, single and comparative cases studies still compose the overwhelming majority of published research articles.
Date: 24 July 2018
1
Democratization Articles Dataset:
Description of Variables
Coders:
Lars Pelke, M.A. (University Heidelberg)
1
Paul Friesen, M.A. (University of Notre Dame)
2
PLEASE CITE AS:
PELKE, LARS AND PAUL FRIESEN, 2018, DEMOCRATIZATION ARTICLES
DATASET, https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/GJIADC, HARVARD DATAVERSE,
VERSION 1.
name name of the article
journal name of the journal
journal_number number of the journal
(1) Journal of Democracy
(2) Democratization
(3) World Politics
(4) Comparative Politics
(5) Comparative Political Studies
volume volume of the journal
year year in which the article was published
location_1 The origin of the first author coded by region. If the author works
for an international NGO, the variable location_1 is coded by the
headquarter of the organization. If there is no information on the
origin of an author or the headquarter of an organization, the
variable location_1 is coded 99.
(1) Northern, Western and Southern Europe
1
Journal of Democracy and Democratization coded by Lars Pelke.
2
World Politics, Comparative Politics, and Comparative Political Studies coded by Paul Friesen.
Date: 24 July 2018
2
(2) Post-Soviet Eurasia
(3) North America (United States of America, Canada)
(4) Latin America and the Caribbean
(5) East Asia (China, Taiwan, Koreas, Japan)
(6) Southeast Asia (ASEAN 10, Timor)
(7) South Asia (incl. Afghanistan)
(8) Middle East and North Africa (incl. Israel, Turkey)
(9) Sub-Sahara Africa (incl. South Africa)
(10) Oceania (AUS, NZ, PNG etc.)
(99) missing
location_2 The origin of the second author coded by region (see location_1)
location_3 The origin of the third author coded by region (see location_1)
location_4 The origin of the fourth author coded by region (see location_1)
location_5 The origin of the fifth author coded by region (see location_1)
number_of_authors number of individuals listed as article authors
name_of_author name(s) of individual(s) listed as article author(s)
gender_1 The gender of the first author
(1) male
(2) female
(99) missing
gender_2 The gender of the second author (see gender_1)
gender_3 The gender of the third author (see gender_1)
gender_4 The gender of the fourth author (see gender_1)
Date: 24 July 2018
3
gender_5 The gender of the fifth author (see gender_1)
political regimes
Is the primary focus of the article concerned with issues relating to
political regimes? Political regime topics refer to issues related to
democracy, authoritarianism, or hybrid regimes. Precondition for further
coding. (Automatically coded as 1 for Journal of Democracy and
Democratization)
(0) other topics
(1) political regimes
primary research interest
(1) theoretical
The research agenda primarily focuses on theoretical problems without
empirical tests of the suggested theory (theoretical problems include
conceptual frameworks).
(2) empirical
The research agenda primarily focuses on one or more empirical
phenomena where no original theory is developed.
(3) theoretical & empirical
The research agenda focuses on both theory or conceptual design as
well as discussing or testing the theory or conceptual design through
empirical analysis.
(4) methodological
The article primarily focuses on methodological questions or the
implementation and application of methods. Methodological articles do
not implement any theoretical or empirical analysis.
(99) other primary research interest.
Date: 24 July 2018
4
causal claim
Precondition: primary research interest is coded with 2 or 3
(1) descriptive
No attempt is made to identify causal relationships between two or
more distinct factors.
(2) causal
The article aims to identify causal relationships between two or more
distinct factors.
(99) missing
empirical method
Precondition: primary research interest is coded with 2 or 3
(1) statistical analysis (descriptive or causal)
(2) set theoretic methods (including QCA)
(3) comparative case studies
(4) single case study
(5) mixed methods
(6) others
number of cases
Precondition: primary research interest is coded with 2 or 3
The number of countries included in the article’s analysis, excluding
subnational units.
(1) number of cases 1
(2) number of cases 2
(3) number of cases 3-5
(4) number of cases 6-30
(5) number of cases 31+
(99) missing
cases region
Date: 24 July 2018
5
Precondition: primary research interest is coded with 2 or 3
The world region of focus included in the empirical study. If the
countries are drawn from more than one region, the variable is coded
as 11. World region categories adapted from the Bertelsmann
Transformation Index (2016).
(1) Northern, West and Southern Europe
(2) Post-Soviet Eurasia
(3) North America (United States of America, Canada)
(4) Latin America and the Caribbean
(5) Eastern Asia (China, Taiwan, Koreas, Japan)
(6) Southeast Asia (ASEAN 10, Timor)
(7) South Asia (incl. Afghanistan)
(8) Middle East and North Africa (incl. Israel, Turkey)
(9) Sub-Sahara Africa (incl. South Africa)
(10) Oceania (AUS, NZ, PNG etc.)
(11) Interregional (two or more regions)
(99) missing
sample selection
Precondition: primary research interest is coded with 2 or 3
Does the paper explain why the sample/cases were chosen?
(1) yes
(2) no
sampling rules_1
Precondition: sample selection is coded with 1
How is the selection of cases justified?
(1) Full population
(2) Random sampling
(3) Mill’s methods (Most Similar/Dissimilar Cases Design)
(4) “Crucial” cases (most likely/least likely)
(5) Inherent importance or interest of case(s)
(6) Availability of data
(7) Familiarity of researcher with case(s)
Date: 24 July 2018
6
(8) Other
(99) Missing
sampling rules_2 see sampling rules_1
primary thematic focus_1
What is the primary thematic focus of the article? We distinguish
between six areas of research interest in the field of democracy
democratization studies.
(1) democratic transitions
(2) democratic breakdowns
(3) authoritarianism
(4) democratic consolidation
(5) democracy quality and measurement
(6) methods
primary thematic focus_2 see primary thematic focus_1
secondary thematic focus_1
We further distinguish between various secondary thematic topics. The
categorization of thematic topics is based upon Munck and Snyder
(2007) and adapted based upon our research interests.
(1) State formation and state collapse
(2) War
(3) Revolutions
(4) Nationalism
(5) Civil wars and violence
(6) Ethnicity and ethnic conflict
(7) Social movements and civil society (including social capital, strikes, and
protests)
(8) Interest groups (including business and labor studies)
(9) Citizen attitudes and political culture
(10) Religion
(11) Clientelism /patronage
(12) Electoral politics, elections and voting
Date: 24 July 2018
7
(13) Political parties
(14) State institutions, stateness, state capacity
(15) Federalism and decentralization
(16) Judiciary
(17) Civil military relations, military and police
(18) Policies
(19) Globalization
(20) Supranational integration and processes, international relations
(21) European Union, European integration
(22) Democracy support, assistance
(23) Democracy classification
(24) Datasets and assessment
(25) Theory questions
(26) Other
(99) Missing
secondary thematic focus_2 see secondary thematic focus_1
secondary thematic focus_3 see secondary thematic focus_1
secondary thematic focus_4 see secondary thematic focus_1
secondary thematic focus_5 see secondary thematic focus_1
generalization
Precondition: primary research interest is coded with 2 or 3
Does the paper provide any explicit reference concerning the
implications of its findings on a larger number of unstudied instances
(generalization)?
(1) paper explicitly draws generalizing inferences from the sample
(2) no explicit discussion of generalization
formal modelling
Date: 24 July 2018
8
Does the article rely on formal modeling in its methodology? Formal
modeling includes the application of “formal theory”, “formal model”,
“deductive”, “game theory”, “mathemat*”, or “logical model” techniques.
Key words were searched for in each article and checked manually.
(0) no
(1) yes
experiments
Does the article rely on experiments in its methodology? Experimental
methods includes the application of: “experiment*”, “treatment”,
“potential outcome*”, or “identification” techniques. Key words were
searched for in each article and checked manually.
(0) no
(1) yes
Notes: All articles from World Politics and Comparative Politics were included
between 1990 and 2015. The dataset only includes a sub-set of articles published in
Comparative Political Studies between 1990 and 2015 due to the dissimilarity of
number of publications per year (ranging from 19 to 60). Thus, a random sample of
19 articles per year was drawn and coded for this journal. All articles from Journal of
Democracy were included between 1990 and 2016. All articles from Democratization
were included between 1997 and 2016.
Literature
BERTELSMANN TRANSFORMATION INDEX 2016. Transformation Index of the
Bertelsmann Stiftung 2016. Codebook for Country Assessment. In:
BERTELSMANN STIFTUNG (ed.). https://www.bti-
project.org/fileadmin/files/BTI/Downloads/Zusaetzliche_Downloads/Codebook_
BTI_2016.pdf.
MUNCK, G. L. & SNYDER, R. 2007. Debating the Direction of Comparative Politics.
An Analysis of Leading Journals. Comparative Political Studies, 40 (1), 5-31.
Article
This research note introduces the new Democratization Articles Dataset, a survey of peer-reviewed articles on democratization published over the past 25 years from five of the leading comparative politics journals. The data highlight significant gender and location authorship imbalances, while also noting a steady increase in the proportion of female authors as well as team collaboration over the past 25 years. Democratization studies also appear to be largely event driven, with more attention paid to the Post-Soviet countries and democratic transitions in the 1990s, and increased attention to MENA countries and the study of authoritarianism since 2000. The field is also evolving methodologically, with a greater proportion of articles investigating a causal claim, relying on statistical and experimental techniques, and detailing sample selection criteria. Yet, single and comparative cases studies still compose the overwhelming majority of published research articles.
Article
Full-text available
This article contributes to ongoing debates about the direction of comparative politics through an analysis of new data on the scope, objectives, and methods of research in the field. The results of the analysis are as follows. Comparative politics is a rich and diverse field that cannot be accurately characterized on the basis of just one dimension or even summarized in simple terms. In turn, the tendency to frame choices about the direction of the field in terms of a stark alternative between an old area studies approach and a new economic approach relies on largely unsupported assumptions. It is therefore advisable to focus on problematic methodological practices that, as this study shows, are widespread in comparative research and thus pose serious impediments to the production of knowledge.
Transformation Index of the Bertelsmann Stiftung
  • Bertelsmann
  • Index
BERTELSMANN TRANSFORMATION INDEX 2016. Transformation Index of the Bertelsmann Stiftung 2016. Codebook for Country Assessment. In: BERTELSMANN STIFTUNG (ed.). https://www.btiproject.org/fileadmin/files/BTI/Downloads/Zusaetzliche_Downloads/Codebook_ BTI_2016.pdf.