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NZMS: New Zealand Mapping Service

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NZMS: New Zealand Mapping Service

Abstract

In 1935 driven by the war and fear of invasion, the Department of Lands and Surveys (DLS) began planning for a national inch-to-mile topographical map series of Aotearoa New Zealand; the NZMS 1 1:63360 series. This paper explores the design aspects of the series.
NZMS
NEW ZEALAND MAPPING SERVICE
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NZMS. New Zealand Mapping Service.
Preprint edition.
Copyright © Wayne Shih. 2018.
DOI: —
wayne@whiteclie.ac.nz
All rights reserved. No part of this publication
may be reproduced or transmitted in any forms
or by any means without permission in writing
from the publisher.
Typeset in Gill Sans Nova originally designed
by George Ryan & Eric Gill, with macron
modications by Kay Tasma.
Proof read by Ethan Coombridge.
Published by Wayne Shih, 2018.
Printed and bound in Tāmaki Makaurau.
Abbreviations of image reference sources
(reference numbers with brackets represent the author has digitised the image from the physical item)
ANZ Archives New Zealand Te Rua Mahara o te Kāwanatanga
ATL Alexander Turnbull Librar y of NLNZ Te Wharepukapuka o Alexander Turnbull
BM British Museum
GDH Geospatial Data Repository (GeoDataHub) Database via UOA
GRI Getty Research Institute via Internet Archive
MNZ Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
NLNZ National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
SLUB Sächsische Landesbibliothek – Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden Saxon State and University Library Dresden
RL Retrolens Historic Image Resource of Land Information New Zealand Toitū Te Whenua & Otago Regional Council
TA Taschen Online-Archiv Taschen Archive
UOA University of Auckland Libraries and Leaning Ser vices Te Tumu Herenga o Te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki Makaurau
UOW University of Waikato Library Te Whare Pukapuka o Te Whare Wānanga o Waikato
WCL Wellington City LibrariesTe Matapihi Ki Te Ao Nui
WPL Whiteclie College of Arts & Design Parkyn Library Te Whare Pukapuka o Te Whare Takiura o Wikiriwhi
Introduction 7
Development 19
Printing 73
Lettering 89
Digitised Type 113
Type Evolution 131
5
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Department of Lands & Survey crest
1876 – 1987
Earlier versions of the crest included shading on the garter that
encircled the shrubs. Shadings were only drawn in the part where the
end is tucked under and looped in to give a more three-dimensional
look. This however, when printed small (the crest on NZMS 1 maps
were around 15×25mm), created a unbalanced heavy black area on
the lower half of the crest. Earlier versions also had a more complex
crown and shrub which did not reproduce well. Over the years—till
the late 1970s), it was rened to what is shown above.
INTRODUCTION
In 1935 driven by the war and fear of invasion1, the Department of Lands and
Surveys2 (DLS) began planning for a national inch-to-mile topographical map
series of Aotearoa New Zealand; the NZMS 1 1:63360 series. The rst sheet
published was Napier3, completed in 1939. During the 1940s, 160 provisional
sheets4 were published, this was before any uniform standards or specications
were agreed upon, and was known to be the rst national cartography
program.5 NZMS 1 series ended in 1987 with its last two limited revision maps
of Stuart and Heath6.
NZMS, short for New Zealand Mapping Service, adopted an index
numbering system based on the British War Oce’s Geographical Section of the
General Sta (e.g.: GSGS 4275). Maps and charts published by the Department
of Lands and Survey were assigned a NZMS series number. The series included
published maps by the department for public consumption; some forestry
maps drawn by the department for New Zealand Forest Service7; classied
Ministry of Defence Manatū Kaupapa Waonga maps8; and a small number of the
department’s internal forms and manuals.9
1 Drake, B. (1983, 2011). The 1:50 000 Topographical Map Series. In G. Jupp (Ed.), NZMS 260
and 262: Our metric topographical heritage (Vol. 1, pp. 29 – 32). Auckland, NZ: New Zealand
Cartographic Society – CartoPRESS. p. 12
2 now known as Land Information New Zealand Toitū Te Whenua
3 NZMS 1 N143 1943
4 mainly along the coastlines
5 Blick, G . (2009). New 1:50 000 National Map Series for New Zealand. Survey Quarterly(58),
26 – 29. Wellington, NZ: Land Information New Zealand Toitū Te Whenua. p. 26
6 NZMS 1 S130 Ed.2 1987 & NZMS 1 S157 Ed.2 1987
7 New Zealand Forest Service (abolished in 1987, which created the Department of Conservation
Te Papa Atawhai & Ministry of Agriculture and Forestr y Te Manatu Ahuwhenua, Ngāherehere
(now, Ministr y for Primary Industries Manatū Ahu Matua)) also had its own map index series
starting with NZFS
8 usually overprinted on existing civilian counterpart maps to provide additional information;
such as, RNZAF Aeronautical Char t (NZMS 19F Sht.3 1975 vs NZMS 19E Sht.3 1973) and
zone boundaries of Waiouru Military Training Area (NZ MS 317)
9 University of Auckland Te Whare Wānaga o Tāmaki Makauru. (2016, November). GD Info
Sheet: New Zealand Mapping Service series. Retrieved from https://gdh.auckland.ac.nz/web/
docs/NZMS_series.pdf p.1
7
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Extract of NZMS 1 Houhora N6
1950
NZMS 1 was never formally designed and had gradually evolved during its 40-
year time period.10 During the period, it had ve distinct styles, each derived
through technological limitation and advances in printing and the graphical design
style during the time.
Topographical surveys had been long part of surveyors’ work, and the Department
of Lands and Survey had rst issued topographical maps in 1884. However,
these were done by manually sketching in the topographical detail, which was
time-consuming and could be inaccurate. By the 1930s advances in aerial
photography and photogrammetry11 allowed the department to begin a national
series of highly accurate topographical maps.12
Aerial photography was a major development in modern surveying and
cartographic history. Land that used to have taken surveyors weeks or even
months, to survey what could be photographed from above in days. These
photographs once corrected to remove distortions—camera angles, lens
distortion—were turned into maps.13
10 Balm, D. (2011). In Order to Make a Good Impression: Printing 260 series topographic maps,
1976 – 1984. In G. Jupp (Ed.), NZMS 260 and 262: Our metric topographical heritage (Vol. 1,
pp. 29 – 32). Auckland, NZ: New Zealand Cartographic Society – CartoPRESS. p. 30
11 photogrammetry involved looking at two overlapping aerial images through a stereoscope
providing a three-dimensional view of the land, thus making it easier to trace contour lines
over the image
12 Lovell-Smith, M. (2008, November). Modern Mapping and Surveying. Wellington,
NZ: Te Ara. Retrieved from: https://teara.gov t.nz/en/modern-mapping-and-surveying
13 Lovell-Smith, M. (20 08, November).
DEVELOPMENT
19
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Government Printing Oce brandmark
1864 – 1990
PRINTING
The Government Printer14 printed all ocial publications, this included maps
produced by DLS. Printing maps was a demanding task requiring the highest
standard of registration and colour control. DLS maintained a close relationship
with the Government Printer and in eect provided the quality control for map
printing. Colours had to be proofed by Lands and Survey sta before the print
run started.15
NZMS 1 utilised seven spot colours for printing its series—Black, Topo
Blue16 (coastline, streams, and water features), Map Light Blue (water areas),
Burnt Sienna (contour), Orange (road), Green (vegetation), and Purple (grid,
notes).
Oset photo-lithography was used to print the maps.17 This technology
is known to be the plantographic process, the printed image is not raised
above the surface of the plate like the letterpress relief printing, nor is it sunk
below the surface of the plate, which are usually etched into the plate, like
intaglio printing; but remains on the surface of the plate. Lithography is done
on principle that oil and water are mutually repellent. Ink is applied to grease-
treated printing areas, while non-printing areas absorb and hold water, thus
rejecting the ink. Oset uses metal plates, usually made of zinc or aluminium,
rather than stone which are more commonly used in lithography during the
time. The advantage being that the metal plates can be wrapped around a
cylinder onto the print press, thus enabling it to be printed by rotary methods.
The printing plates for oset photo-lithography are made using photographic
processes. The exposed metal plates which were given a light-sensitive coating,
undergoes various treatments—developing, washing, etching, etc.—before being
press ready.18
Each spot colour required its own plate, thus NZMS 1 had a total
of seven (six for provisional editions) plates. Registration19 was crucial in
the printing process. The plates all together are collectively known as a
reproduction material or “repromat”.
14 ocially known as the Government Printing Oce
15 Balm, D. (2011). pp. 22 – 30
16 Topo Blue was not present in provisional map series; black was used instead
17 Balm, D. (2011). pp. 22 – 30
18 Bibliographisches Institut. (1963, 1967). How Things Work: An illustrated encyclopedia of
technologies (C. Van Amerongen, Trans.). London, England: Heron Books. p. 418
19 alignment of the printing plates
73
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Extract from Ordnance Plate 1 of monogram drawn
by W. G. Harding showing relative proportions
The Unit is a Circle or Square. The Round letters ‘O’ &c.[e tc .] are
circular. The Narrow ‘S’ is based on two circles. The Narrow ‘E’ &c.
are based on two squares. Note: The Circle & Square are the Parent
forms of pattern & design systems.”
LETTERING
Lettering has been very much neglected, and for a very long time
cartographers have been contented to follow the conventions of the trade
map-engravers, and yet the subject is one of great importance, for apart
altogether from artistic considerations, the legibility and therefore the practical
value of a map largely depends upon the writing used. Cartography, like every
other craft, is based on tradition, and in order to improve the style of modern
maps it is necessary to know something of the past history of the conventions
we use. A careful study of the history and evolution of map making will repay
every cartographer: it is because such study has been neglected that the
productions to-day are as poor as they are.20
The rst lettering plate was designed by Ellis Martin in 1930 for the Ordnance
Survey Oce in England. W. G. Harding, then of DLS Head Oce—whose
strong interest in this new movement and belief of having a consistent lettering
style across the Department—was responsible for inuencing the adoption of
the British plates in the ocial New Zealand maps and plans. Prior to 1930,
lettering styles were left at the discretion of each individual draughtsman.
Two lettering viewpoints were also considered—built-up lettering and single
stroke freehand lettering. Built-up lettering involved the outline of the letter
constructed, lined, and lled. Both viewpoints were in use; freehand was mostly
used in plans and drafts, and built-up was used for more formal works.21
NZMS 212 Lettering Plates were published by DLS in 1962 as an internal
manual guiding their draughtsmen on the department’s standardised letter sets.
Roman Capitals (Plate 12)22
It will be seen that the traditional proportions have been restored: during the
19th century, the tendency was to make letters the same width, with the
height varying according to the individual fancy of a multitude of “authorities”
but Leonardo and Durer and the medieval type designers are safer guides to
follow. They went for inspiration to the incised inscriptions in the Forum at
Rome, and are united in accepting the 2000 year old lettering on the Trojan23
column as the foundation head and ancestral type from which all western
alphabets derive. The narrow S (based on two circles) and the wide O, M
and W (based on a circle or square and thus standardising the proportions of
height and width) together with a hundred more subtle points, all make for
legibility. The serifs gave distinctive form to each letter without being obtrusive.
There is no violent contrast between the up and the down strokes, and the
former are strong enough to be easily seen at a distance. The spaces within
the letters are well designed. In a good alphabet there will always be beautiful
shapes contained by harmoniously disposed curves; abrupt angles are avoided,
and the containing lines ow smoothly into one another.
Roman Lower Case (Plate 13)
This is based on natural pen strokes of the reed-pen. An eort of lightness
and grace is obtained by the natural tapering of the strokes to a point instead
of the violent change from the thick downstroke to a hairline. Care has been
20 Withycombe, J. G. (1929, May). Lettering on Maps: A paper read at the afternoon meeting
of the Society on 12 November 1928 by Capt. J. G. Withycombe. The Geographical Journal,
73(5), 429-435. doi:10.2307/1784644 p. 429
21 Department of Lands and Survey. (1962). Lettering Plates: Nos. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 (1 ed.)
NZMS 212. Wellington, New Zealand: Government Printer – R. E. Owen. pp. 3 – 4
22 replica of the former Plate 7 which was arranged and drawn by A. J. Reid in 1946, it also
included Old Style Roman Text & Italic, Roman & Italic Numerals (Plate 13 in the ‘62 manual)
23 [sic] Trajan’s Column
89
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taken to keep the enclosed spaces simple and strong in shape so as to
avoid clogging.
The Italic Alphabet (Plate 13)
This is based on the traditional Italic alphabets but adapted to our special
requirements. The early Italic letters are narrow and though very beautiful
are apt to lack legibility on the map and clog up in reproduction. These letters
are rounder, more legible and have no hair lines. The distinctive form of the
G and some other letters has been restored and the letters are nished with
a stronger tapering stroke which will photograph and reproduce well instead
of which with the curving copperplate hairline characteristics. The Italic capitals
provide another distinctive alphabet having the same characteristics as the
Roman capitals.
Numerals
These are based on the natural strokes of the reed-pen and consequently
harmonise with the alphabets.
Roman—Bold Open (Plate 14)
This is based on an alphabet designed by Albrecht Durer, but it has been made
bolder than the original in order to serve as a special purpose alphabet It will
be suitable for Interior titles on Survey District maps. This open Durer and Gill
are preferably executed with mechanical aids such as drawing pen, parallel
ruler, etc.
Gill Sans (Plate 15)
This popular alphabet was designed by Eric Gill. The intention was to apply
the classic proportions to the sans-serif letter and so provide an alternative
to “modern” block or “Egyptian”, and moreover one that will harmonize better
with the Roman styles. This alphabet is suitable for road and street names,
and for many other purposes where Egyptian was hitherto used.
Freely written styles (Plate 16)
Plate 16 was designed to illustrate the alphabetical styles advocated by the
Royal Geographic Society for use on blocks in the text of the Society’s Journal
and for similar lithographed maps. This style is freely written with a broad nib.
It has rapidity of execution, legibility and beauty of appearance. Drawn with
rounded pens it is particularly suitable for all tracing and many of the plans
produced by this Department. Care should be taken not to make this style
too “arty-crafty”.
Ellis Martin was best known for his series of illustrations used on the
covers of Ordnance Survey maps in the 1920s and 1930s. It is less well-known
that he also developed the lettering used on both maps and advertising for the
British Ordnance Survey (OS).24
During the early 1920s, Capt. John Gidley Withycombe and Ellis Martin
began to experiment with the design of a new alphabet for the projected new
edition of OS’s one-inch map. In 1928, Withycombe read a paper at the Royal
Geographic Society on “Lettering on Maps”.25 In this paper, Withycombe traced
our modern day alphabets to the Roman Classical times which were thought to
be brought to perfection. The letters were designed to be carved into stones.
It was also known that the Renaissance artists 26 and craftsmen reverted to the
Roman inscriptions as their models.27
24 Mikeyashworth. (2009, November). Letting by Ellis Martin. Retrieved from https://www.ickr.
com /phot os /368 4428 8@N 0 0/4141662748/in/album-72157620733 079997/
25 Hinks, A. R. (1944). Maps and Survey (5 ed.). London, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 48
26 Leonardo da Vinci and Dürer carefully designed alphabets based on the classic letters, and
type designers who followed them also worked along the same route
27 Withycombe, J. G. (1929, May). p. 429
The lettering on earlier OS engraved maps are very ne. Even though the
style had altered through time, senior cartographers still retained the spirit of
earlier lettering styles and having their own freedom of what style to utilise.
The introduction of lithography made a tremendous change in cartography. Up
until the nineteenth century the only medium for printing maps was engraved
copper plate. The plate itself was printed directly, thus creating a ne result;
the downside however was the time it took.28 Lithography sped up the process
tremendously, but it also meant giving up on the ner results. The prints had a
less satisfactory result compared to the copper plates—textured surface tended
to break up the ne lines, the negative counter forms of the letters were likely
to ll up during the printing. However, these new printing limitations meant the
development and inuence of the new OS alphabets.
Withycombe also noted in the paper the aims him and Martin were trying
to achieve when designing the letter set:29
1. Legibility.
The letters must not only be legible when standing alone but also when
superimposed upon the detail of a map.
2. Suitability for reproduction by the photographic process
which is to be used.
The names should not need retouching on the negative, should go down
easily on to the zinc plate, and should be free from any tendency to clog
and thicken in rolling up.
3. Good style and intrinsic decorative qualities.
The style of the lettering on a map should be as good as that exhibited
by the best founts of type in use by book printers. As legibility is one of
the characteristics of every really good alphabet, the rst aim will be
attained if really good style is achieved.
4. Distinction and contrast.
Certain classes of names should be clearly distinguished and the
dierent types of alphabets used and their gauge and spacing should
achieve this.
5. Harmony of eect.
The alphabets appearing on any one map should harmonize with each
other, with the detail of the map, and with the lettering and gures
used in the margin for the title, imprints, references, and so on. This is a
point which has been almost forgotten altogether. The more styles and
sizes of writing that can be crammed on to a sheet the better pleased
the designers seem to have been. The use of heavy block letters (known
as Egyptian, but who knows why?)—and various other sans serif or
grotesque characters, and even the sacred stump itself side by side with
Roman, is bound to destroy the general eect and style of a map.
28 Withycombe, J. G. (1929, May). p. 431
29 Withycombe, J. G. (1929, May). p. 432
9190
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American Type Founders Company brandmark
1892 – 1993
American Type Founders (ATF) was formed as a consolidation of 23 of
the most prominent independent type foundries in the United States.
Together, these foundries had dominated American typesetting.
In 1923, ATF issued its most ambitious type specimen book, the
company was touting its pre-eminence in vir tually every aspect of
printing and type founding. The introductory text in the weighty
specimen—as the text explains—gave printers a systematic way of
choosing types that would work well together and have more impact
in advertising than an assortment of unrelated types. The use of
type families was promoted as a source of not only beauty but also
eciency in the design and production of printed matter.
TYPE EVOLUTIONS
Innovations provoked radical changes in typography and printing, which had only
seen slight modications since the fteenth century. Craftsmanship was steadily
replaced by machinery, and the constant increasing demand for printed material
required more and improved equipment.30
The following pages shows a glimps of various styles that were inuenced
in the design of the NZMS lettering, or have evolved through the styles that
were referenced.
30 De Jong, C. W. (2009). The Ideal Typeface. In C. W. de Jong (Ed.), Type: A visual history of
typefaces and graphic styles 1628 – 1938 (Vol. 1) Köln, Germany: Taschen. p. 13
133
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