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Morphogenetic process of an informal settlement on the hills of Delhi, India

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Informal settlements are generally referred to as 'unplanned' or 'spontaneous' settlements since the spatial organization and the urban design codes they follow are not easily discernible. In this paper, I argue that even though the settlement does not have a professional planner, it does not lack planning. To understand the socio-spatial and temporal dimensions, the research observes the morphological characteristics of the settlement by studying its formation process. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with different decision-makers of the settlement to understand the impact of their decisions on the form. Time-sequenced morphological maps were used to first trace the evolution of the street network, the built form and then investigate the socio-political and topographical factors that affect them. This paper analyses the conditions of the built environment and looks at the evidence of urban design decisions being made-the signs of plotting, the transformation of pedestrian tracks to vehicular streets, changes in the width of the streets and shifts in the area coverage during the growth of the settlement. The maps reveal that topography and access to the city is a key determinant of the form. The street network follows the existing pathways to negotiate the uneven terrain of an abandoned quarry landscape; and the buildings align themselves, first, to the streets that are closer to the city before spreading out and filling the gaps. The paper concludes by decoding the spatial patterns and the urban design codes that are implicated in this process. These informal codes are proscriptive in nature rather than prescriptive; hence the form does not have the high degree of uniformity that formal developments show. The settlement form results from a bottom-up organization based on interaction and negotiation between the different decision makers: state and non-state actors; their actions enabled and constrained within a socio-spatial context.
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MORPHOGENETIC PROCESS OF AN INFORMAL
SETTLEMENTONTHEHILLSOFDELHI,INDIA
ISHITACHATTERJEE
ArchitectureBuildingandPlanningFaculty,TheUniversityofMelbourne,Australia
Abstract
Informalsettlementsaregenerallyreferredtoas‘unplanned’or‘spontaneous’settlementssincethespatial
organizationandtheurbandesigncodestheyfollowarenoteasilydiscernible.Inthispaper,Iarguethat
eventhoughthesettlementdoesnothaveaprofessionalplanner,itdoesnotlackplanning.
Tounderstandthesocio‐spatialandtemporaldimensions,theresearchobservesthemorphological
characteristicsofthesettlementbystudyingitsformationprocess.Semi‐structuredinterviewswere
conductedwithdifferentdecision‐makersofthesettlementtounderstandtheimpactoftheirdecisionson
theform.Time‐sequencedmorphologicalmapswereusedtofirsttracetheevolutionofthestreetnetwork,
thebuiltformandtheninvestigatethesocio‐politicalandtopographicalfactorsthataffectthem.Thispaper
analysestheconditionsofthebuiltenvironmentandlooksattheevidenceofurbandesigndecisionsbeing
made–thesignsofplotting,thetransformationofpedestriantrackstovehicularstreets,changesinthe
widthofthestreetsandshiftsintheareacoverageduringthegrowthofthesettlement.
Themapsrevealthattopographyandaccesstothecityisakeydeterminantoftheform.Thestreetnetwork
followstheexistingpathwaystonegotiatetheuneventerrainofanabandonedquarrylandscape;andthe
buildingsalignthemselves,first,tothestreetsthatareclosertothecitybeforespreadingoutandfillingthe
gaps.Thepaperconcludesbydecodingthespatialpatternsandtheurbandesigncodesthatareimplicated
inthisprocess.Theseinformalcodesareproscriptiveinnatureratherthanprescriptive;hencetheformdoes
nothavethehighdegreeofuniformitythatformaldevelopmentsshow.Thesettlementformresultsfroma
bottom‐uporganizationbasedoninteractionandnegotiationbetweenthedifferentdecisionmakers:state
andnon‐stateactors;theiractionsenabledandconstrainedwithinasocio‐spatialcontext.
Keywords:morphogenesis;informalsettlements;informalcodes;bottom‐uporganisation
Introduction
Informalsettlementsendupbeingtheprimarymeansofansweringthedemandforaffordablehousingin
developingcountries.Researchonthecausesandpersistenceofthesesettlementshastaughtusthatthey
arenotatemporaryphenomenonbuthavebecomeapermanentcomponentofthecitiesoftheworld
(Auyero,2002).Animportantlessonlearntwasthatthesolutionsprovidedbyinformalsettlementswere
muchgreaterthanthecomplicationscreatedbythem(Turner,2011),andthesesettlementscan’tbe
managedasformalsettlements(Abbott,2002),makingitimperativetounderstandtheirincrementalgrowth
process.
Informalsettlementsaregenerallyreferredtoas‘unplanned’or‘spontaneous’settlementssincetheir
spatialorganizationandtheurbandesigncodestheyfollowarenoteasilydiscernible.Inthispaper,Iargue
thateventhoughthesettlementdoesnothaveaprofessionalplanner,itdoesnotlackplanning.
Methods
Thequestionsthatthisstudyseekstoanswerarewhatarethespatialconfigurationsandurbandesigncodes
thatarisefromthemorphogeneticprocesses?andwhatimpactdotheeconomic,political,social,
topographicalandgeographicfactorshaveonthemorphologyofthesettlements?Theresearchobserves
themorphologicalcharacteristicsofthesettlementbystudyingitsformationprocess.Semi‐structured
interviewswereconductedwithdifferentdecision‐makersofthesettlementtounderstandtheimpactof
theirdecisionsontheform.Time‐sequencedmorphologicalmapswereusedtofirsttracetheevolutionof
thestreetnetwork,thebuiltformandtheninvestigatethesocio‐politicalandtopographicalfactorsthat
affectthem.
Geographiccontext
Situatedattheperipheryoftwostates,DelhiandHaryana;nestledintheAravallimountainsandflankedby
mainroadsleadingtothecity,Khorigaonstayshiddenfromthecity’sgaze.Thetermgaonstandsfora
villageinHindiandepitomiseshowresidentsperceivetheirownhabitatbuttotherestofthecityitasan
informalsettlementandtosomeaslum.Thoughincloseproximitytothemainroads,ithaspoor
connectionstothemonallsides.Onecandrivepastallthemainroadsandcompletelymissthesettlement.
Infigure1.theredsquaremeasuring500mby500mrepresentsthefocusareaofthisstudy.
Figure1.Sitelocation&immediatecontext
Socio‐politicalcontext
TheAravallihillshavegonethroughamajortransformationinlanduseandownershipduetoeconomic,
socialandpoliticalchanges.Thisstretchofhillsgenerallyfellundervillagecommonlandoftheadjoining
villages.Twointerrelatedprocesseshavebeentakingplacesince1880(Chakravarty‐Kaul,1990).First,within
thevillage,thesubdivisionandprivatisationofthevillagecommonslandduetoeconomicpressuresand
populationgrowth.Second,duetorapidurbanisationandshiftingpoliticalandeconomicpolicies,the
transferofthenowprivatelandparceltoconstructioncompaniesandprivatedevelopers.TheDelhiridgeis
alsothequartzitetableoftheAravallirange;richinconstructionmaterialandmetal.Thehillsprovidedgood
qualitystoneballastandstonedust(Wadhawan&Ahmad,2010)hencethisareahasseensomeheavy
quarryingactivitybothlegalandillegal.Quarryingstartedherein1952andcontinuedrightuntil1992when
itwasfirstcheckedbytheSupremeCourtcitingworker’shealthissuesandecologicalissues(Talib,2010)
andin2004chartedacompliancerulefortheminingcompaniesforsustainablepractices.Thecourt’s
decisionpushedthequarryingactivityandwithitaconsiderablepopulationoftheworkerstotheoutskirts
ofDelhiintoHaryanawherethislawwasnotenforcedstringently.Eventually,in2009,therewasablanket
banonallquarryingactivityintheAravallisongroundsofenvironmentaldegradationwhichultimatelyput
anendtothisactivityandopenedthequarryinglandforotherpurposes.
On‐groundinvestigationrevealedthatthesettlementprocesswasnotacaseofthe‘silentencroachmentof
theordinary’(Bayat,1997)butinvolvedanexusoflanddeveloperscalled‘chiefs’andhissubordinates
knownas‘dealers’whooverseesellingofland.Thisgroupendsupbeingthekeyurbandesigndecision‐
makersofKhorigaon.Thefirstchiefwasanerstwhileownerofthegrazinglandandhisgangofdealerswere
residentsfromtheplottedsettlement.Afterthefirstchief’sdemise,newgroupshaveemerged,andtheir
timelineshadanimpactonthesettlementgrowthphases.Thiswillbetoucheduponlaterinthesection
titledmorphogenesis.
Thefirstresidentswerethequarryworkerswhohadsettledontheeastsideofthesettlementknownasold
Khorigaonin1992.Thesettlementthatfallswithinthestudyareaof500*500misknownasthenewKhori
gaonanditcameupafter2004(Refertofigure1).Formostoftheresidentshere,owningapropertyisa
lifetimegoal.Amajorityofthemhavecomeherefromdifferentunauthorizedcoloniesandjhuggijohpri
(squattersettlements)inDelhiandtheresthaveallmigratedfromneighbouringstatesofDelhi‐Rajasthan,
UttarPradeshandMadhyaPradesh.TheDelhiresidentshavecomeherewiththeintentionofowninga
pieceoflandinsteadofrentingandtherestforabetterlivelihood.Now,thedealer’sroleistoselltheplot
andthenthehouseisbuiltbytheresidentswiththehelpoflocalcarpenters,electricians,plumbers,and
masons.Alltheconstructionteammembersliveinclosevicinity–fewfromKhorigaonandtheplottedpart
andrestfromneighbouringvillages.Thenetworkofbuilders,dealersandchiefsendupcreatingahighly
controlledpoliticallandscapewhereencroachmentisdifficult.
Topography
ThenaturaltopographyofAravallihillsintheDelhiridgehadfeatureslikeridges,streamsandrivulets.
Mining,afforestationandlaterdeforestationhasalteredtheecologicalcharacterleadingtoexposureofthe
watertable.Whentheminershitthegroundwatertabletheywouldpumpthewateroutinordertodryout
thatareaandthencontinuemining.Afterquarryingwasbannedtheentirelandscapewasdottedwithdeep
pitsandloosestonedust.Thesepitshavebecomerainwatercollectionpointsandnewlakeshaveemerged
inthisarea.Thehillsnowexhibitanuneventerrainwithirregularslopes.
Thetopographymapof2002inFigure2showstheareasofsteepslopegradients,depressions,verticalrock
facesandridgelines.Thecontinuouslinesaretheplottedstreetsoftheneighbouringsettlementwhereas
thedottedlinesarethepathstakenbythequarryworkersduringmining.Infact,thesepathsarealsothe
ridgelinesoftheterrainsincethepathsusedbytheworkerswerethehighestpointsofthelandscape.The
greenareasarethesteepslopegradientsrunningdownonoppositesidesofthepath.Thetopographyalong
thisgreenbeltresemblestheformofabasin;asteepdropfromaflatsurface.Theorangecombsaretall
verticalrockfacesalsocalledascliffs.Thecomb’steethrepresentthedirectionofthefall.Thebluepatches
arethedepressionpits.Someofthedepressionsendupbeing15mdeep.Theblackareainthetopography
mapisacombinationofrelativelyshallowslopeandflatground.Duetoquarrying,theflatareasare
sometimespunctuatedbyabruptrises.Thegoogleearthimageof2017showchangesinthelandscapeon
accountofurbanisation.Comparisonof2002and2017googleearthimagesrevealthatmostoftheland
surfacegetsfilledduringthesettlementprocessleavingbehindthedeepdepressions,verticalrockfacesand
thesteepergradients.Thestateborder(showninyellow)whichexistsintheformofalowheightstonewall
intheforestareaandasametalfenceintheresidentialareacontainedthespreadandactedasabackdrop
forthephenomenon.
Figure2.Topographymap
Thefirstpartofthechapteroutlinedthesocio‐politicalandtopographicaldeterminantsofthesettlement’s
morphology.Thesefactorsaffectthemorphogenesisprocessbyeitherenablingorconstrainingcertain
possibilities.
Morphogenesis
ThisresearchreliesonGoogleearth’sdatabasefordeterminationofgrowthphasesofthesettlement.7
phaseshavebeenidentifiedandtheyarebasedonchangesinareacoverage,streetnetworkformationand
evidenceofurbandesigndecisionsbeingtaken.Thestudyareawhichstartsofasanabandonedquarrysite
in2002getstransformedintoanurbansettlementbytheendof2017(Refertofigure2).Figure3showsthe
incrementsofgrowthandtheformationofthesettlement.
Withinthe500*500mstudyarea,thebuiltformcovers7.44%oftheentiresiteandthestreetnetwork
2.09%in2002.Totalareaofoccupationis9.53%duringthisphase.Thecalculationofthepercentageof
streetnetworkdoesnotincludethepaths(pedestriantracksandquarrypaths).Theratioofbuiltformto
streetsisat3.6:1duringthisphase.Thebuiltformareaincreasesto10.98%andstreetsto3.35%bytheend
of2008.Settlementgrowthisslowwitha7.33%riseinareacoveragein4years.Thebuiltformtostreet
ratioisat3.3:1.Phase3seesanincreaseinsettlementspread.Thetotalareaofoccupationgrowsby8.91%
injust2years.Thebuiltformspreadsacross16.10%ofthesiteandthestreetnetworkaround5.58%.At
2.9:1builtfromvsstreetratio,thisphaseseesanincreaseinthespreadofstreetcoverage.Next,phase4
experiencesafastersettlementgrowthascomparedtotheearlierphases.Thebuiltfromincreasesto
23.52%andstreetnetworkto7.05%.Settlementspreadrisesby8.91%butinhalfthetimei.e.in1year.
Thereisaslightincreaseinthebuildingcoverageascomparedtostreetwiththeratioat3.34:1duringthis
phase.Phase5seesahugeaccelerationinbuildingactivitywithsettlementspreadjumpingto16.25%in
just11months.Buildingvsstreetratioisat3.1:1.Phase6marksthestartofthedensificationprocess.The
ratiochangesto3.7:1showingthatveryfewnewstreetsarebeingaddedduringthisstageandthereisan
increaseinthespreadofthebuildings.Thebuiltformcoveragereaches47.87%andthestreetcoverageisat
12.9%.Settlementspreadisslowat12.46%riseinalittlemorethan3years.Phase7seesfurther
densificationandstartoftheintensificationprocesswheremainstreetsarelinedbyshops,religious
institutions,communitycentresandfewmedicalfacilitiesbeingadded.Thegrowthofthesettlementin
termsofhorizontalareacoveragedropstremendously.Theriseisamere6.35%fromtheearlierphaseand
atagapof3years.Bothphases6and7experienceanincreaseinverticalgrowthmeaningmorefloorsare
addedtotheexistingbuildingsascomparedtonewbuildingsbeingbuilt.Attheendofphase7,the
settlementcoverageisat67.73%,whichis58.2%morethanphase1.Theratioofbuildingstostreetsduring
phase7isat4:1,thisshowsthatasKhorigaonbecomesolderthepercentageofnewstreetsbeingadded
reducesandthebuildingdensityincreases.
Figure3.Phasesofgrowth
Thenextsectionswillunpacktheprocessofgrowth.
Iwillstartbydistinguishingbetweentwotypesofaccess.Theroutesthatformpartofasettlementandare
usedforaccessingbuildingentranceswillbecalledstreetsandtheroutesthatdonotseemtoleadtoany
builtformwillbereferredtoaspaths.Thequarrypathsandpedestriantracksfallinthiscategory.This
separationisnecessarytounderstandthesequenceofemergenceofthesettlement’sbuilt‐formandstreet
network.
Phase1:May2002
Theplottedsettlementtothenorthofthestateborderhadalreadydevelopedintoamixed‐use
neighbourhoodby2002.Themainstreetspinerunningintheeast‐westdirectionfollowingthedirectionof
theborderbecomesthemarketstreet.Thejunctionisthemostactivenodeinthisarea.ThelandonKhori
gaon’sside,southoftheborder,showstracesofapost‐industriallandscapewithevidenceofthestartof
habitation.Fewhousesarespreadalongtheborderedgeclosetothenode.Thepathstakenbythequarry
workersrunningnorth‐southarevisible.Duringthisphase,theearlierT‐junctionnodestartstotransform
intoanintersectionwithpathsleadingtowardsthemainspineofthequarrylandscape.Themetalfence
borderrepresentedasayellowsolidlineandthelakeclosetoitconstrainscertainformsofhabitation;the
symbolicvalueoftheborderdeterredresidentsfromattachingtheirhousestoitsedgesandthetopography,
inthiscase,thedepressionalsogetsleftout.Whereasthestreetnetworkenabledthespreadingoutofthe
housesalongitsreach,givingrisetonewconnectingstreets.Interestingly,allthestreetsthatextendfrom
theplottedpartandbeyondthewallstartofas2‐3mwide,narrowerthantheplottedstreets.
Figure4.Phase1,Googleearthsatelliteimage:May2002.
ThefirsthousesinKhorigaonseemtohavedevelopedthrougharoombyroomaccretionprocess.Thereis
noevidenceofplotting.Thisphasestaysstableuntiltheendof2004.Sincethegoogleearthdatabasestarts
from2002onwardsitisnotpossibletojudgehowlongthisphaselasted.
<Code1>‘stayawayfromterritorialborder’
<Code2>‘buildonflattestland’
<Code3>‘buildclosetoothersettlements’
<Code4>‘buildclosetoexistingaccess’
<Code5>‘extendtheaccessnetwork’
Thestreetsprecedethebuiltformduringthisphase.Evidenceinfigure4.
Phase2:May2002–January2008
Figure5.Phase2,Googleearthsatelliteimage:January2008.
ThestartofthenextphasecoincideswiththeSupremecourt’soutliningofstrictmeasuresforcontrolling
miningactivityintheAravallisin2004.Ithadtheeffectofconvincingthedeveloperaka‘chief’,thatthisland
hadnofutureinminingandhencehestartssellingplotsalongtheaccessroutebasedonthedemandfor
housing.Duringthisphase,thesettlementdisplaysthetendencytoadheretoanalreadyexistingedge.The
firstrowofhousesdevelopshuggingtheborderwhichactsasamargin.Therestlineupalongtheedgeof
thepre‐existingquarrypaths.ThemainquarrypathstartstodevelopasthespineforKhorigaon.Thezone
betweentheborderandKhorigaon’smainspinegetslinedbybuildingsfirst.Thisisbecausethesestreets
aretheonlyconnectiontotheplottedpart’sstreetnetwork,makingthesethemainentrypointstoKhori
gaon.Next,thezonesouthofKhorigaon’sspinestartstofillup.Asimilarpatternisnoticedheretoo.The
housesaligntothepre‐existingedgeandtheyclusteraroundotherhouses.
Oncethezoneclosesttotheplottedsettlementgetlinedbyhousestheninnextzonebelow,theflattest
areasgetfilledfirst.Eventhoughplotsarebeingmarkedoutalongthemainspinetheydon’tgetbuiltvery
quickly,sincethespinewhichusedtobethemainquarrypathhasverysteepslopesatitsedge.Thestreets
runningnorth‐southareremnantsofthequarry’sprincipalnetworkofaccess;thesebeingatahigherlevel.
Newlateralstreetsperpendiculartotheseemergewhereveritiseasiertonegotiatethetopography.The
endsofthesestreetstopattheedgeoftheverticalrockface.Googleearthimageof2008showslargeplots
beingstakedouttowardstheeastofthesettlement(refertoFigure5).Theplotsaremostlycontiguous
thoughsomeendupliningfarawayfromtheexistingsettlements.Topographyplaysakeyroleinthisphase.
Thedeeppitswhichgetfilledwithwaterareleftuntouched.Becauseofthequarriedlandscape,thesedeep
pitsendupbeinginthecentresurroundedbyaringofplotsalignedtostreets.Theplotsallfacetheirbacks
tothesecentres.
Now,theshiftinthetreatmentoftheborderwallduringthisphasehintsatachangeintheformofcontrol
betweenphase1and2.Theearlierphasedisplayedaninclinationtowardsinvisibilitybystayingawayfrom
theterritorialmarkerwhereasthisphasedemonstratesconfidenceinapproachingthewall.Eventhe
emergenceoftheploteitheralongwiththebuildingsorinmostcasesbeforethebuildingisbuiltisa
testimonytoacontrolleddecision‐makingprocessalbeitaninformalonesincethetopographydictatesthe
alignmentofstreetsratherthantheotherwayaround.Basedontheevidence,thelikelihoodofKhorigaon
beingformedthroughaself‐organisedprocessduringthefirstphaseishigh.So,code1disappearsinthis
phasebuttheotherscontinuetooperatewiththeadditionoffew.
<Code6>‘backtobackplots’
<Code7>‘addlateralstolongstreets’
InterestinglyfewoftheplotsthatdonotfollowCode3&4disappearinthenextphase.Tosummarise–the
streetsprecedethebuiltforminmostcases.Inveryfewoccasionsthestreetandthebuiltformco‐evolve
thoughinallcasestheedge(territorialmarkers)camebeforethebuilding.Housescomeupinclustersandin
closeproximitytoeachother.
Phase3:May2008–2010
Figure6.Phase3,Googleearthsatelliteimage:January2010.
Thesettlementcontinuesthepathdependentgrowthandthequarrypathwaysareconvertedtostreets
withhousesonboththesides.Thisphasewitnessesdiscontinuousplotseriesbuttheyarealwayslinedup
againstthepathedgeandincloseproximitytoeachother.Newpathsintheformoflateralstreetsemerge
whicharenotoverlaidonsurvivingquarrytraces.Someofthesenewstreetsarecreatedtofillupthearea
betweenthelongnorth‐southstreetsandenablethelayingofplotsintheeast‐westdirection.Fewothers
eitherconnectnearbystreetsorextendtoclosetheloopandformurbanblocks.
Amajortransformationhappensinthestreetnetworkduringthisphase.TheearliermainspineofKhori
gaonisdisconnectedattheintersectionwherethenorth‐southstreetturnseast,closetotheborder(refer
toFigure6).Thisdisjunctaltersthecompositionandcreatesadifferentstreetpatternhierarchy.Thishasan
impactonthesettlementformtoo.Thesettlementstartstoexpandinthisdirectioninthesouth‐west
direction.
Dimensionsofthelateralstreetsperpendiculartolongstreetsseemtobeaderivativeoftheplottedstreets
oftheneighbouringsettlement.Thewidthoftheplots24m,beingconsistentinallthecases.Theinterviews
revealedthatthiswasdoneinanticipationofregularisation.Theurbanformoftheneighbouringformally
recognisedsettlementbecamethebenchmarkforthissettlement.Wheneverthelateralstreetdeviates
fromthismeasurementitisbecauseofconstraintsoftopography;thepresenceofadeeppitorverticalrock
faces.Mostofthestreetsduringthisphasewerealreadyexistingquarrypathswhichincidentallyarealso
themostefficientwaytonegotiatetheterritory.Fewstreetsgetstraightenedouttowardsthesouthend
andleavethequarrypathtrace.Moreurbanblocksemergeinthisphasethoughtheyenduphavinghollow
centresonaccountoftheterrain;deeppitsandverticalrockfaces.
Thenewcodesthattendtoemergeduringthisphaseare‐
<Code8>‘mimicgridsofnearbyformallayoutwheneverpossible’
<Code9>‘breaklongstreetsbycreatingperpendicularconnections’
<Code10>‘alignstreetsattheedgeofsteepslopes’
<Code11>‘climbsteepslopesattheeasiestplace’
Phase4:January2010–January2011
Figure7.Phase4,Googleearthsatelliteimage:January2011.
Inthisphase,thestreetnetworktothesouth‐weststartstostabilisewithslightchanges.Acoupleof
secondarystreetsgetaddedandfewgetstraightened.Allthenorth‐southstreetsextendtowardsthesouth
directionataslowpace.Thewestside,ontheotherhand,transformsatafastpace.Multiplelateralsare
addedtothelongnorth‐southstreet.Atthesametime,streetsareaddedparalleltothislongstreet
connectingthelateralseventuallyformingagrid.Thebuiltformrevealsadifferentprocessofplottingis
takingplaceduringthisphaseascomparedtotheearlierphases.Thegridstreetpatternisanewlanguage
thatisbeingaddedtothesettlement.Discussionswiththedifferentactorsrevealedthatbetween2010and
2011therewasachangeincontroloftheland.Thedemiseofthefirstsolechiefpavedthewayforthe
emergenceofmanyotherchiefs.Itwasnotpossibletodeterminehowmanygroupswereoperatingwithin
thisareaatthistimebuttheplotdimensionsandthegrid‐likepatternofthenewstreetsdisplayedamarket‐
drivenpatternbeingimposedontothesite.Basedontheplottingpracticesthatwerebeingcarriedoutin
neighbouringareasthenewchiefsstartedprovidingstreetsafterevery18m.Thiscodeisapparentinthe
westsideofthesettlement.
<Code12>‘urbanblocksof18meters’
<Code13>‘creategridswhereverpossible’
Phase5:January2011–December2011
Thesettlementprocessgainsmomentumbetweenphase4and5tremendously.
Duringphase5,mostoftheoldquarrypathsgetstraightenedandlinedwithplotsandbuildings.Thebackto
backplotcodeisfollowedinamajorityofthecases.Apermutationofthe18murbanblockcodehasbeen
followedinveryfewplaces,thetopographyisamajorconstraintintherestofthecaseswhenithasnot
beenfollowed.Allthemainstreets,whicharealsothewideststreetshavebeenbuiltuponpreviousquarry
paths.Mostofthelateralconnectionsarefreshlyaddedstreetswithoutanyprevioustraces.Thecode
relatedtogrid‐likestreetpatternispursuedthoughwithintheconstraintsoftheterrain.Refertofigure8.
<Code14>‘straightenstreetswhereverpossible’
Figure8.Phase5,Googleearthsatelliteimage:December2011.
Phase6:December2011–February2014
Figure9.Phase6,Googleearthsatelliteimage:February2014
Thisphasewitnessesaslowingdowninthecreationofnewstreetsbutanincreaseinthedensificationof
buildingsandplotswithinthealreadylaidoutstreetnetwork.Thenewstreetswhenevertheyareadded,
endupconnectingneighbouringstreetnetworkstoclosetheloop.Figure9showsthatmanyofthe
depressionsarefilledbarringthedeepestpits.Thisstageseestheemergenceofamixed‐use
neighbourhood,withshopsbeingopenedonthestreetsreceivingthemostfoot‐fall.Multiplereligiousand
communitybuildingscomeupindifferentpartsofthesettlement.Thelocationofthereligiousinstitutesis
connectedwiththepresenceofamajorityofpeoplefromacertaincommunityinthatarea.
<Code15>‘extendandconnecttonearbystreetnetwork’
<Code16>‘completetheloop’
<Code17>‘openashoponthegroundflooralongawell‐connectedstreet’
<Code18>‘buildareligiousbuildingwiththehelpoftheneighbours’
Thisphasealsostartstoseeagrowthintheverticaldirectionwithfloorsbeingaddedtotheolderbuildings.
Someoftheearlierhousesendupreaching3floorheightswhiletheneweronesremainonestoreyhighfor
alongtime.
Figure7.February2014–March2017
Figure10.Phase7,Googleearthsatelliteimage:March2017
Asdensificationcontinuesfrom2014,fewstreetsareadded,somegetblocked,somegetnarrowwhilefew
‘short‐cut’streetsarecreatedacrossleft‐overareas–possiblyvegetationorgarbagedumpsearlier.In
additiontothedefinedstreetscreatedduringsubdivisionofplots,thesettlementhasmany‘shortcut
streets’.Thesearenotconsideredastrespassingbuthaveemergedduetothepracticalneedforpedestrian
accessandconnectivitywheneverashorterroutewaspossible.
Duringthisphase,theleft‐overgapswithintheurbanblocksthatwereleftemptyduetouneventerrain
startstogetfilledin.Withinindividualplots,thehousesbecomehigherandbiggerinsize.
<Code19>‘takeshort‐cutsifthelandisunoccupied’
<Code20>‘fillinthegapsleftbehind’
Morphology
Thehousesarecontiguousandalwaysbuiltofbrick.Thechiefandhisgangmembershaveastrongcontrol
overwhoisbuildingandwhatisbeingbuilt.Theuseofbrickasthestartingmaterialreflectsthiscontrol.
Mostoftheolderhouseshavecourtyardsandopenspaceswithintheplots.Inthecaseofhousesbeside
naturalterrainthatisnotsuitableforconstruction,theresidentshavefencedcertainpartsoftheforestor
rockformations.Thesettlementdisplaysvaryingdensitiesindifferentpartsdependingontheageofthe
buildings.Theplotsizesvarybasedontheresident’spurchasingpoweraswellasthetopographical
constraint.Thelackofregularityintheplotsizesisalsoduetothedifferentgangsthatwereoperatinginthis
area,eachhavingtheirownmethodofsubdivisionofplots.
Discussion
ThemorphogeneticprocessofKhorigaondisplaysahighlevelofcontextualresponse;builtbytheusers
usingthelimitedchoicesavailableanddemonstratingresourcefuloutcomes(Rapoport,1988).Thespatial
configurationisanoutcomeofthedifferentdesiresofthestakeholdersinvolvedandthechangesinthe
powerrelations.Thefirst4phasesdisplayedagradualprocessofsettlementwhereasthedevelopment
speedandspreadtrebledbetween2011–2014duringthelaterphasesreflectingnewformsofcontroland
competition.
Themapsrevealthattopographyandaccesstothecityisakeydeterminantoftheform.Thestreetnetwork
followstheexistingpathwaystonegotiatetheuneventerrainoftheabandonedquarrylandscape;andthe
buildingsalignthemselves,first,tothestreetsthatareclosertothecitybeforespreadingoutandfillingthe
gaps.Arecurringpatternisseeninallthephaseswhenitcomestothesequenceofsettlementformation–
thewell‐connectedstreetsgetlinedbyplotsfirst
amongthesetheeasiertonegotiatestreetsgetfilledwithbuildings
therestofthestreetsseesplotseriesliningwhereverpossibleandleavingpatchesofunbuildable
areasempty
streetsremainopen‐endedduringtheearlyphases
lateralstreetscomeuptoincreasecapacityandbuildalongtheotheraxisofthelongstreets
longerroutesarejoinedtocreateloopsandincreaseconnectivity
buildingsandplotsthenfillupthegapsleftbehindduringtheplottingprocess
Thedegreetowhichthesestepsarefollowedorskippedisdictatedbytheterrain.Thoughthereisan
informalformofcontrolbythechiefandhisteamofdealerstheyareallconstraintbytopographywhich
seemstobetheprimarydeterminantofformallalong.
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Book
This book focuses on labour located beyond the expanding rim of south Delhi and beneath the radar of effective law and policy. Building upon the personal narratives of the people who constitute this labouring class, this study also attempts to record their dwindling oral tradition. This monograph brings to the fore the dynamics of their survival against the wider sphere of India's working class. It offers novel ways of entering the inner world of these masses to interpret their symbolism and significance in the informal economy. It questions the view that these people are passive objects and instead tries to portray them as active negotiators of their own circumstances, however dismal. This book is crucial to the current debates about labour and development studies. It draws public attention to this section of humanity whose story of social exclusion and struggle for survival is rarely heard amidst the counter narratives on the boom in the formal globalized economy.
Article
This paper provides a review of different approaches to informal settlement upgrading. It begins by showing how linking informal settlement upgrading and sites and service provision as twin approaches to development led firstly to a situation where the former was situated within a particular development paradigm and then to an ideological divide between externally driven and community-supported upgrading initiatives. After a review of existing literature on the subject, the paper argues that the origin of the intervention is less important than substantiation of the results of the intervention. It then identifies three “thematic approaches” that can be shown to have a substantive track record in upgrading. These are the progressive improvement model of physical infrastructure provision, community microplanning and physical transformation through an holistic plan (“plano global” in Portuguese). These three thematic approaches are reviewed comparatively, and their strengths and weaknesses analysed.
Two Centuries of Change on the Commons: Twenty Villages in the Delhi Region
  • M Chakravarty-Kaul
Chakravarty-Kaul, M., 1990. Two Centuries of Change on the Commons: Twenty Villages in the Delhi Region. In Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis.
Spontaneous settlements as vernacular design. Spontaneous shelter: International perspectives and prospects
  • A Rapoport
Rapoport, A., 1988. Spontaneous settlements as vernacular design. Spontaneous shelter: International perspectives and prospects, pp.51-77.
Changes in Land use Pattern due to Mining in Faridabad (Haryana)
  • M Wadhawan
  • S Ahmad
Wadhawan, M., & Ahmad, S. 2010. Changes in Land use Pattern due to Mining in Faridabad (Haryana).