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Extensive listening practice of EFL learners with authentic English videos

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Abstract

The present study investigates the self-reported frequency of watching authentic English videos by university EFL students with the intent of practicing listening comprehension skills. The subjects, 37 Slovak university students, were divided into two groups: 17 first-year B.A. students and 20 first-year M.A. students with the same major Teaching Training: English Language and Literature. Both groups filled in a questionnaire regarding their watching of authentic English videos. The findings suggest that both groups of subjects reported viewing English videos either every day or every other day, which could be considered extensive listening practice. The subjects seem to watch videos on video sharing websites and social networking websites fairly frequently as the majority of B.A. and M.A. students chose every day or every other day options in the questionnaire. Moreover, the participants considered practicing listening outside classroom through viewing English videos as beneficial to the development of their listening skills. This indicates that watching authentic English videos should have a place in EFL learning.
Teaching English with Technology, 18(4), 3-19, http://www.tewtjournal.org
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EXTENSIVE LISTENING PRACTICE OF EFL LEARNERS
WITH AUTHENTIC ENGLISH VIDEOS
by Rastislav Metruk
University of Žilina
Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina
rastislav.metruk@gmail.com
Abstract
The present study investigates the self-reported frequency of watching authentic English
videos by university EFL students with the intent of practicing listening comprehension
skills. The subjects, 37 Slovak university students, were divided into two groups: 17 first-
year B.A. students and 20 first-year M.A. students with the same major Teaching Training:
English Language and Literature. Both groups filled in a questionnaire regarding their
watching of authentic English videos. The findings suggest that both groups of subjects
reported viewing English videos either every day or every other day, which could be
considered extensive listening practice. The subjects seem to watch videos on video sharing
websites and social networking websites fairly frequently as the majority of B.A. and M.A.
students chose every day or every other day options in the questionnaire. Moreover, the
participants considered practicing listening outside classroom through viewing English
videos as beneficial to the development of their listening skills. This indicates that watching
authentic English videos should have a place in EFL learning.
Keywords: authenticity; listening skills; video sharing sites; EFL learner; English videos
1. Introduction
Listening is a basic language skill which should be given a major priority among the four
language skills (Hamouda, 2013). It occupies an instrumental role within the process of L2
(second language, foreign language) learning; it is the first and most significant prerequisite
for the skill of speaking (Barani, 2011). “A person’s ability to listen and understand spoken
language is critical to oral communication in any language” (Atasheneh & Izadi, 2012).
Furthermore, Alam & Sinha (2009) maintain that the significance of listening has been long
recognized within the history of EFL teaching. Thus, developing listening comprehension
plays a vital role in enhancing general communication skills and language competence
(Hwaider, 2017).
Listening skills, however, have been long neglected in L2 acquisition, teaching,
assessment, and research (Bakhtiarvand & Adinevand, 2011). In fact, teaching the skill of
listening has not still received proper attention within the ELT process (Gilakjani & Ahmadi,
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2011). Osada (2004) also indicates that the research into listening comprehension does not
abound in literature as much as, for example, the research on reading comprehension. EFL
teachers have to, therefore, remember that such neglect may severely impede the process of
learning a foreign language since EFL learners might not be able to successfully establish and
maintain communication. Listening skills are, without doubt, of vital importance in English
language teaching and learning.
The current digital era has altered not only lifestyles of people, but also teaching and
learning strategies (Tananuraksakul, 2016). Similarly, Sándorová (2013) states that the boom
of technology in the last 20 years has made an impact on the world of education, including
teaching foreign languages. In this day and age, technology is widely used for educational
purposes at all levels (Solano, Cabrera, Ulehlova & Espinoza, 2017). Kruk (2017) explains
that applying modern technologies in teaching and learning L2 is nowadays the norm in a
substantial number of schools, universities, and different educational institutions since,
according to Šimonová (2016), the ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) have
penetrated every phase of the educational process. The 21
st
century EFL (English as a foreign
language) learners are incessantly exposed to ICT technologies (Cinganotto & Cuccurullo,
2016), which offer great opportunities for both teachers and learners to experience EFL
teaching and learning beyond the traditional classroom (Mulyono, 2016). As far as the
development of listening skills is concerned, there is undoubtedly ample opportunity for
practicing listening with the assistance of technological advancements.
Watching authentic English videos represents one of the ways how L2 learners can
practice their listening skills outside the classroom. Movies, TV shows, soap operas, and a
wide variety of video clips can be regarded as both attractive and useful source of authentic
language for EFL learners.
The primary objective of this article is to investigate how frequently Slovak university
EFL learners (upper-intermediate and advanced students) watch authentic English videos for
the purposes of enhancing their listening skills, and how often they view the videos on video
sharing websites and social networking websites. In order to address this issue, the following
research questions regarding watching English videos outside classroom have been
formulated:
1. How frequently do EFL university students at the CEFR B2 and C1 levels watch
authentic English videos with the goal of increasing listening practice?
2. How often do they watch videos on video sharing websites?
3. How frequently do they watch videos on social networking services websites?
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4. Do the EFL university students at the CEFR B2 and C1 levels agree that extensive
listening practice provided through watching authentic English videos improves their
listening skills?
2. Extensive listening and extensive viewing
Extensive listening can be regarded as “listening for pleasure and without obligating the
listener to keep demonstrating a satisfactory level of understanding” (Field, 2008, p. 54).
According to Mishan & Timmis (2015), when L2 learners perform extensive listening, they
listen to longer stretches of audio (-visual) material, and, at the same time, they do not have to
worry about comprehension checks, memory tests, or anxiety, which can be created by these.
Furthermore, they are exposed to substantial amounts of comprehensible input and take part
in listening for pleasure outside the classroom (Siegel, 2013). L2 learners are not expected to
fully understand everything, but they should rather have a general understanding and find
pleasure in doing such listening (Graham & Santos, 2015).
The importance of extensive listening is apparent in L2 learning (Onoda, 2012). This
type of listening may also (as well as intensive listening) have a pronounced effect on
language learning of an individual. It should be noted that the motivational power increases
considerably when learners themselves make choices about what they will listen to (Harmer,
2007). L2 learners ought to listen to various language phenomena and gain knowledge
through TV programs, radio, the Internet and as many types of exposure as they possibly can
find (Gilakjani & Ahmadi, 2011).
Renandya & Jacobs (2016) note that extensive viewing, which can be regarded as a
related concept to extensive listening, has recently come into being. It refers to EFL learners
watching television, movies, and videos for the purposes of L2 learning. However, it should
be noted that research on extensive listening is still in its infancy.
Videos do not only represent an inseparable part of people’s everyday lives, but they
are also deemed to be a practical, powerful, and effective method when it comes to learning a
language. There are numerous sound reasons why an English learner ought to spend time
watching English videos.
Harmer (2007) explains that while the learners listen, they can also see language in
use, which enables them to see a great deal of paralinguistic behaviour. For instance, they are
able to recognize how facial expressions match intonation, and which phrases are
accompanied by concrete gestures (such as shrugging shoulders when someone says I don’t
know). Moreover, the viewers can see how various people stand while they talk to each other
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(proximity), or what types of food they eat. It seems reasonable to assume that unspoken rules
of behaviour within particular social instances are easier to be noticed in videos rather than to
be described in a book or merely heard by EFL learners. Muslem, Mustafa, Usman & Rahman
(2017, p. 29) also commented on the usefulness of videos by claiming that “[f]inally yet
importantly, videos also provide real models since they include all the characteristics of
naturally spoken English in realistic situations and they allow students to experience and feel
a certain situation without going there. Therefore, students do not have to visit England just to
know how they order food at a restaurant there”. Another advantage is that videos arouse
curiosity and attract interest of L2 learners (Đlin, Kutlu & Kutluay, 2012). Therefore, the
learners’ motivation for watching authentic English videos is increased, and the learners
actually spend a great deal of time being exposed to the L2. Bajrami and Ismaili (2016, p.
503) highlight yet another benefit by stating that “[a] great advantage of the video materials is
that they provide original and authentic input as they are produced originally for native
speakers such as films, different TV programs, songs”. Furthermore, authentic videos can be
considered as helpful tools when it comes to learning the features of L2 in real contexts
(Saeedi & Biri, 2016). Thus, the viewers are exposed to an L2 language in authentic settings
and real contexts, which brings them somewhat closer to the native speakers of the foreign
language.
3. Online videos and networking sites in enhancing listening skills
Several studies support the notion of using videos in order to enhance EFL learners’ listening
skills both inside and outside the classroom.
According to King (2002, p. 520), “[w]hen students are provided with well-structured
tasks and activities designed to promote active viewing and stimulate involvement for making
the most of learning opportunities of movies, there is no doubt that feature films are the most
stimulating and enjoyable learning materials for the E-generation.” Khan (2015) highlights
the implications of using films in order to improve language proficiency of non-native
speakers, suggesting that greater exposure to movies can result in significant second language
acquisition increase within non-native English language learning environments. Dehaki
(2017) investigated the method of using videos as a way of teaching. The results demonstrate
that the listening comprehension of the participants involved improved, and that they
displayed a positive attitude to learning by watching videos. Similarly, the study of
Mekheimer (2011) suggests that teaching with authentic video is a valuable approach to the
whole language learning.
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Advocates of extensive listening for developing L2 listening state that this type of
listening is likely to enhance learners’ performance and attitudes (Gramahm & Santos, 2015).
Chang (2016) indicates that while practicing listening inside the classroom is valuable, the
learners ought to be encouraged to proceed independently with working on their listening
skills outside the classroom as well. Rodger’s research (2013) demonstrates that watching L2
television results in improving listening comprehension. The study of Rodgers & Webb
(2011) suggests that watching a TV series in sequence, starting with the first episode, helps
the viewers develop background knowledge which ought to help them understand episodes
which follow.
However, research is scarce as to the effects of extensive listening (Renandya &
Jacobs, 2016). “Due to the fact that EL is a comparatively new idea, its theoretical framework
is underdeveloped; there has been little hard evidence supporting the effect of EL on
improving L2 listening competence” (Chang & Millett, 2014, p. 31). Therefore, further
research has to be conducted to cast more light on listening for pleasure taking place outside
the classroom.
One of the ways how EFL learners can practice their listening skills extensively is
watching videos, TV programs, and movies on YouTube. YouTube is an online service,
officially launched in late 2005, which allows registered users to upload video clips for
viewing by the general population of Internet users (Benson, 2015, p. 90). Halloran & Hearn
(2017, p. 80) explain the power and enormous influence YouTube has gained by claiming that
“YouTube is now the top video website globally (with 13 billion videos), is the third most
visited website in the world, and attracts over 15 billion visitors a month (roughly twice the
population of the world)”. Therefore, YouTube is the leading video website in the world today
(Silviyanti, 2014).
Kelsen (2009) performed a study on students from Taiwan regarding their opinions of
using YouTube. The results suggest that both teachers and learners may be involved to
implement YouTube in a number of classroom activities in a creative manner to improve the
outcomes of learning and generate a positive classroom environment. However, using
YouTube inside the classroom in order to motivate the learners to use the service outside the
classroom is not exactly clear. Students have to be allowed to freely explore and take first
steps on a journey of learning English via YouTube.
Another study on the use of a YouTube channel, performed by Balbay & Kilis (2017,
p. 246), reveals that most of the participants benefited to a large degree from the playlist
videos of a specially-designed supplementary material YouTube channel. Furthermore, the
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“students actively utilize this particular technology for learning outside the classroom too,
which may change the teachers’ role in language and skills classroom”.
In his study, Styati (2016) explored the effects of YouTube tutoring on the
development of learners’ writing skills, discovering that there exists a significant difference
between the learners taught with the use of YouTube videos and the students taught by using
pictures. Interestingly, the students who were taught by videos achieved a lower writing
performance.
Kuo’s experiment (2009) illustrates that the experimental groups which were taught
using YouTube video segments did better on test measuring listening comprehension in
comparison to the control group taught by traditional teacher-centred teaching methods.
Researchers have recently studied some social networking websites in order to
investigate the relationship between social networking and educational outcomes (Bista,
2014; Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010).
As far as using social networking sites for the purposes of learning English is
concerned, the study conducted by Kabilan, Ahmad & Abidin (2010) suggests that it is
possible to learn English through Facebook since technologies and features of this social
media website enable the learners to engage in meaningful language-based activities despite
the fact that they primarily intended to join Facebook to socialize. Jin’s study (2015) indicates
that “the adoption of Facebook is a new, innovative, and practical way to facilitate effective
intercultural interactions as well as promote IC in the EFL classroom” (2015, p. 38). Bista
(2015) performed a study on using Twitter as a pedagogical tool for 15 weeks as an activity
which was required in the classroom. On the whole, the participants reported positive
experiences, and they regarded Twitter as a valuable tool which can be used inside the class,
and also recommended it to be used in future classes, while having clear instructions and
expectations. Finally, according to a study conducted by Mompean & Fouz-González (2016),
Twitter can be beneficial for both teaching and learning pronunciation, encouraging teachers
to incorporate this social networking website within online or on-campus learning programs.
Social networking websites have become an inseparable part of young peoples’ lives
and have an influence also on L2 learning process. However, it seems that little research has
been conducted up to this day regarding social websites and language learning (Mohammed,
2016), and further investigation is necessary.
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4. The study
4.1. The objective of the study
The main goal of this article is to examine how frequently Slovak university EFL learners
(both upper-intermediate and advanced students) watch authentic English videos in order to
improve their listening skills, and how often they view the videos on video sharing websites
and social networking websites. In order to address this issue, the following research
questions need to be addressed:
1. How frequently do EFL university students at the B2 and C1 levels watch authentic
English videos with the goal of increasing listening practice?
2. How often do they watch videos on video sharing websites?
3. How frequently do they watch videos on social networking services websites?
4. Do the EFL university students at the B2 and C1 levels agree that extensive listening
practice in terms of watching authentic English videos improves their listening skills?
4.2. Subjects and data collection
The participants were altogether 37 full-time Slovak university students of the study program
Teaching Training: English Language and Literature at a Slovak university. They were
divided into two groups: first-year B.A. students and first-year M.A. students. The B.A. group
comprised altogether 17 students, 12 female and 5 male students. They were 20.4 years old on
average, and their English was at the B2 level (Council of Europe, 2001). The M.A. group
consisted of 20 students, 17 females and 5 males. They were 22.6 years of age on average,
and they were at the C1 level. The Slovak language was the native tongue of all the subjects.
The subjects were asked to anonymously fill in a questionnaire so as to gather data on
the exposure of subjects to authentic English videos. It was formed by four multiple-choice
statements, and was administered in English.
5. Results and discussion
Questionnaire item no. 1: I watch English videos (TV series, movies, reality TV, video clips,
etc.) in order to improve my English listening skills (circle one option; please, specify how
many hours, if you circle “every day” option).
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Figure 1. Amount of exposure to authentic English videos
8 of the total amount of 17 B.A. students, which accounts for 47%, watch English
videos on a daily basis. On average, they are exposed to authentic English videos 2.2 hours a
day. 6 B.A. subjects (35%) view the videos every other day, followed by 2 students (12%)
who watch the videos two to three times a week, and 1 subject (6%) who watches the videos
once a week.
12 M.A. subjects (out of the 20 M.A. students), which constitutes 60% of the total,
watch English videos every day. On average, they spend 2.4 hours a day by viewing the
videos. 3 subjects (15%) watch English videos every other day, and the same amount of
subjects performs this activity two to three times a week, followed by 2 subjects (10%) who
are exposed to English videos once a week.
It should be noted that the number of M.A. students (60%) watching video on a daily
basis is higher in comparison to the number of B.A. students (47%), but a higher amount of
B.A. students (35%) view the videos every other day when compared to the M.A. students
(15%).
However, the difference between the two groups of subjects (B.A. group and M.A.
group) does not seem to be substantial when it comes to the comparison of remaining 4
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options. It should be also highlighted that the majority of both B.A. and M.A. subjects opted
either for the first or second option in the questionnaire.
Questionnaire item no. 2: I watch English videos on video sharing websites, such as YouTube,
Vimeo, Dailymotion, etc. (circle one option; please, specify how many hours, if you circle
“every day” option).
Figure 2. Using video sharing websites to watch authentic English videos
13 out of 17 B.A. subjects (76%) watch English videos on video sharing websites on a
daily basis. On average, they view the videos 1.6 hours a day. 2 B.A. subjects (12%) watch
the videos every other day, followed by 1 student (6%) who watches the videos two to three
times a week, and 1 subject (6%) who is exposed to English videos once a week.
10 M.A. subjects (out of the total of 20 M.A. students), which accounts for 50% of the
total, use video sharing websites for watching English videos every day. On average, they do
this activity for 1.8 hours a day. 4 subjects (20%) watch English videos every other day,
followed by 3 subjects (15%) – two to three times a week, 1 subject (5%) – once a week, and
2 subjects (10%) – once every two weeks.
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Similarly to Figure 1, the majority of subjects opted either for the first or second
option in the questionnaire. The largest difference (26%) can be recognized between the B.A
and M.A. students in every day option in favour of the B.A. students. However, the
differences between the two groups within other options of questionnaire item no. 2 do not
appear to be substantial.
Questionnaire item no. 3: I watch English videos on social networking services websites such
as Facebook, Twitter, etc. (circle one option; please, specify how many hours, if you circle
“every day” option).
Every day Every other
day Two - three
times a week Once a week Once in two
weeks Once a month
50%
20%
10% 15%
0% 5%
29% 41%
6% 12% 12%
0%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
B.A. students M.A. students
Figure 3. Using social networking websites to watch authentic English videos
5 B.A. subjects (29%) view English videos on social networking websites every day.
On average, they watch the videos 1.6 hours a day. 7 B.A. subjects (41%) perform this
activity every other day, 1 subject (6%) two to three times a week, 2 subjects (12%) once a
week, and 2 subjects (12%) once every two weeks.
10 M.A. subjects (out of the total of 20 M.A. students), which accounts for 50% of the
total, use video sharing websites for watching English videos on a daily basis. On average,
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they do this activity for 1.2 hours a day. 4 subjects (20%) watch English videos every other
day, 2 subjects (10%) two to three times a week, 3 subjects (15%) once a week, and 1 subject
(5%) once a month.
Similarly to items no. 1 and 2, most of the subjects selected the options every day and
every other day. It should be noted that the number of M.A. students (50%) watching video
on a daily basis is higher in comparison to the number of B.A. students (29%), but a higher
amount of B.A. students (41%) view the videos every other day when compared to the M.A.
students (20%). However, the difference between the two groups of subjects does not seem to
be dramatic when it comes to the comparison of the remaining 4 options.
Questionnaire item no. 4: Extensive listening practice outside school in terms of
watching movies, TV series, soap operas, video clips, etc. improves my listening skills (circle
one option).
I s trongly agree I a gree I don't know
I di s a gree
I s trongly
disagree
70%
30%
0% 0% 0%
53%
47%
0% 0%
0%
0%
50%
100%
B.A. students M.A. students
Figure 4. Subjects' attitudes to extensive listening practice
9 B.A. subjects (53%) chose the option I strongly agree, while 8 subjects (47%) opted
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for the second choice I agree. 14 M.A. students (70%) strongly agree with statement in
questionnaire item no. 4, while 6 subjects (30%) chose the option I agree.
The number of M.A. students (70%) who strongly agree is higher in comparison to the
number of B.A. students (53%), and a higher amount of B.A. students (47%) opted for the
option I agree when compared to the M.A. students (30%). On the whole, however, it can be
concluded that all the subjects agree that watching English videos enhances their listening
skills.
The study findings demonstrate that both B.A. and M.A. subjects are exposed to
watching English videos to a relatively high degree as the majority of them opted for the
every day or every other day options within questionnaire items nos. 1, 2, 3. Therefore, their
frequency of watching authentic English videos regarding extensive listening practice can be
considered as fairly high.
The B.A. students’ everyday exposure (76% of B.A. subjects) to watching English
videos is considerably higher on video sharing websites in comparison to the amount of B.A.
subjects (29%) in terms of social networking websites. The B.A. subjects spend on watching
the videos 1.6 hours a day in both instances.
The numbers are equal (50% video sharing websites and 50% social networking
websites) when it comes to the everyday exposure of the M.A. students to English videos.
However, the M.A. students watch the videos 1.8 hours a day on video sharing websites, but
0.6 hour less (1.2 hours) on social networking websites.
As far as the questionnaire item no. 4 is concerned, all the students agree with the
statement Extensive listening practice outside school in terms of watching movies, TV series,
soap operas, video clips, etc. improves my listening skills. Thus, it can be concluded that EFL
learners attach extensive listening practice considerable importance.
6. Conclusions, recommendations, and limitations
This small-scale study explored how frequently university EFL students watch authentic
English videos in regard to extensive listening practice. Furthermore, video sharing and social
networking websites used for watching the videos were also examined from the standpoint of
frequency, along with the opinions of students on watching authentic English videos in
relation to the improvement of their listening comprehension skills.
It can be concluded that most of the subjects (both B.A. and M.A.) are exposed to
watching English videos either every day or every other day, which could be described as
relatively satisfactory from the point of view of exposure to the target language since
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extensive listening (extensive viewing) occupies a useful and important role within L2
learning.
It appears that the B.A. subjects use video sharing websites for watching English
videos very frequently, while the M.A. students use them fairly frequently. As far as watching
videos on social networking websites is concerned, both groups (B.A. and M.A.) of subjects
seem to watch English videos fairly frequently.
Finally, as already mentioned, the subjects agree with the statement Extensive listening
practice outside school in terms of watching movies, TV series, soap operas, video clips, etc.
improves my listening skills, which can also be regarded as a positive sign of attitude towards
extensive listening (extensive viewing).
The outcomes of this study are not to be generalized due to the limited number of
subjects involved in the study. Employing a larger sample of subjects would definitely yield
more reliable data. Moreover, other research methods such as observation, interview, or
testing may be employed.
Taking pedagogical implications into account, the following recommendation, based
on the study findings, can be offered. Watching authentic English videos seems to represent
an attractive and useful way of practicing and developing listening skills. Thus, EFL learners
should be encouraged to perform as much extensive listening practice in terms of watching
English videos as possible. Furthermore, EFL teachers ought to bear in mind that extensive
listening (extensive viewing) seems to hold an important place in EFL learning when it comes
to the development of listening skills, and this type of research merits further attention of
educators, academics, scholars, and researchers. It is, therefore, vital that further research into
this area of EFL teaching and learning is performed, also due to the fact that exploring
extensive listening and extensive viewing is still in its infancy.
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... These days, the online format of the materials has become the most common choice as they are easy to access. The EFL students have utilized online video-format materials for extensive listening tasks [1], [2]. The lower-intermediate Japanese students were found to explore ELLLO, ESL Fast, BBC Learning English, Voice Tube, and News in Levels for English learning. ...
... The lower-intermediate Japanese students were found to explore ELLLO, ESL Fast, BBC Learning English, Voice Tube, and News in Levels for English learning. The other video-format materials used by the EFL university students were TV series, movies, reality TV, video-clips, and others [1]. In the same context, the video from YouTube, Kang Guru Radio, and online televisions are also selected by the student teachers for extensive listening materials [2]. ...
... By utilizing the online videos in extensive listening practices, the EFL students seem to gain benefits and get positive impacts [1], [2], such as acquiring students' listening skills, enhancing their vocabulary acquisition, helping them to develop other language skills, and enhancing the students' autonomous learning. In addition, the students and the teachers' view about their experience in video-formatted activity are also important to elaborate. ...
... It was found in the initial study results that a majority of Kyrgyz learners were utilising chemistry videos for 1-2 h per week, whereas higher durations of instructional video use were found in the existing literature. For instance, in Metruk (2018), it was found that university learners watch foreign language videos for 1-2 h per day. Thus, the duration in the current study was lower than expected due to learners in rural areas having limited internet access, and as a result, lack of access to the course videos. ...
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... Scientific research has found that exposing learners to authentic materials through video helps with language learning, particularly listening skills. Moreover, it has been reported that videos can be beneficial in improving L2 learners' listening skills, compared to lecture-based instruction (Metruk, 2018). Additionally, the use of podcasts to enhance listening skills has been documented as well. ...
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... There have also been other conceptualizations of authenticity, evincing debate on the concept in the field of language assessment and teaching ( Eira & Stebbins, 2008 ;Swan, 1985 ;Taylor, 1982 ). For example, authenticity has been conceptualized with reference to texts and literacy ( Bergeron & Rudenga, 1996 ;Clavel-Arroitia, & Fuster-Marquez, 2014 ;Gilmore, 2007Gilmore, , 2011Kramsch et al. 2000 ;Lee, 1995 ;Siegel, 2014 ;Simonsen, 2019 ), communicative activities in language classrooms and teaching ( Breen, 1985 ;Kessler et al., 2021 ), second language teachers' perceptions and opinions ( Ramezanzadeh & Rezaei, 2019 ), use of audios, media, or videos in testing and teaching ( Baddock,1991 ;Liang, 2013 ), and listening and conversational texts in language learning ( Lynch, 1982 ;MacDonald et al., 2000 ;Metruk, 2018 ;Rings, 1986 ), to name a few. ...
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... Videos have become an useful strategy in the teaching field. In this regard, Metruk (2018) states that "videos do not only represent an inseparable part of people's everyday lives, but they are also deemed to be a practical, powerful, and effective method when it comes to learning a language" (p. 5). ...
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Technology, especially the emergence of the Internet, is affecting every aspect of education and changing the way we teach and learn. " (Chuo and Kung, 2002: 1) Abstract This paper explores using YouTube as supplementary material with EFL students in Taiwan. Surveys conducted on the first and last days of class of the Fall semester, 2007, in two sophomore classes (n=69) found they rated the use of YouTube to study English favorably with regard to it being: (i) interesting; (ii) relevant; and (iii) beneficial. However, students rated it slightly less favorably with regard to it being: (iv) motivating within the classroom; and (v) motivating outside of the classroom. Generally, students wrote positive comments regarding the use of this technology, though some student comments highlighted the importance of providing clear explanations regarding how to use this learning tool effectively. Pedagogical considerations for enhancing learning outcomes through the use of YouTube as a source of supplementary material in EFL classrooms are also offered.
Chapter
This chapter discusses how to teach second or foreign language listening efficiently based on an analysis of the theoretical background and empirical evidence. Firstly some spoken language features are introduced followed by an examination of the previous research on second language listening difficulties. Based on the research findings, a listening lesson designed in a three-phase teaching format is presented, namely pre-listening, while-listening and post-listening. A few activities are suggested for each phase of listening, and finally three outside class listening practice activities are recommended to help ensure the most effective development of second language listening.
Article
Building upon previous research into the effectiveness of using videos for language teaching purposes, this study utilized an English animated situation comedy (sitcom) as an authentic type of multimedia to teach a particular grammatical structure, namely conditional sentences. This study also aimed at investigating the learners' attitudes toward this approach to grammar instruction. To achieve these purposes, 34 participants were selected and divided into two groups. In the control group (N=17) conditional sentences were taught through the explicit way of teaching grammar whereas the participants of the experimental group (N=17) learned about the conditional sentences through exposure to the animated sitcom. The results pointed to the effectiveness of using the aforementioned animated sitcom in teaching conditional sentences. Moreover, students showed a positive attitude to the animated sitcom as well as its use in teaching conditional sentences. The findings of this study have implications for L2 learners, encouraging them to change their view of grammar and looking at it from a more communicative perspective.
Article
This study looks at the effect of developing L2 listening fluency through extensive listening to audio graded readers. A large bank of listening fluency development questions (2,064 items) was constructed based on ten Level 1 graded readers. Three groups of L2 students were engaged in one of three different input modes while studying ten graded readers over a 13-week period: reading only, reading while listening, and listening only. All participants were given one pre-test (60 items) before the intervention and one post-test consisting of three texts (180 items) after the intervention. All the passages were delivered at the same speech rate, and the participants were allowed to listen only once. The post-test results demonstrate that the reading plus listening group produced the most consistent and significant outcome compared with the reading-only and listening-only groups. The results have some implications for developing L2 listening fluency.
DVDs have substantially replaced traditional VHS videotapes as the movie medium of the new millennium. In addition to their compactness and availability, there are a variety of special features offered on DVDs, including interactive menus, theatrical trailers, behind-the-scenes commentary, foreign languages, captions and subtitles, and immediate scene access. With these special features, DVD feature films provide a wide array of pedagogical options and represent a rich resource of intrinsically motivating materials for learners. This study is three-fold in nature: the first part is devoted to a discussion of film-viewing approaches; it then provides an assessment on the use of closed-captioned and non-closed-captioned DVD feature films for different levels of learners. Finally, suggestions are provided for choosing appropriate films to promote active viewing and interaction in order to maximize classroom application of DVD feature films.
Article
In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words and had a total running time of 203 hours and 49 minutes with a mean running time of 42 minutes. The vocabulary from a single season of six individual television programs (142 episodes) was compared with six sets of random television programs (146 episodes). The results indicated that, when there are an equivalent number of running words, related television programs are likely to contain fewer word families than unrelated programs. The findings also indicated that word families from the 4,000–14,000 levels were more likely to reoccur in a complete season of a television program than in random television programs. The percentage of low-frequency word families encountered 10 or more times was higher, and the percentage of word families encountered once was fewer in all six programs than in the random television programs.