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Risks and radiation impacts in the B.C. coastal-marine environment following the Fukushima nuclear accident

Abstract

Following the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011, agencies began monitoring waters of coastal B.C. for radiation contamination. While radiation associated with the disaster has been detected, levels determined to date are far below those considered harmful to human or marine health.
OCEAN WATCH | CLEAN WATER
FUKUSHIMA | iƺȩȨȯ
Risks and radiation impacts
in the B.C. coastal-marine
environment following the
Fukushima nuclear accident
AUTHORS
iĄóÆĄèɊóĈđá\ºêmºĈ ºĄÌ9êĈđÏđėđºɊ
ê\ºêÏĈºÏêÏđ ÏđÏĢºɊʩ9êĈđÏđėđºÄóĄđ̺
SÌÚïÝĒă. æČæ·ÿɊ³Ûėêđi ĄóĺĈĈóĄɊ
"êĢÏĄóê èºêđáqϺêºiĄóÆĄèɊêÏĢº ĄĈÏđĩóÄ
REVIEWER
ÿɌEïÉæSɌoäÌČÉ
\ºêóÆ ĄĀÌĩɊ,ÏĈ̺ĄÏºĈê³\ºêĈê³
What’s happening?
áđÌóėÆÌ ,ėÞėĈÌÏèɢĈĈóÏđº³ Ą³ÏđÏóê ÌĈ «ººê ³ºđºđº³ Ïê ĈºÄóó³Ɋ
êóđĀĄºĈºêđÏè躳ÏđºėĈºÄóĄóêºĄêÄóĄÌėèê̺áđÌóĄèĄÏêºóĄÆê
ÏĈèĈɐz̺êėáºĄϳºêđđđ̺,ėÞėĈÌÏèÏÏÌÏĄºđóĄĀáêđėĈº³«ĩ
đ̺zûÌóÞėºĄđÌăėÞºɞȱɐȨèÆêÏđė³ºɟê³đĈėêèÏóêđ̺ºĈđºĄêóĈđ
óÄEĀê óê QĄÌȩȩɊȪȨȩȩģĈ óêĈϳºĄº³ áóóèÏêÆđÌĄºđÄóĄ đ̺ iÏĸ
,óááóģÏêÆđ̺
êėáºĄ ÄđºĄèđÌɊ ĄºĈºĄ̺ĄĈ ÄĄóè èÛóĄ ėêÏĢºĄĈÏđϺĈ Ïê ɐɐ ê³ ĄóĈĈ
ê³ɊĈģºááĈđ̺.óĢºĄêèºêđóÄê³ɊĈđĄđº³èóêÏđóĄÏêÆáóêÆđ̺
ɐɐóĈđɐ zó ĈĈºĈĈđ̺áºĢºáóÄ Ą³ÏđÏóêĄºáºĈº³ÄĄóè,ėÞėĈÌÏèɊ đÌĄºº
èÛóĄđĄºĄĈóĄÏĈóđóĀºĈɡÞêóģêĈºĈÏėèȩȫȬɞ ĈɟɊºĈÏėè ȩȫȯɞȩȫȯ
9ɟɡģºĄºèºĈėĄº³ÏêĈºģđºĄɊĈºÄóó³Ɋê³ĸĈÌĈèĀáºĈɐ
đÌĄóėÆÌ«ÏóėèėáđÏóêóÄĄ³ÏóÏĈóđóĀºĈÏêèĄÏêºê³óĈđá Äóó³ģº«Ĉ
ģĈèÛóĄĀė«áÏ̺áđÌóêºĄêÄóĄóĈđáóèèėêÏđϺĈɡĀĄđÏėáĄáĩđ̺
ȩȫȯ
OCEAN WATCH | CLEAN WATER
FUKUSHIMA | iƺȩȨȰ
Why is it important?
곺ĄĈđê³ÏêÆĄ³ÏđÏóêóĄĄ³ÏóđÏĢÏđĩĄºáºĈº³ÄĄóè
Ìėèê ̺áđÌ ºĵºđĈɊ ĈėÌ Ĉ đÌĩĄóϳ Æáê³ êºĄɊ
áºėÞºèÏɊƺêºđÏ³ÏĈóĄ³ºĄĈɊê³óđ̺Ą³ÏĈºĈºĈɐÏĄºđ
º³Äóó³ɞÏɐºɐɊ«óĢºĈĺáÏèÏđĈóĄđÌĄºĈÌóá³ĈϳºêđÏĸº³
«ĩ ÆóĢºĄêèºêđ đó ĀĄóđºđ Āė«áÏ ̺áđÌɟ ÏĈ  ĄÏĈÞ đó
êĵºđđ̺đÌĩĄóϳÆáê³Ïè躳Ïđºáĩê³Äđááĩ
áºĢºáĈĄºÌÏÆ̺ĄđÌêÆÏĢºêɩđÏóêáºĢºáɪɞÏɐºɐɊĈĺ
áÏèÏđóĄđÌĄºĈÌóá³ɟĄºóèèºê³º³ÏêÆėϳºáÏêºĈɐ
ȩȫȯĈ Ïê èĄÏêº ĸĈÌ ê³
«ººê ĄºĀóĄđº³ đó «º áóģ ĈÏêº đ̺ ,ėÞėĈÌÏè Ï
Ȯɡȩȩ ȩȫȯ
ÏđϺĈÏê óĄÆêÏĈèĈÌĢº³ÏĵºĄº³ ÆĄºđáĩèóêÆđĨó
êóèÏ ÆĄóėĀĈɊ Ì«ÏđđĈɊ ê³ ĈĀđÏá ³ÏĈđĄÏ«ėđÏóêĈɐȩȩɡȩȬ
óêđèÏêđÏóêđÌĄóėÆÌđĄóĀÌÏđĄêĈĺĄóÄĄ³ÏóđÏĢº
ÏĈóđóĀºĈ đÌĄóėÆÌ Äóó³ ģº«Ĉ ÏĈ áÏÞºáĩ đó ĵºđ áóêÆɢ
áÏĢº³ ĀĄº³đóĄĈ ĺº³ÏêÆ đ đ̺ đóĀ óÄ đ̺ Äóó³ ģº«Ɋ
Ïêáė³ÏêÆĸĈÌɢºđÏêÆĈº«ÏĄ³Ĉê³èĄÏêºèèèáĈ
ÏêÌ«ÏđÏêÆóĵĈÌóĄºê³óĈđáÌ«ÏđđĈóÄđ̺ĄºÆÏóêɐ
qÏèėáđÏóêĈ đÌđ èó³ºá đ̺ «ÏóáóÆÏá ėèėáđÏóê
ȩȫȯĈÏêÌÏêóóÞĈáèóêɞ
ê³ ĸĈÌɢºđÏêÆ Ĉóėđ̺Ąê ĄºĈϳºêđ ÞÏááºĄ ģÌáºĈ ɞ
ɟÄĄóèɐɐĀĄº³Ïđº³đĄóĀÌÏ èÆêÏĸđÏóê
ȩȫȯĈĢÏđ̺ Äóó³ ģº« Ïê đ̺Ĉº ĈĀºϺĈ ɞ,ÏÆėĄº ȩɟɐ
z̺ ĀóđºêđÏá óêÄóėê³ÏêÆ ÏèĀđĈ óÄ ÌÏÆ̺Ą óºê
ĈėĄÄº đºèĀºĄđėĄºĈ óĄ óÄ óºê ϳÏĸđÏóê óê
Ą³ÏóÏĈóđóĀºĈÏêÄóó³ģº«ĈĄºėêÞêóģêɐ
,ėÞėĈÌ ÏèÏÏÌÏSėáºĄióģºĄqđđ ÏóêɊ,ėÞė ĈÌÏèɊEĀ êÏêȪȨȨȯɐɞiÌóđóɉ9"9èƺ«êÞɊÏÞÏ躳ÏóèèóêĈɊɢqȪɐȨɟ
OCEAN WATCH | CLEAN WATER
FUKUSHIMA | iƺȩȨȱ
Is there a particular importance or
connection to First Nations?
áđÌóėÆÌĄ³ÏóđÏĢÏđĩ áºĢºáĈ Ïê ĸĈÌ ĀĄó³ėđĈ Ąº êóđ
óêĈϳºĄº³ đó ĀóĈº  ĄÏĈÞ đó ĀºóĀáº đ đ̺ ĀĄºĈºêđ
ȯɢȱɊȩȩ óêºĄêĈ ĄºèÏê «óėđ đ̺ áóêÆɢđºĄè ºĨ
Äóó³ģº«ĈóÄđ̺SóĄđÌiÏĸɐ
êºđº³ģÏđÌđ̺óºêĈê³ĄºáĩĈđĄóêÆáĩ óêđ̺ÌĄ
ĢºĈđê³ óêĈėèĀđÏóê óÄđĄ³ÏđÏóêáĈºÄóó³ê³ ĸĈÌ
ĀĄó³ėđĈɞºɐÆɐɊiÏĸĈáèóêɟɐ 곺ĄĈđê³ÏêÆĀóááė
đÏóêĄÏĈÞĈ ÏĈ ĄÏđÏáɊĈ ̺áđÌĩ óºêÄóó³ ģº«Ĉ Ąº
Þºĩđóđ̺ĈóÏóºóêóèÏĢÏ«ÏáÏđĩóÄóĈđáɐɐóè
èėêÏđϺĈ Ïê đºĄèĈ óÄ ĈĀÏĄÏđėá ºóáóÆĩɊ ėáđėĄºɊ ê³
,ÏĄĈđ SđÏóê óèèėêÏđϺĈ Ïê ɐɐ ÏĈ ȩȭ đÏèºĈ ÌÏÆ̺Ą
đÌê đ̺ ĢºĄƺ ê³Ïê óêĈėèºĄɊ
ºêđóÄóêĈė躳ĈºÄóó³ÏĈĈáèóêɊđÌėĈÏê³ÏƺêóėĈ
ɞºɐÆɐɊȩȫȯĈɟđÌêêóêɢÏê³ÏƺêóėĈĀºóĀáºÏêđ̺áóêÆɢ
ÌÏáºėêºĄđÏêđϺĈáÏêƺĄóêºĄêÏêÆđ̺êºĄĄÏĈÞ
,ėÞėĈÌÏèɢ³ºĄÏĢº³ ³óĈºĈ ĄººÏĢº³ ÄĄóè ĸĈÌ óê
ĈėèĀđÏóêɞºɐÆɐɊđėêĸĈÌɟ«ĩĈė«ĈÏĈđºêºĸĈ̺ĄĈģºĄº
óĄ³ÏêÆđó
Ĉđė³ĩóê ,ėÞėĈÌÏèɢ³ºĄÏĢº³ Ą³ÏóđÏĢÏđĩÏêĈóÞºĩº
Ą³ÏóºĈÏėè Ĉ đ̺ èóĈđ óêđèÏêđº³ ĈóÞºĩº Ĉá
ÄĄóèĄ³ÏóºĈÏėèđóê³ėáđÏê³ÏĢϳėáģÏđÌĢºĄƺ
ȩȯɊȱ
êóĄÏĈÞđóĀė«áÏ̺áđÌɐ9êóđ̺ĄģóĄ³ĈɊđÌÏĈĄ³ÏđÏóê
óÄóêºĄêđóÌėèê̺áđÌɊèºêÏêÆđÌđđĄ³ÏđÏóêá
Fukushima Daiichi
reactor plant
Phytoplankton
Water-soluble
radioactive isotope 137Cs
Muscle/fat-soluble
radioactive isotope 137Cs
Particle-bound
radioactive isotope 137Cs
Sedimentation
& remobilization
Marine mammals
Herbivorous
Zooplankton
Carnivorous
Zooplankton
Herring
Salmon
Bioaccumulation of
radioactive isotopes
Atmospheric nuclear fallout
Long-range
oceanic transport
OCEAN WATCH | CLEAN WATER
,ÏÆėĄºȩɐ"êĢÏĄóêèºêđáđĄêĈĀóĄđɞđèóĈĀ̺ĄÏê³ó ºêÏɟê³ĀđÌģĩĈóÄº ĨĀóĈėĄ ºê³ėèėáđÏóêóÄđ ̺Ą³ÏóÏĈóđóĀºȩȫȯ
ģº«óÄĸĈÌɢºđÏ êÆɞĄºĈϳºêđɟÞÏá áºĄģÌáºĈɐ³Āđº³ÄĄóèáĢê³.ó«ĈɞȪȨȩȮɟɐ
OCEAN WATCH | CLEAN WATER
FUKUSHIMA | iƺȩȩȩ
Fukushima-associated 137Cs concentration in seawater (Bq/L)
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
0 m
5 m
50 m
100 m
Coastal water
Oceanic water (depth in metres)
June 2011
June 2012
June 2013
February 2014
February 2016
Jan–Feb 2017
137Cs-Action Level for Drinking Water (100 Bq/L)
FUKUSHIMA-ASSOCIATED RADIATION IN SEAWATER
What is the current status?
z̺ĄĄÏĢá óÄ ĈºģđºĄ ĄĄĩÏêÆ óêºóÄđ̺Ą³ÏóÏĈó
ȩȫȯĈɟĈĈóÏđº³ ģÏđÌ đ̺,ėÞėĈÌÏè ϳºêđ
ģĈ³ºđºđº³ÏêóĵĈÌóĄºģđºĄĈģºĈđóÄêóėĢºĄ9Ĉ
áê³ɞȩɊȭȨȨÞÏáóèºđĄºĈģºĈđóÄɐɐɟđ³ºĀđÌĈóÄȨɡȩȨȨ
èºđĄºĈĈđĄđÏêÆÏêȪȨȩȪɐ
ȩȫȯ
đóĢáėºĈÏêºĨºĈĈóÄȨɐȨȨȰăɖI«ĩȪȨȩȮɞ,ÏÆėĄºȪɟɐ
ģđºĄ đÏĢÏđϺĈ óÄ ȨɐȨȨȩ ăɖI ģÌÏÌ ģºĄº ĀĄóÛºđº³
óĄ³ÏêÆđóóºêÏĄėáđÏóêèó³ºáĈÏèėáđÏóêĈê³
èºĄÏóĢºĄđ̺ȪȨȩȬɡȪȨȪȨđÏèºĀºĄÏó³ɐ
,ÏÆėĄºȪɐóêºêđĄđÏóêĈóÄ,ėÞėĈÌÏè ɢĈĈóÏđº³ȩȫȯĈèºĈėĄº³ÏêóºêÏģđºĄĈóĵđ̺ģºĈđóĈđóÄêóėĢºĄ9Ĉáê³ÄĄóèȪȨȩȩđóȪȨȩȮɊê³
óĈđáĈºģđºĄÏ êĄÏđÏĈÌóáėè«ÏÏêȪȨȩȯɐz̺ĄºģĈêó³ºđºđ ÏóêóÄ,ėÞ ėĈÌÏèɢĈĈóÏđº³ȩȫȯ
ȩȫȯ
,óááóģÏêÆSėáºĄ"èºĄÆºêĩɐđÄĄóèqèÏđÌºđáɐɞȪȨȩȭɟɊqèÏđÌºđáɐɞȪȨȩȯɟê³,ėÞėĈÌÏè9ê,\mQɐ
OCEAN WATCH | CLEAN WATER
FUKUSHIMA | iƺȩȩȪ
,ÏÆėĄºȫɐQºêóêºêđ ĄđÏóêĈɞăɖÞÆÄĄº ĈÌģºÏÆÌđɟóÄȩȫȯĈèºĈėĄº³ÏêiÏ ĸĈáèóêĈĀºϺĈÄĄóèđģóĄÏĢºĄĈɞ6ĄĄÏĈóêê³lėºĈêºáɟê³
᫺ĄêÏ9êáºđɊóêđ ̺ģºĈđóĈđóÄêóėĢºĄ9Ĉá ê³ɐÌÏ êóóÞĈáèóêĈèĀáºĈóááºđº³ÄĄóèđ̺6Ą ĄÏĈóêmÏĢºĄÏêȪȨȩȫê³lėºĈêºámÏĢºĄÏê
ȪȨȩȬɊê³ÌáÄóÄĈóÞºĩºĈáèóêĈ èĀáºĈóááºđº³ÄĄóèđ̺᫺ĄêÏ9êáºđĄºĢºẠ³³ºđºđ «áºóêºêđ ĄđÏóêÄóĄȩȫȯ
³ºĢÏđ ÏóêĈá ėáđº³ÄĄóèđ̺êė諺ĄóÄĈóÞºĩºê³ÌÏêóóÞĈáèóêĈèĀáºĈêáĩįº³ɐ đÄĄóèóèÏêÆóºđáɞȪȨȩȮɊȪȨȩȯɟ
2013
2014
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
1000
Harrison River
Chinook salmon
Alberni Inlet
Sockeye salmon
Quesnel River
Chinook salmon
137Cs concentration (Bq/kg fresh weight)
CESIUM-137 IN PACIFIC SALMON
137Cs-action level for commercial foods and beverages (1000 Bq/kg)
OCEAN WATCH | CLEAN WATER
FUKUSHIMA | iƺȩȩȫ
óĄ³ÏêÆ đó đ̺ ³đ ĀóĈđº³ «ĩ đ̺ 9êđºÆĄđº³
,ėÞėĈÌÏè \ºê m³Ïóêėáϳº QóêÏđóĄÏêÆ óĄ
,ėÞėĈÌÏè 9ê,\mQ êºđģóĄÞ ɞÌđđĀĈɉɖɖÄėÞėĈÌÏèÏê
ɟɊđ̺ĢºĄƺóêºêđĄđÏóêóÄȩȫȯ
ĈºģđºĄĄº̺³ȨɐȨȨȫăɖIÏêEêėĄĩê³,º«ĄėĄĩ
ȪȨȩȯɞ,ÏÆėĄº Ȫɟɐ z̺ĈºáºĢºáĈ Ąº ĈđÏáá ģºáá «ºáóģ đ̺
áϳºĈÏêĄÏêÞÏêÆđºĄóÄȩȨȨăɖIɐ
ȩȫȯ
ĈĀºϺĈ óÄ iÏĸ Ĉáèóê Ąº ºÏđ̺Ą «ºáóģ ³ºđºđÏóê
ȯɊȰ
ɞ,ÏÆėĄºȫɟɐ  ,óĄ ºĨèĀáºɊ Ïê ĈóÞºĩºĈáèóêóááº
ȩȫȯ
ģÏđÌđÏĢÏđĩóêºêđĄđÏóêĈĄêÆÏêÆÄĄóèȨɐȪȫđóȩɐȬȫ
ăɖÞÆ³ĄĩģºÏÆÌđɊ ê³ đ̺
Ïê  ĈÏêÆáº ĈóÞºĩº Ĉáèóê ģÏđÌ đÏĢÏđĩ óêºêđĄ
đÏóêĈèºĈėĄº³Ïêđ̺đģóĈė«ĈèĀáºĈóÄȨɐȫȩê³Ȩɐȫȯ
ăɖÞÆ³ĄĩģºÏÆÌđɐ óêºêđĄđÏóêĈ óÄ ȩȫȯĈ Ïê ÌÏêóóÞ
Ĉáèóê ĈèĀáºĈ óááºđº³ Ïê ȪȨȩȫ ÄĄóè đ̺ 6ĄĄÏĈóê
mÏĢºĄɞGÏá«ĩiĄóĢÏêÏáiĄÞɊɐɐɟģºĄºáĈóģºáá«ºáóģ
đ̺ đÏóê áºĢºá ɞ,ÏÆėĄº ȫɟɐ
ȩȫȯ
ÄĄóèȪȨȩȫđóȪȨȩȭÏêÌÏêóóÞĈáèóêÏêɐɐɕê³đ̺
ĸĄĈđºĢϳºêºóÄ Ĉɞêėêè«ÏÆėóėĈóĄėêºăėÏĢó
áđĄºĄđÌđóêĸĄèĈóêđèÏêđÏóêÄĄóè,ėÞėĈÌÏ
óÄ ³ėáđ ÌÏêóóÞ Ĉáèóê óááºđº³ ÄĄóè ĈĀģêÏêÆ
ÆĄóėê³Ĉ áóđº³ Ïê đ̺ lėºĈêºá mÏĢºĄɐ  ėº đó đÌºÏĄ
ÄóėĄ đó ĸĢº ĩºĄ áÏĺĩáºɊ iÏĸ Ĉáèóê ĄºđėĄêÏêÆ
áóêƺĄĺº³ÏêÆÏêđ̺Ą³ÏđÏóêɢóêđèÏêđº³èĄÏêº
ȪȨȩȩɊđ̺ĩºĄóÄđ̺zûÌóÞėºĄđÌăėÞºɐ\ĢºĄááɊđ̺Ĉº
ĸê³ÏêÆĈģÏáá ÄėĄđ̺Ą óêđĄÏ«ėđºđóđ̺ė곺ĄĈđê³ÏêÆ
óÄđ̺ÄđºóÄĄ³ÏóđÏĢºóêđèÏêđÏóêÄĄóè,ėÞėĈÌ
iĄóÛºđÏóêĈėĈÏêÆÄóó³ģº«èó³ºááÏêÆÏê³ÏđºđÌđđ̺
ȩȫȯĈáºĢºáĈÏêiÏĸ̺ĄĄÏêÆɊĈ«áºĸĈÌɊÌáÏ«ėđɊiÏĸ
ĈáèóêɞĀÏêÞɊÌėèɊê³ÌÏêóóÞɟɊê³ÞÏááºĄģÌáºĈ
óêĈėèĀđÏóêɞÏɐºɐɊȩȨȨȨăɖÞÆɟɐ
9êđÌÏĈ óêđºĨđɊģÌÏáºêóĄ³ÏđÏóê ĄÏĈÞĈĄººĨĀºđº³
đÌėĈÄĄđóđ̺ÆºêºĄáĀė«áÏê³óĈđáóèèėêÏđϺĈ
ÄĄóèđ̺óêĈėèĀđÏóêóÄiÏĸĈáèóêê³óđ̺ĄĸĈÌ
ĀĄó³ėđĈ ÌĄĢºĈđº³ ÄĄóè èĄÏêº óĈđá ģđºĄĈ óĵ
Ĉđóó³ɐ zÌėĈ ê ė곺ĄĈđê³ÏêÆ óÄ đ̺ «ĈÏ êđėĄº óÄ
Ą³ÏđÏóêɭĈ³ĢºĄĈººĵºđĈóêÌėèê«ó³ÏºĈê³óđ̺Ą
óĄÆêÏĈèĈɞÏɐºɐɊ ÏêđºĄêáºĨĀóĈėĄº³óĈº Ïêđ̺Ìėèê
ÏĈèĈÄóĄ Ìóģ Ą³ÏđÏóê ĵºđĈ đ̺̺èÏá ģóĄá³ ÏĈ
ĈđĄóêÆáĩģĄĄêđº³ɐ
OCEAN WATCH | CLEAN WATER
FUKUSHIMA | iƺȩȩȬ
,óááóģÏêÆđ ̺ėĀĄÏĢºĄèÏÆĄđÏóêê³ĈĀģê ÏêÆÏê«Ąºº ³ÏêÆÆĄóėê³ĈɊĈèĀẠĈóÄiÏĸĈáèóêģºĄºóááºđº³ÄĄóèđ̺6ĄĄÏĈóêm ÏĢºĄɞGÏá«ĩ
iĄóĢÏêÏáiĄÞɊɐɐɟÏêȪȨȩȫđóèºĈėĄºĄ³ ÏóÏĈóđóĀºĈɞºɐÆɐɊȩȫȯĈɟɐqóèºĈĀºϺĈóÄiÏĸĈáèóêɞºɐÆɐɊÌÏ êóóÞê³ĈóÞºĩºɟê«ºėĈº³Ĉ
ĈºêđÏêºáĈĀºϺĈɊ«ºėĈºóÄđÌºÏĄĄóáºĈ«ÏóĢºđóĄĈóÄĀóááėđÏóêɊđóđ ĄÞêđ ÌĄóĀóƺêÏĄ³ÏóÏĈóđóĀºĈĈėÌĈ ȩȫȯ
iÏĸɐɞiÌóđóɉÏđÏįºêĈ ϺêđÏĈđɊ ÞÏqêóɟ
What is being done?
ÏđÌđ̺ÏèóÄÏèĀĄóĢÏêÆóėĄė곺ĄĈđê³ÏêÆóÄđ̺
ĀóđºêđÏá ÏèĀđĈ óÄ ,ėÞėĈÌÏè Ą³ÏđÏóêɊ ĈºĢºĄá
³ºèÏĄºĈºĄÌÆĄóėĀĈđqÏèóê,ĄĈºĄêÏĢºĄĈÏđĩɊ
ėĄĄºêđáĩ èóêÏđóĄÏêÆ ê³ êáĩįÏêÆ Ą³ÏóêėáϳºĈ Ïê
z̺ ,ėÞėĈÌÏè 9ê,\mQ êºđģóĄÞ ɞÌđđĀĈɉɖɖÄėÞėĈÌ
ɟ ÏĈ ê ÏêđºÆĄđº³ ºĵóĄđ đó óááđº ê³
đ̺ÆóĢºĄêèºêđ ê³ ³ºèÏɊ Ĉ ģºáá ĈđóèóêÏđóĄ
ÄóĄèđ̺ÆºêºĄáĀė«áÏ ê³ ĈϺêđÏĈđĈɐ ,ÏĈ̺ĄÏºĈ ê³
\ºê ê³ ɞ,\ɟɊ 6ºáđÌ ê³Ɋ ÏđÏįºê ĈϺê
đÏĈđĈɊê³ĈºĢºĄáêóêɢĀĄóĸđóĄÆêÏįđÏóêĈ ÄĄóè ɐɐ
Ɋ.ºóĄÆÏqđĄÏđ
ááÏêºɊĢϳ qėįėÞÏ ,óėê³đÏóêɊ
Ɋđ̺áĩóăėóđÏóĈĀ̺ĄºzĄėĈđɊê³IÏĢÏêÆ
z̺\ºêióááėđÏóêmºĈºĄÌ iĄóÆĄèɞ\imiɟđđ̺
qÏèóê ,ĄĈºĄ êÏĢºĄĈÏđĩɊ óê³ėđº³ ºóđóĨÏóáóÆÏá
ĄÏĈÞĈĈºĈĈèºêđĈÏêđĄ³ÏđÏóêáĈºÄóó³óêĈė躳«ĩ
ê³zĄÏ«áóėêÏáɟ ÏêɐɐzÌÏĈĀĄóÛºđɊáẳɩqĺ
ÆėĄ³ÏêÆ\ėĄqºÄóó³iĄóÛºđɊɪģĈÏêÏđÏđº³ÄóááóģÏêÆ
đ̺ȪȨȩȩ,ėÞėĈÌÏèêėáºĄϳºêđđóĈĈºĈĈĀóđºê
đÏáĀóááėđÏóê ĄÏĈÞĈđóáóá ĈºÄóó³ê³óèèėêÏđº
ĄºĈºĄÌĸê³ÏêÆĈɐ
OCEAN WATCH | CLEAN WATER
FUKUSHIMA | iƺȩȩȭ
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.ºđÏêĢóáĢº³ĈÏđÏįºêĈϺêđÏĈđĈê³óêđÏêėºđóĈėĀĀóĄđĄºÆÏóêáºĵóĄđĈđóèóêÏđóĄ,ėÞėĈÌÏèĄ³ÏđÏóêóê
óėĄɐɐóĈđɞóêđđđ̺,ėÞėĈÌÏè9ê,\mQêºđģóĄÞɞÌđđĀĈɉɖɖÄėÞėĈÌÏèÏêÄóĄèɐɖ
.ºđÏêĢóáĢº³ĈÏđÏįºêĈϺêđÏĈđĈđóóááºđĈèĀáºĈÏêóđ̺ĄáºĈĈĈđė³Ïº³ĄºĈɐ
9êÄóĄèĩóėĄĈºáÄóêáºĢºáĈóÄĄ³ÏđÏóêđÌđĄºóêĈϳºĄº³³êƺĄóėĈê³ÌĄèÄėáɐ
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mºÌóėđđóÏđÏįºêĈģÏđÌĄºÆėáĄÏêÄóĄèđÏóêóêĄ³ÏđÏóêáºĢºáĈê³ĄÏĈÞĈĄºáđº³đóĈºÄóó³óêĈėèĀđÏóêɐ
Resources
The Fukushima Daiichi Accident
ÌđđĀɉɖɖģģģɢĀė«ɐÏºɐóĄÆɖ«óóÞĈɖ9"óóÞĈɖȩȨȱȮȪɖ
z̺ɢ,ėÞėĈÌÏèɢÏÏÌÏɢϳºêđ
Canadian Guidelines for the Restriction of
Radioactively Contaminated Food and Water
Following a Nuclear Emergency
ºêĢÏĄóêèºêđáɢģóĄÞĀáºɢ̺áđÌɖĄºĀóĄđĈɢ
ê³ÏêɢÆėϳºáÏêºĈɢĄºĈđĄÏđÏóêɢĄ³ÏóđÏĢºáĩɢ
óêđèÏêđº³ɢÄóó³ɢģđºĄɢÄóááóģÏêÆɢêėáºĄɢ
ºèºĄÆºêĩɢÆėϳºáÏêºĈɢĄđÏóêáºɐÌđèá
International Atomic Energy Agency
ÌđđĀĈɉɖɖģģģɐÏºɐóĄÆɖ
Fukushima InFORM
ÌđđĀĈɉɖɖÄėÞėĈÌÏèÏêÄóĄèɐɖ
ÌđđĀɉɖɖèºóĀĄɐɖĄºĈºĄÌɖĀĄóÛºđɖÏêÄóĄèɢ
ÏêđºĄêđÏóêáɢÄėÞėĈÌÏèɢóºêɢĄ³Ïóêėáϳºɢ
èóêÏđóĄÏêÆɢêºđģóĄÞ
Canadian Radiological Monitoring Network
ȨÄȩɢȬȨººɢȰȱȪȭɢº«ȩȪ³ȫȭȯȮȮȰ
TRIUMF
Canada’s national laboratory for particle and nuclear
physics and accelerator-based science
OCEAN WATCH | CLEAN WATER
FUKUSHIMA | iƺȩȩȮ
Footnotes
mºĄ³óêɊqɐȪȨȩȩɐ,ėÞėĈÌ ÏèĄ³Ï đÏóêĄºđºĈėêÏăėºđºĈđóÄèĄÏ êº
áÏĺɭĈÌĄ³ÏêºĈĈɐqϺêºȫȫȪɉȪȱȪɐ
ėºĈĈºáºĄɊGɐɊQɐóĩèɊê³Qɐ,ėÞĈģɐȪȨȩȩɐ9èĀđĈóÄ
đ̺,ėÞėĈÌÏèêė áºĄĀóģºĄĀáêđĈóêèĄÏêºĄ³ÏóđÏĢ Ïđĩɐ
"êĢÏĄóê èºêđáqϺêºê³zºÌêóáóÆ ĩȬȭɞȪȫɟɉȱȱȫȩɡȱȱȫȭɐ
óĈÌϳɊSɐɊê³EɐGê³ɐȪȨȩȪɐzĄÞÏêÆđ̺,ėÞėĈÌÏè
Ą³ÏóêėáϳºĈɐqϺêºȫȫȮɉȩȩȩȭɡȩȩȩȮɐ
\ÌÏÏɊ"ɐȪȨȩȬɐ6ÏĄ óĈÌÏèđó,ėÞėĈÌÏèɉÏóÌįĄ³ĈóÄm ³ÏđÏóêɐ
qĀĄÏêƺĄɢºĄáÆºĄáÏê6ºÏ³ºá«ºĄÆɊ.ºĄèêĩɐȪȪȭĀɐ\9ɉȩȨɐȩȨȨȯɖȱȯȰɢ
ȫɢȮȬȪɢȫȰȯȪȯɢȪ
\ÌÏÏɊ"ɐȪȨȩȭɐz̺ÌėèêóêĈºăėºêºĈóÄđ̺,ėÞėĈÌÏèÏɢÏÌÏ
êėáºĄĀóģºĄĀáêđϳºêđĈɐz̺ĈÏɢiÏĸEóė Ąêáȩȫɞȫȱɟɉȩɡȩȫɐ
ÌđđĀɉɖɖĀÛÛÄɐóĄÆɖɢ"ÏÏÌÏĄóɢ\ÌÏÏɖȬȫȰȪɖĄđÏáºɐĀ³Ä
Ąó³óĢÏđÌɊQɐĄóģêɊzɐóèÏêÆóɊɐEêėĈĈóêɊ6ɐGėºĄɊGɐQĩĄđáºɊ
ɐmϳ³ºááɊGɐq̺ºáɊɐqáóèóêɊê³iɐóĈĈɐȪȨȩȫɐEóėĄêáóÄ
"êĢÏĄóê èºêđám³Ïóđ ÏĢÏđĩȩȪȬɉȪȨȭɡȪȩȫɐ
ȯ
,ėÞėĈÌ ÏèêėáºĄϳºêđÏ êĸĈÌĀĄó³ėđĈê³ĈĈóÏđº³Ą ÏĈÞđó
ĸĈÌóêĈėèºĄĈɐm³ÏđÏóêiĄóđº đÏóêóĈÏèºđĄ ĩȩȭȯɞȩɟɉȩɡȭɐ
³óÏɐóĄÆɖȩȨɐȩȨȱȫɖĄĀ³ɖêđȪȫȱ
̺êɊEɐɊQɐɐóóÞºɊEɐ,ɐQºĄϺĄɊɐÌϺĄɊQɐzĄė³ºáɊ.ɐóĄÞè êɊ
óÄĸĈÌĈèĀáºĈÄ Ąóèđ̺ģºĈđ óĈđóÄê³ɐm³ÏđÏóêiĄóđºđÏóê
óĈÏèºđĄĩȩȮȫɞȪɟɉȪȮȩɡȪȮȮÌđđĀɉɖɖ³Ĩɐ³óÏɐóĄÆɖȩȨɐȩȨȱȫɖĄĀ³ɖêėȩȭȨ
óèÏêÆóɊzɐɊGɐqđĄ óĈđɊɐ̺ĈđºĄɊEɐÏááÏèĈɊEɐê³iɐqɐmóĈĈɐ
ȪȨȩȮɐqđė³ĩÏêÆáºĢºáĈóÄ,ėÞ ėĈÌÏèɢ³ºĄÏĢº³Ą³ ÏóđÏĢÏđĩÏêĈóÞºĩº
iÌĩĈÏĈê³̺èÏĈđĄ ĩɐ\9ɉȩȨɐȩȨȩȮɖÛɐĄ³ĀÌĩĈ̺èɐȪȨȩȮɐȩȪɐȨȩȪ
áĢɊEɐEɐê³,ɐɐiɐ.ó«ĈɐȪȨȩȮɐQó³ºáÏêÆȩȫȯ
Ïêđ̺ĈáèóêɡĄºĈϳºêđÞ ÏááºĄģÌáºÄóó³ģº«óÄđ ̺SóĄđ̺ ĈđºĄê
iÏĸÄóááóģÏêÆđ̺,ėÞėĈÌ ÏèSėáºĄϳºêđ ɐqϺêºóÄđ ̺
zóđá"êĢ ÏĄóêèºêđȭȬ ȬɉȭȮɡȮȯɐ
óèÏêÆóɊzɐɊGɐqđĄ óĈđɊɐ̺ĈđºĄɊEɐÏááÏèĈɊEɐqɐIºÌêºĄđɊ
Sɐ.êđêºĄɊê³EɐEɐáĢɐȪȨȩȯɐ,ėÞėĈÌ Ïèɢ³ºĄÏĢº³Ą³ÏóđÏĢÏđ ĩ
èºĈėĄºèºêđĈÏêiÏĸĈáèóêê³ĈóÏáĈèĀáºĈóááºđº³Ïê
óĄÆɖȩȨɐȩȩȫȱɖÛɢȪȨȩȯɢȨȪȯȪ
Q³ÏÆêɊɐEɐɊɐėèêêɊê³Sɐqɐ,ÏĈ̺ĄɐȪȨȩȪɐi Ïĸ«áėºĸê
đėêđĄêĈĀóĄđ, ėÞėĈÌÏè³ºĄÏĢº ³Ą³Ïóêė áϳºĈÄĄóèEĀêđó
áÏÄóĄ êÏɐiĄóºº³Ï êÆĈóÄđ̺SđÏóêá³ºèĩóÄqϺê ºĈȩȨȱɞȪȬɟɉ
ȱȬȰȫɡȱȬȰȮɐ
³ɊzɐɊSºèóđóɊɐɊqÌÏèèėĄɊqɐɊ,ėÛÏđɊzɐɊQÏįėêóɊzɐɊ
qóÌđóèºɊzɐɊGɐGèÏĩèɊzɐQóĄÏđɊ ê³qɐ9ÆĄĈÌÏɐȪȨȩȫɐ"ĵºđĈ
óÄđ̺êėáº Ą³ÏĈĈđºĄóêèĄÏêºĀĄó³ėđĈÏê,ėÞėĈÌÏèɐEóėĄêáóÄ
"êĢÏĄóê èºêđám³Ïóđ ÏĢÏđĩȩȪȬɉȪȬȮɡȪȭȬɐ
SºĢÏááºɊɐmɐɊɐEɐiÌÏáá ÏĀĈɊmɐɐĄó³ºėĄɊê³Gɐɐ6ÏÆ áºĩɐȪȨȩȬɐ
zĄºáºĢº áĈóÄ,ėÞėĈÌÏè³Ï ĈĈđºĄĄ³ÏóêėáϳºĈÏê"ĈđiÏĸ
á«óĄºɐ"êĢÏĄóêèºêđáqϺêºê³zº ÌêóáóÆ ĩȬȰɉȬȯȫȱɡȬȯȬȫɐ
ÌđđĀɉɖɖ³Ĩɐ³óÏɐóĄÆɖȩȨɐȩȨȪȩɖºĈȭȨȨȩȪȱ«
ÏĈêºĄóĈɢQóêđºèĩóĄɊɐQɐɊɐiėáĩɊIɐɐºđ̺Ą³óêɊê³ɐ\đɐ
ȪȨȩȮɐÆáó«áºĈđ ÏèđºóÄĈº Äóó³óêĈėèĀđÏóê«ĩóĈđá9ê³ÏƺêóėĈ
ĀºóĀáºĈɐiIóq\S"ɊȩȩɞȩȪɟɊºȨȩȮȮȮȰȩɐ\9ɉȩȨɐȩȫȯȩɖÛóėĄêáɐĀóêºɐȨȩȮȮȮȰȩɐ
,ÏĈ̺ĄɊSɐqɐɊGɐºėÆ ºáÏêɢqºÏá áºĄɊzɐ.ɐ6ÏêđóêɊɐėèêêɊɐEɐ
Q³ÏÆêɊê³Eɐ.ĄêϺĄɢIĀáºɐȪȨȩȫɐ"ĢáėđÏóêóÄĄ³ÏđÏóê³óĈºĈ
ê³ĈĈóÏđº³ĄÏĈÞÄĄóèđ̺,ėÞėĈÌÏ èêėáºĄϳºêđđóèĄÏêº
«Ïóđê³ÌėèêóêĈėèºĄĈóÄĈºÄóó ³ɐiĄóºº³ÏêÆĈóÄđ ̺SđÏóê á
³ºèĩóÄq ϺêºĈȩȩȨɞȪȮɟɉȩȨȮȯȨɡȩȨȮȯȭɐ
ȩȯ ʊĈĩè«óáÄóĄđ̺èÏĄóĈϺĢºĄđɊê9êđºĄêđÏóêáqĩĈđºèóÄ
êÏđĈɞq9ɟėĈº³ÄóĄèºĈėĄ ÏêÆĄ³ÏđÏóêáºĢºáĈê³³óĈººăėáđó
ȩȨʔȮĈϺĢºĄđĈɞ ʊȩȨȨȨ ɞèÏááÏĈϺĢºĄđĈɟʊȩɊȨȨȨɊȨȨȨȟqĝ
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... Although radioactivity levels in fish and seafood products in BC are being considered of no risks for people at present times (Chester et al. 2013;Chen 2013;Chen et al. 2014;Domingo et al. 2016 and2018;Alava and Gantner 2018), concerns and questions remain about the long-term exposure and bioaccumulation of radioactivity in marine food webs of the North Pacific . A bioaccumulation modeling study to simulate and predict concentrations of 137 Cs in the food-web of piscivorous southern resident killer whales from BC in the long term revealed that the 137 Cs levels in Pacific herring, sablefish, halibut, Pacific salmon (i.e. ...
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Marine mammal habitat is critical for the long-term survival of the 31 species of marine mammals inhabiting the ocean and coastal-marine environment of British Columbia (BC, Canada). As top predators and iconic species, marine mammals not only render ecological services and functions in sensitive marine ecosystems, but provide sustain for socio-economic activities in the region, and cultural and traditional knowledge values for coastal First Nation communities. However, several anthropogenic threats, including physical and habitat disturbances, underwater noise, fisheries interactions and chemical pollutants are among the main environmental stressors affecting these species. This chapter discusses the current status of chemical pollution risks and assesses the impact on marine mammal species and their habitats in BC. From persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and marine debris to contaminants of emerging concern (i.e., pharmaceutical and personal care products, microplastics) and anthropogenic radionuclides, the habitat of marine mammals has become a receiving environment, acting both as a sink and source, for point sources and non-point sources, chemical assaults by spills, and long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants. Of particular concern is the impact of pollution on the endangered population of southern resident killer whales, using the Strait of Georgia as part of their habitat to reproduce and feed in Chinook salmon. Concerted and precautionary pollutant management actions and proactive mitigation strategies to reduce pollution risks in sensitive marine ecosystems are recommended.
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