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A review on cucumber:cucumis sativus

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ISSN No.: 2454- 2024 (online)
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A REVIEW ON CUCUMBER
(Cucumis Sativus)
HinaSaeed, AnamWaheed
E-mail id: syedalihamidsaeed@gmail.com, hinachemist@yahoo.com
Department of Biochemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan-60800, Pakistan
Abstract-Plants are basic source of food and energy. Cucumber which is consumed in different ways like sweet,
vegetable and salads. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) belongs to curcurbaticeae family possess antibacterial,
antimicrobial, antifunal characteristics and showed activities like antioxidant, phytochemical and
hypoglycaemic activity. Its also used as traditional remedies Different genotype of plant showed different
yield.The present article attempts to provide comprehensive information on pharmacological significance of
Cucumis sativus for further research. All the information’s were collect from the published research paper on
Cucumis sativus as for the sake of future research on it.
Key Words: Cucumber, cucurbaticeae, remedies, pharmachological, genotype & yield
1. INTRODUCTION
Plants are used medicinally in different countries and are source of potent and powerful drugs (1). Over the
centuries, the use of medicinal herbs has become an important part of daily life despite the progress in modern
medical and pharmaceutical research (2). A wide range of medicinal plant parts are used as raw drugs as they
posses varied medicinal properties thus herbal drugs constitute a major part in all traditional systems of
medicines. Plants above all other agents have been used for medicine from time immemorial because they have
fitted the immediate personal need are easily accessible and inexpensive (3). Most plant used in treatment of
digestion, diaherea, constipation, toothache, flu, hepatitis, skin infection, diabetics. (4)
2. PLANT DESCRIPTION
Cucurbitaceae is a plant family, also known as gourd family, which includes crops like cucumbers, squashes,
luffas and melons. Cucurbits form an important and a big group of vegetables crops cultivated extensively in the
subtropical and tropics countries. The family consists of about 118 genera and 825 species (5). Plants of this
family have many medicinal and nutritional benefits (6). Cucumber (Cucumis sativa L) is one of the
monoecious annual crops in the Cucurbitaceae family that has been cultivated by man for over 3, 000 years (7,
8). With respect to economic importance, it ranks fourth after tomatoes, cabbage and onion in Asia (9).
2.1 Antimicrobial Activity
D. A. Khan et al reports that Cucumis sativus possess poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosaonly (10).
G. G. E. Osuagwu et al reports that ethanolic extracts of leaf of M. charantia, L. cylindrical and T.cucumerina
have antimicrobial activity on the test human pathogenic microorganisms used except E. coli and that the
aqueous leaf extracts affected only three of the human pathogens (S. aureus, P. aeruginosaand S. typhi)(11) . A.
Sood et al reports that antimicrobial activity of seeds extract of five plants of Cucurbitaceae family- Momordica
charantia (Karella), Cucumis sativa (Cucumber), Praecitrullus fistulosus (Tinda), Cucurbita pepo (Kaddu),
Lagenariasiceraria (loki) revealed that all the seeds extracts were very effective against Serratiamarcescens , E.
coli, Streptococcus thermophilous, Fusariumoxysporium, Trichodermareeseiwhile some extracts showed no
inhibition against Aspergillusniger (Cucumis sativa), Candida albicans (Praecitrullusfistulosus, Cucurbitapepo,
Lagenariasiceraria) (12).
Jony Mallik et al reports that antifungal potentials of the ethanol extract of Cucumis sativus Linn.(30μg/disc)
were assessed against six fungus and (diameter of zone of inhibition) were compared with the activity of the
standard drug, Griseofulvin (30μg/disc). At 80μg/disc, the ethanol extracts of Cucumis sativus Linn. (13)
2.2 Phytochemical Analysis
A. Sood et al reports that phytochemical analysis of the plant confirm thepresence of various phytochemicals
like tannins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoides, carbohydrates, resins, saponins and phytosterols. While other
phytochemical like alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, steroidal terpenes and phylobatamins were found to be
absent in all the extracts (14).
2.3 Nutritional Composition
A. Urooj et al reports that among the different cucumber varieties, highest moisture content was seen in
English, Zucchini and Pranic healed cucumbers and the lowest moisture content was found in Holenarasipur and
Dotted variety. Zucchini had the highest vitamin C, antioxidant activity, total phenolics and °Brix. It was
observed that Pranic treated samples showed better stability at room temperature and refrigerated storage (15).
2.4 Genotype
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A.R Eghtedary et al reports on twenty genotypes of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) that were collected from
different geographical regions.Analysis of variance showed that there was a high significant variation for all of
the studied traits between genotypes. Mean comparison showed that the genotypes showed a broad phenotypic
variation for studied traits, such that total fruit yield per pickling ranged from 474.3 g (Gohar) to 338.3 g
(Tornado). Cluster analysis with Ward method divided the genotypes to four distinct groups. Genotypes in
group number two (Gohar, Adrian451, Green majic, Sina) had the highest total fruit yield per pickling. For other
traits, genotypes in groups number 1 and 2 (10 genotypes) showed best situation. Therefore, Selection of
superior genotypes in view point of desirable morphologic traits, with high genetic distance could be selected
for hybridization programs and recognition of best genotypes for different traits to produce new elite hybrids in
cucumber (16).
Z. Khan report on 24 genotypes of cucumber to find out their resemblance and variation based on numerical
traits. The experiment was design in Randomized Complete Block Design (RBCD) with two replications.
Numerical traits of the genotypes were calculated according to the coding criteria specified by European
Cooperative Programmed for Plant Genetics Resources (ECPGR) 2008. Data showed great variation for almost
all the traits. Maximum germination (67.5%) was observed in genotype Mardan local while minimum
germination (17.5%) was recorded in genotype 28295. The genotypes Haripur local and 28293 showed early
flowering. Similarly highest yield was observed in USA Poinsett, Dargai local and Mardan local. These
genotypes could be chosen for crossing with other genotypes like 28295 and Sialkot selection having low
germination rate and low yield to get a better genotype of cucumber with high germination and maximum yield.
Correlation analysis represent that yield was positively correlated with fruit length (.523** P≤0.01) and fruit
width (.439* P≤0.01). While fruit per plant showed positive significant correlation with vine length (17).
2.5 Yield
A. Nair et al reports that trellising cucumbers in high tunnel production systems yield higher number of
marketable fruits compared with non-trellised systems. Growers should consider trellising their cucumber plants
especially when growing them in high tunnels. Trellising permits for enhanced air movement and heat
dissipation and decrease incident of fungal and bacterial infection. While white plastic mulch reflected twofold
the amount of light when evaluated with black mulch, it did not translate to enhanced yield or productivity.
White plastic mulch kept the soil cooler than black and could be used in high tunnel production when crop
plantings occur during peak summer (18).
E.C. Enujeke carried out study to evaluate the growth and yield responses of cucumber to five different rates of
poultry manure in Asaba area of Delta State, Nigeria. It was perform in a Randomized Complete Block Design
(RCBD) with three replicates. Rates of poultry manure in tons per hectare were 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20. The
parameters measured to attained the objectives of the investigation were vine length, number of leaves/plant,
fruit diameter, fruit length, and fruit weight of cucumber. They concluded that plants that received 20tha-1 of
poultry manure were better in the parameters tested. Based on the result of the study, it wasrecommended that
farmers in the study area apply 20tha-1 of poultry manure for increased growth and yield of cucumber (19).
2.6 Medicinal Uses
Dr. A. Shrivastava et al reported that regular intake of cucumber fruit promotes healthy hair growth. It is useful
in skin problems, sunburn and also for curing swelling under the eye. Its juice is also efficient to soften the skin
texture. Placing the two slice of cucumber on eyes for 10 minutes can decrease the inflammation significantly. It
is also beneficial for curing skin infection like eczema. In sun stroke piece of cucumber are placed on the head
so that the patient may breathe moistened air in order to neutralize heat of his body. Fruit is also considered
important for weight loss.Traditionally seed were used to expel theintestinal worms and tapeworms. The
remedyis carried out when mashed seeds mixed withsugar that should be taken before any meal.Leaves are
boiled and mixed withcumin seeds, roasted and powdered, are administrated in throat infections in the dosesof
30 grams or more (20).
Kashif et al reported that due to elevated content of potassium (50-80 mg/100g), cucumber can significantly be
helpful for both high and low blood pressures (21).
2.7 Antioxidant Activity
L. Kumaraswamy demonstrated that the fruit extracts of yellow cucumber posses more antioxidant activity
where it is not usually included in fruit salad but mostly used in Sambar, while green and white cucumbers are
included in salads and eaten raw, by this investigation they suggested to use yellow cucumber in salads where it
supply us with valuable antioxidants.
It is well known that free radicals are one of the causes of several diseases. The result from in vitro antioxidant
assays showed that three varieties of cucumber contain the significant antioxidant activity. The activity may be
due to the presence of carotenoids, phenolic flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols and lycopene, found in it (22).
2.8 Cytotoxic Activity
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JonyMallik et al were carried out an study on the cytotoxic activity of the ethanolic extracts of Cucumis
sativus. In brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the ethanol extract showed lethality against the brine shrimp nauplii.
It showed different mortality rate at different concentrations. From the plot of percent mortality versus log
concentration on the graph paper, LC50 (μg/ml) and LC90 (μg/ml) of the ethanol extract of Cucumis sativus
Linn.Were concluded respectively. (23)
2.9 Antacid & Carminative Activity
Swapnil Sharma et al was studied with the aqueous extract fruit pulp of C. sativa significantly neutralized acid
and showed resistance against change in pH and also illustrate good carminative potential. The extract of C.
sativa, has shown to possess significant carminative and antacid property. (24)
2.10 Activity Against Ulcerative Colitis
Patil et al was depicted following an authentic investigation with the aqueous extract of Cucumis sativus Linn.
fruit in ulcerative colitis in laboratory animals. In this study, the aqueous extract of C. sativus L. selected for
screening against experimentally induced boweldisease. The extract of C. sativa, has shown to possess
significant property against ulcerative colitis. (25)
2.11 Hepatoprotective Activity
H. Heidari et al was investigated the effect of Cucumis sativus against cumenehydroperoxide induced-
oxidative stress. They concluded that aqueous extract of Cucumis sativus acts as a hepatoprotective and
antioxidant agent against CHP-induced hepatotoxicity suggesting that antioxidants and radical scavenging
components of Cucumis sativus fruit extract can easily cross the cell membrane and cope with the intracellular
ROS formation. (26)
2.12 Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Activity
R. Sharmin et al were investigated Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Cucumber in Alloxan Induced
Diabetic Rats. It was concluded that the ethanol extracts of Cucurbitaceae family fruits, cucumber, white
pumpkin and ridge gourd has significant anti hyperglycemic effects in AIDRs. They also have the capability to
lessen the high lipid profiles in AIDRs. Ridge gourd has also significant effects to regain the depressed hepatic
glycogen levels in AIDRs. Therefore, we believe that these fruits extracts can be useful, at least as an adjunct, in
the therapy of diabetes, a condition in which hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia coexist quite often (27).
2.12 Wound Healing Activity
Patil et al were studied on pharmacological evaluation of wound healing potential of Cucumis sativus. They
concluded that aqueous extracts of Cucumis sativus have good effectiveness on wound healing. Herbal paste
preparation showed significant (P<0.05) enhancement on maturation, wound contraction andepithelialisation
(28).
2.13 Copper Effect
Salicylic acid (SA) is a growth regulator that enhances growth of plants under stress and non-stress
conditions.SONGÜL et al studied the role of salicylic acid in copper induced physiological and biochemical
changes and the possible induction of oxidative stress in detached cucumber cotyledons. They concluded that
fresh weight accumulation and the photosynthetic pigment content were decreased and the levels of some
important parameters regarding oxidative stress in the cotyledons, namely lipid peroxidation (MDA),
glutathione (GSH) and proline were increased (29).
CONCLUSION
Cucumissativus exhibited strong activities against a wide range of parameter which means that it contains
compounds which have broad spectrum of activity.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Authors are thankful to acknowledge all authors and their work included in review.
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2017.
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