ArticlePDF Available

ANUPANA-UNIQUE CONCEPT OF AYURVEDA *Corresponding Author

Authors:
  • Govt ayurved college osmanabad

Abstract

Ayurveda, the science of life deals with every aspect of life. It gives priority to maintain the health of an individual and has a unique approach to cure the diseases. To maintain and to achieve good health, Ayurveda explains various concepts such as, Sadvritta (codes of right conduct), Dinacharya (daily regimen), Ritucharya (night regimen), Aahara Vidhi Vidhana (rules and regulations regarding the food consumption) and also Oushadha sevana. In Aahara vidhi vidhana and Oushadha sevana, various Acharyas have mentioned methods such as intake of proper anupana (post prandial drink) after the consumption of food or medicine. Anupana is a substance which is taken along with or after the intake of Aahara (food) and oushadha (drug). According to dictionary, meaning of anupana is the one which is taken along with or after medicine. In the context of food, anupana helps in its better digestion and absorption and provides complete nourishment of the body. It brings some changes in a substance along with which it is administered. To cure the disease the use of proper anupana along with specific drug therapy is equally important. But still, its importance and practical utility does not fully recognized. Therefore this review article attempts to explain anupana in details as mentioned in Ayurvedic classics and its importance and also explain which precautions should be taken during the time consumption of anupana.
www.wjpps.com Vol 7, Issue 11, 2018.
Bagde et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
ANUPANA- UNIQUE CONCEPT OF AYURVEDA
1*Ashvin Bagde, 2Milind Godbole, 3Kalpana Jadhav, 4Asha Ramteke, 5Prerana Satpute
1Assistant Professor, Dept. of Samhita Siddhanta, Govt. Ayurved College, Osmanabad.
2Professor, Dept. of Swasthavritta, Y. A. M. P.G. T. & R. C., Kodoli 416114(M.S).
3Associate Professor, Dept. of Swasthavritta, Y. A. M. P.G. T. & R. C., Kodoli 416114.
4,5P.G. Scholar, Dept. of Swasthavritta, Y. A. M. P.G. T. & R. C., Kodoli 416114(M.S).
ABSTRACT
Ayurveda, the science of life deals with every aspect of life. It gives
priority to maintain the health of an individual and has a unique
approach to cure the diseases. To maintain and to achieve good health,
Ayurveda explains various concepts such as, Sadvritta (codes of right
conduct), Dinacharya (daily regimen), Ritucharya (night regimen),
Aahara Vidhi Vidhana (rules and regulations regarding the food
consumption) and also Oushadha sevana. In Aahara vidhi vidhana and
Oushadha sevana, various Acharyas have mentioned methods such as
intake of proper anupana (post prandial drink) after the consumption
of food or medicine. Anupana is a substance which is taken along with
or after the intake of Aahara (food) and oushadha (drug). According to
dictionary, meaning of anupana is the one which is taken along with or after medicine. In the
context of food, anupana helps in its better digestion and absorption and provides complete
nourishment of the body. It brings some changes in a substance along with which it is
administered. To cure the disease the use of proper anupana along with specific drug therapy
is equally important. But still, its importance and practical utility does not fully recognized.
Therefore this review article attempts to explain anupana in details as mentioned in
Ayurvedic classics and its importance and also explain which precautions should be taken
during the time consumption of anupana.
KEYWORDS: Ayurveda, Anupana, sahapana, vehicle, post prandial drink.
WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
SJIF Impact Factor 7.421
Volume 7, Issue 11, XXX-XXX Review Article ISSN 2278 4357
Article Received on
07 Sept. 2018,
Revised on 27 Sept. 2018,
Accepted on 17 October 2018
DOI: 10.20959/wjpps201811-12651
*Corresponding Author
Dr. Ashvin Bagde
Assistant Professor, Dept. of
Samhita Siddhanta, Govt.
Ayurved College,
Osmanabad.
drabbagde@gmail.com
www.wjpps.com Vol 7, Issue 11, 2018.
Bagde et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
INTRODUCTION
Ayurveda is the oldest and most holistic and comprehensive medical system available in the
world. Ayurveda deals with every aspect of life. It can appropriately be called as “The science
of Living” Ayurveda has mainly two aims i.e. protection and promotion of health and
secondly cure from the disease.[1] To achieve these aims Ayurveda recommends various
concepts. Anupana is one among those. Concept of anupana is indicated in both the
conditions. The word Anupana is consists of two words Anu’ means paschat (later) and
Pana’ (drinking). So Anupana is defined as a liquid material, which is taken along with or
after the meal and drug.
Anupana is a substance, which is taken along with or after diet and medicines. It increases the
action of substance which is administered in the body. Though the anupana is administered
along with medicine to improve the taste and to mask the bad odour of the Dravya, it is
mainly given for carrying the essential substance to the target place. Therefore suitable
anupana should be selected for different individuals and different conditions to obtain
maximum benefits.
Anupana Nirukti (Derivation of Anupana)
Anupana is defined as the pana (drink) which is taken along with Aahara dravya (food
material) and oushadhi dravya (Medicine).
Anupana Paribhasha (Defination of Anupana)
Anupana is defined as the pana which is taken immediately after oushadhaanga (part of
medicine) and Oushadhi yoga (medicine formulation).[2] Anupana is defined as that, which
enhances the properties of medicines along with it is taken.[3]
Synonyms for Anupana[4]
The different terms implying the meanings of Anupana have been mentioned in different
contexts and these synonyms of Anupana are as follows-
1. Anupana - Means the one which is consumed along with or after the bhesaja.
2. Vahana - Means the one which carries
3. Sahayogi - Means the one which brings together
4. Maadhyama - Means the one which acts as media or the one which is taken in the middle.
5. Anutarsha - Means the one which is beneficial in thirst.
www.wjpps.com Vol 7, Issue 11, 2018.
Bagde et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
6. Anupeya - Means the one thing which is taken along with or after food.
7. Anupaneeya - Means the one which is taken along with food.
8. Oushadhanga peya - Means the peya which is used along with medicine.
Anupana Dravya[5]
Several Anupana dravya are quoted in classics like Shitala Jala (cold water), Ushna Jala
(Hot water), Aasava (fermented liquids), Arishta (wines), Phalamla (alcohol prepared from
fruits), Dhanyamla (alcohol prepared from grains), Ksheera (milk) and Rasa (meat soup).
Rain water is considered to be the best anupana.
Lakshana of Anupana[6]
Generally Anupana (post prandial drinks) should have the properties opposite to those of the
food taken. But at the same time, such drinks should not produce harmful effect to the tissue
elements of the body.
Types of Anupana[7]
On the basis of utility anupana can be classified into two types i.e. Aharopayogi (anupana
advocated with food articles) and Aushadopayogi (anupana advocated with drugs). In the
context of rogadi varga, this anupana is classified into two types i.e. Kramana Anupana is
that which is administered in delay and Pachana Anupana is given in the night, without
delaying but immediately.
Shrestha Anupana (Best anupana)[8]
According to Acharya Vagbhatt jala (water) is considered as best anupana for both healthy
and diseased persons.[8] According to Acharya Sushruta, Mahendra jala (Rain water) is
considered as best anupana in all type of dravya (liquid).[9]
Varieties of Anupana used after food[10]
In conditions caused by the aggravation of vata dosha, unctuous and hot anupana are useful.
Similarly in Pitta dosha sweet and cold anupana is beneficial. In kapha dosha unctuous and
hot anupana are useful. Mamsa rasa (meat soup) is suitable in depletion of Sapta dhatus.
For people who are exhausted by indulgence in fasting, long walk, speaking for long time,
sexual intercourse and exposure to wind and sunlight, milk as anupana is best suited like
nectar. For nourishing emaciated individuals, Sura (wine) is the best anupana. For causing
emaciation of over corpulent individuals madhudaka (honey water) is very useful as
www.wjpps.com Vol 7, Issue 11, 2018.
Bagde et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
anupana. Madhya (alcohol) is best suited for those who have poor digestive power, loss of
sleep, stupor, grief, fear and fatigue and who are habituated to the use of wine and meat.
Anukta anupana[11]
When no anupana is available or said in classics, then madhu (honey) or jala (water) should
be considered.
Anupana Karmukata[12]
As the drop of oil put on the surface of stable water spreads so quickly, similarly the
oushadha along with the Anupana spreads in fraction of time throughout the body and
produces its effect when administered with appropriate Anupana.
Anupana Kala[13]
According to Acharya Chakrapani followings are the different time periods in which
anupana should be consumed.
1. Adhi pana:-for karshanartha (For emaciation)
2. Madhya pana: -for sthapanartha (For maintenance)
3. Antapana: -for brumhanartha (For nourishment)
Properties of Anupana[14,15]
Anupana give rise to merits like-Tarpayati (bring about refreshment), preenyati (gives
pleasure), urjayati (gives energy), brihanyati (gives nourishment), paryaaptima
abhinirvartayati (gives satisfaction) bhukat amvasadayati (brings Steadiness in food
consumed), Annasanghatbhinnati (helps in breakdown of food particles in the abdomen),
mardavmapadayati (soften the food), klaedayati (brings the unctuousness of food), jaryati
(helps in digestion process), sukha parinamyati (helps in proper assimilation), aashu
vyavayati (helps in instant diffusion of the food taken), aaharsya upajanyati (supply the food
to the tissues), rochana (improves the taste), vrishya (improves the potency), shramhar
(relieve fatigue), dipaniya (act as appetizer), doshashaman (alleviates three doshas),
pipasachchedan (quenches thirst), varnakar (improve complexion) and truptikar (gives
satisfaction).
Anupana Ayogya vyakti (Persons not suitable for Anupana)[16,17]
There are some conditions where consumption of anupana is contraindicated, therefore
caution should be taken in people with following conditions like Kasa roga (cough), Shwasa
www.wjpps.com Vol 7, Issue 11, 2018.
Bagde et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
(dyspnoea), Hikka roga (hiccups), pinas (rhinitis), Urdhwajatrugata vyadhi (diseases which
occur above clavicle), Urahkshata (injuries to chest or lungs) and those who engaged in
Atyadhika Geeta (excessive singing), adhyayana (excessive studying) and ati Bhashya
(excessive speaking). Because jala (water) anupana removes the snehamsha (unctuousness
or moisture) of these parts leading to Vata dosha prakopa (aggravation of Vata dosha) hence
the anupana act as rogakara (causes diseases) instead of rogaghnata (mitigating the disease).
If the Anupana is given in above condition it causes the Aashaya Dushti. It diminishes the
Agni by the Abhishyandi properties of Sneha which is located in Ura and kantha and causes
Vamana like disorder.
The action contraindicated after Anupana[18,19]
After the use of anupana all persons (healthy and sick) should avoid following activities like-
too much journey, exercise and study, ati bhashya (too much talking), too much of singing,
ati adhva gaman (walking long distances), ati shayanam (too much sleeping immediately),
atapa sevan (exposure to sunlight), vanhim sevan (exposure to fire), yaanam (travel in
vehicle), ati plavanam (excessive swimming) and ati vahanam (excessive riding on animals).
Disadvantage of not taking Anupana[20]
If Anupana is not consumed in described form then the Ghana Aahara (solid food) which is
consumed will not mix with liquid portion, remains without any movement and causes
various types of disorders. Hence appropriate Anupana should be used after the meals.
CONCLUSION
Concept of Anupana is a unique contribution and very essential part in administration of
Ahara dravya (diet) as well as Oushadhi dravya (Medicines). Anupana is a factor which
helps in absorption, assimilation as well as in the efficacy of the drug. The potency of the
medicine gets enhanced and brings about the desired effect when given with suitable
anupana. Single drug can be used to treat most of the diseases when given with suitable
anupana. Therefore care should be taken in selecting anupana suitable for getting all the
beneficiaries from intake. Always reambers anupana should be decided according to the
constitution of the person as well as condition of three doshas. Anupana has
multidimensional effects, it acts as nutritive, stimulant, preventive and curative. The concept
of anupana plays a very significant role in treating the diseases and also helps the drug to act
www.wjpps.com Vol 7, Issue 11, 2018.
Bagde et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
quickly. From above various references it is concluded that anupana is an unique concept
that is gifted by Ayurveda.
REFERENCES
1. Vagbhata, Ashtanga Hridaya, with Vidyotini Hindi commentary of Kaviraj Atrideva
Gupta, Sutra Sthana, Chapter 1, Verse No. 5 Page.3 Chaukhambha Prakashan, Varanasi,
2009.
2. Sharma PV, Sushruta Samhita. Reprint. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Vishwabharathi
Prakashan, 2004, (Vol-I), page 169.
3. Tripathi Brahmanand, Sharangadhara samhita Madhyam khanda. Reprint, Varanasi:
Chaukhamba bharati prakashana, 2004, 173.
4. Narahari P, Nighantu R. Hindi commentary, by Tripathi. Indradeva. Edition 2, Varanasi:
Krishna Das academy Chaukhamba press, 1998, 625.
5. Acharya JT. Susruta Samhita of Susruta with Nibandha Sangraha Commentary of Sri
Dalhanacharya and Nyayachandrika Panjika of Sri Gayadasacharya. Reprint.
6. Charak Samhita, with Charak Chandrika Hindi commentary, by Dr. Brahmanand Tripathi
and Dr. Ganga Sahay Pandey, Sutra Sthana Chapter 27, Verse 319 page No. 539
Chaukhamba Surbharti Prakashan, 2007.
7. Mohasin Kadegaon, Anupana - A key of success in Ayurveda. J Ayurveda Integral
Medical Science, 2016; 4: 132-136.
8. Murthy K. R, Shrikantha, Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhata. Edition 1, Varanasi:
Chaukhambha Orientalia, 2002, (Vol-III), 264.
9. Sushruta. Sushruta samhita. Edited by Acharya priyavat Sharma. 8th edition. Varanasi:
Chaukhambha Orientalia publication; 2005. Sutra sthana, 46th chapter, verse 434, 245pp.
10. Charak Samhita, with Charak Chandrika Hindi commentary, by Dr. Brahmanand Tripathi
and Dr. Ganga Sahay Pandey, Sutra Sthana Chapter 27, Verse 324 page No. 540
Chaukhamba Surbharti Prakashan, 2007.
11. Bhavprakasha Purva khanda. 6th chapter. Haritakyadi varga, verse34, 163pp.
12. Tripathi B, Samhita PS. Reprint, Varanasi: Chaukhamba Bharti Prakashan, 2004, 173.
13. Mishra Umapati, Dravya Guna Sangraha of Chakrapani Dutta. Reprint, Varanasi:
Chaukhamba Surbharti prakashana, 1995, Page 86.
14. Charak Samhita, with Charak Chandrika Hindi commentary, by Dr. Brahmanand Tripathi
and Dr. Ganga Sahay Pandey, Sutra Sthana Chapter 27, Verse 325 page No. 540
Chaukhamba Surbharti Prakashan, 2007.
www.wjpps.com Vol 7, Issue 11, 2018.
Bagde et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
15. Sushruta. Sushruta Samhita. Ambikadutta Shastri, editor. 2nd edition. Varanasi:
Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2007. Sutra Sthana 46/442-443.
16. Charak Samhita, with Charak Chandrika Hindi commentary, by Dr. Brahmanand Tripathi
and Dr. Ganga Sahay Pandey, Sutra Sthana Chapter 27, Verse 327 page No. 540
Chaukhamba Surbharti Prakashan, 2007.
17. Vagbhata, Ashtanga Sangraha Sutra Sthana Chapter 10, Verse 56 Page no 60.
18. Sushruta. Sushruta Samhita. Ambikadutta Shastri, editor. 2nd edition. Varanasi:
Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2007. Sutra Sthana 46/447.
19. Vriddha Vagbhata. Ashtanga sangraha. Edited by Kaviraj jyotirmitra Acharya. Edited by
Dr. Shivaprasad Sharma. Reprint. 1st. Varanasi: Chaukhambha press; 2006. Sutra sthana,
10th chapter Verse 35. 106pp.).
20. Sushruta. Sushruta Samhita. Ambikadutta Shastri, editor. 2nd edition. Varanasi:
Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2007. Sutra Sthana 46/447.
... To obtain the proper effects of drugs, the use of appropriate anupana along with specific drug therapy is equally important. It is a factor that helps in absorption, assimilation as well as potentiates the efficacy of the drug 29 . In the present study, honey alone in the vehicle control group did not exert any sedative or hypnotic-like effects but along with drug it potentiate the effects of C. medica which may substantiate the concept of Anupana in Ayurveda. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bijapura (Citrus medica L., family: Rutaceae) leaves powder when used along with honey is documented in ancient text to induce sleep and is useful in patients with insomnia. The purpose of the present research work was to investigate the sedative and hypnotic effects of C. medica leaves powder along with honey as anupana (adjuvant) in experimental animals. The effects of leaves powder on the locomotor activity of albino rats were evaluated using an open field test. The hypnotic effect was evaluated by potentiation of pentobarbital-induced sleep test and muscle relaxant activity by Rotarod test using swiss albino mice. Results were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's t-test with P <0.05 as significant. The leaves powder along with honey significantly (P <0.01 and P <0.05) reduced numbers of square crossed and locomotor activity in the Open field test when compared to control and vehicle control groups. It significantly (P <0.05) potentiated the pentobarbitone-induced sleep duration when compared to the control group. However, the leaves powder did not reduce or affect the latency of the fall-off time of mice in the Rotarod test. Vehicle as honey failed to produce significant effects when compared to the control group, whereas standard drugs as diazepam produced significant sedative, hypnotic, and muscle relaxant activity in albino mice. The result suggests that C. medica leaves powder has sedative and hypnotic activity without affecting the muscle tone/coordination in animals and thus, prove its traditional claim in insomnia.
Article
Full-text available
Ayurveda, a traditional system of medicine has been employed since many years. It has also proven its existence from the time of origin till date. The concept of Anupana is a unique one which is very well established in Ayurveda. Anupana is explicated along with food stuffs (Ahara) as well as medications (Aushadha) under different conditions. The speciality of Ayurveda is that the food articles or any medicines can be used for treating different kinds of diseases by changing the Anupana. The concept of Anupana plays a very significant role in treating the diseases and also helps the drug to act quickly.
  • Ashtanga Vagbhata
  • Hridaya
Vagbhata, Ashtanga Hridaya, with Vidyotini Hindi commentary of Kaviraj Atrideva Gupta, Sutra Sthana, Chapter 1, Verse No. 5 Page.3 Chaukhambha Prakashan, Varanasi, 2009.
Reprint. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Vishwabharathi Prakashan
  • P V Sharma
  • Sushruta Samhita
Sharma PV, Sushruta Samhita. Reprint. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Vishwabharathi Prakashan, 2004, (Vol-I), page 169.
Sharangadhara samhita Madhyam khanda. Reprint, Varanasi: Chaukhamba bharati prakashana
  • Tripathi Brahmanand
Tripathi Brahmanand, Sharangadhara samhita Madhyam khanda. Reprint, Varanasi: Chaukhamba bharati prakashana, 2004, 173.
Susruta Samhita of Susruta with Nibandha Sangraha Commentary of Sri Dalhanacharya and Nyayachandrika Panjika of Sri Gayadasacharya
  • J T Acharya
Acharya JT. Susruta Samhita of Susruta with Nibandha Sangraha Commentary of Sri Dalhanacharya and Nyayachandrika Panjika of Sri Gayadasacharya. Reprint.
Dravya Guna Sangraha of Chakrapani Dutta. Reprint, Varanasi: Chaukhamba Surbharti prakashana
  • Mishra Umapati
Mishra Umapati, Dravya Guna Sangraha of Chakrapani Dutta. Reprint, Varanasi: Chaukhamba Surbharti prakashana, 1995, Page 86.
  • Chaukhamba Surbharti Prakashan
Chaukhamba Surbharti Prakashan, 2007. www.wjpps.com Vol 7, Issue 11, 2018.
Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan
Sushruta. Sushruta Samhita. Ambikadutta Shastri, editor. 2 nd edition. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2007. Sutra Sthana 46/442-443.
Edited by Kaviraj jyotirmitra Acharya
  • Vriddha Vagbhata
Vriddha Vagbhata. Ashtanga sangraha. Edited by Kaviraj jyotirmitra Acharya. Edited by Dr. Shivaprasad Sharma. Reprint. 1 st. Varanasi: Chaukhambha press; 2006. Sutra sthana, 10 th chapter Verse 35. 106pp.).