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Theadvancement of smartphones, global positioning system, and information technologies have a great influence on our travelling preferences and behaviour, dynamically shaping the transportation industry. In addition to providing convenience to the riders, it also has created some debate among the stakeholders, including the policy makers. This paper presents a quantitative study of Taxi service experience in Jordan. The aim of the study is to evaluate Jordanians’ experiences with yellow taxi services, assess their opinion toward advantages and disadvantages of Uber taxi services in Jordan and obtain opinions on the expected future of Uber taxi services.
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Modern Applied Science; Vol. 12, No. 11; 2018
ISSN 1913-1844 E-ISSN 1913-1852
Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
352
The Ride-Hailing Mobile Application for Personalized Travelling
Ziad Hunaiti1, Mohammed Al Masarweh2, Zayed Huneiti3, Ahmad Alshebailat4 & Marzia Hoque Tania4
1 Knowledge Well Limited, United Kingdom
2 Managment Information System, Collage of Business in Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Electrical Engineering, college of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa Applied University, Jordan
4 Anglia Ruskin University, United Kingdom
Correspondence: Ziad Hunaiti, Knowledge Well Limited, United Kingdom. E-mail: Ziad@Knowledgewell.co.uk
Received: March 16, 2018 Accepted: September 20, 2018 Online Published: October 29, 2018
doi:10.5539/mas.v12n11p352 URL: https://doi.org/10.5539/mas.v12n11p352
Abstract
Theadvancement of smartphones, global positioning system, and information technologies have a great influence
on our travelling preferences and behaviour, dynamically shaping the transportation industry. In addition to
providing convenience to the riders, it also has created some debate among the stakeholders, including the policy
makers. This paper presents a quantitative study of Taxi service experience in Jordan. The aim of the study is to
evaluate Jordanians’ experiences with yellow taxi services, assess their opinion toward advantages and
disadvantages of Uber taxi services in Jordan and obtain opinions on the expected future of Uber taxi services.
Keywords: Ride sharing, Ride-sourcing, Ride-splitting, Smartphone-enabled Applications, Third-Party Taxi
Services, Transportation, Quantitative Study, GPS, GIS, Information System
1. Introduction
Taxis can play an important role to provide a personalised point- to-point transportation service, especially in the
urban areas. Effective taxi services can significantly reduce the number of private cars on the road (Jha et al.,
2018). The technological advancements in the industry of transportation and mobile devices have paved the way
for smartphone enabled ride-hailing services (Maqableh & Karajeh, 2014). Initially such services used to be
referred as ride-sharing or peer-to-peer mobility services. California Public Utilities Commission (2013) stated
such services to be referred as transportation network companies. However, they are still colloquially known as
ride sharing, ridesourcing, ride-splitting or ride-haling services. In 2009, Uber emerged as of the first service to
provide such facilities (“Uber,” 2018).
1.1 Uber as a Ride-Hailing Application
Admi nistrator
Panel
Servic e
management,
suppo rt
Back-end application
Account an d
payment
management
Ordering
services
Passenger
mobile/ web application
mobile/ web application
Account and settlement
management
Receiving
orders and ser vices
monit orin g
Driver
Support/
Administrator
Figure 1. Uber mechanism
The Uber technology platform aids the driver-partners and the riders to be connected through a smartphone
application. The mechanism is illustrated in Figure 1 (Wegner, 2017). The rider can use the application using
passenger’s account to request a ride in the Uber-cities. In response, when a neighboringdriver-partner accepts
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the request, the application lets the rider know a projection of arrival time to the passenger’s location. The
application also updates the rider when the driver-partner is almost near to the location. Unlike the traditional
taxi, as the Uber cars do not possess any distinctive visual appearance, the application also provides few valuable
information to the rider such as the type of the vehicle, license plate number, approved information regarding
driver’s identity to facilitate the rider to identify the driver-partner at pickup location.
The rider has the freedom to express the preference about route course to the destination. The destination can be
specified through the application prior or during the journey. The journey is terminated at the destination point,
followed by automatic calculation of the fare. The cost is payable in the rider-defined method, which varies in
different Uber-cities. However, the payment method needs to be specified before sending a ride-request. The
Uber-technology initiated a bidirectional user evaluation system. Therefore, the rider as well as the driver-partner
can appraise the experience at the termination of the journey inspiring a social movement.
Globally, there are 75 million people who uses the Uber ride-hailing mobile application (Bhuiyan, 2018). There
are 3 million Uber drivers. Uber is being used in 65 countries, over 600 cities. Uber reported to provide 10
million rides per day (“Uber,” 2018). In 2016, Uber’s share of the ride-hailing market in US was near 85%
(Hartmans, 2016).
In spite of being a promising start-up, Uber is facing many challenges. The foremost challenge facing Uber is
common to all forms of mechanisation since the 19th century Luddites: the (justified) fear that technological
improvements take away people’s livelihoods. Taxi drivers are the recognisable victims in the case of Uber.
Traditional or yellow taxi drivers generally undergo additional training in driving and are subject to regulations
and criminal background checks etc.; conversely, Uber has traditionally had an open-door policy in terms of who
it allows to drive its passengers. This is inherently disadvantageous to traditional taxi drivers and firms, and
indeed detrimental to passenger safety, regardless of employment issues (Zhao, Dimovitz, Staveland, &Medsker,
2016). However, the most vocal opposition to Uber has been on the grounds of employment (i.e. taxi drivers
losing their jobs), which was the main rationale for some countries and municipalities banning the service
(Gerdes & Thornton, 2015). The global taxi business developed over centuries (e.g. from horse-drawn hackney
cabs in Victorian London) and is a major economic sector in its own right, generating employment for millions
of people worldwide and producing large revenues, all of which is threatened by Uber.
Furthermore, Uber drivers are also increasingly concerned about their employment rights, as they do not in fact
have the protections enjoyed by conventional employees; as a result of legal agitation, Uber was forced to pay
substantial sums to about 400,000 cab drivers worldwide (Gerdes & Thornton, 2015). Uber seeks to view Uber
drivers and subcontracting parties in a transaction between itself and passengers, but regulatory bodies and
drivers themselves are increasingly wary of allowing Uber to escape the conventional expectations of taxi
companies toward their employees by exploiting its aberrant technological advantage in following what is
otherwise a traditional taxi business model.
Indeed, Uber’s aggressive and predatory policies, such as its callous disregard for the livelihoods of yellow cab
and Uber taxi drivers, indicate an ethical void at the heart of globalised business culture stemming from an
outdated utilitarian vision of capitalist exploitation for short-term economic gain that is increasingly unfit for the
purposes of the 21st century globalised world (Valladão, 2016).
1.2 Jordan as a Case Study
The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, located in southwest Asia, is bounded on the north by Syria, the east by Iraq,
the southeast by Saudi Arabia and from the west by Palestine (Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities, 2017). The
population in Jordan in 2016 was estimated at 9.7 million, having increased exponentially from under 600,000 in
1952. Jordan’s unemployment rate for 2016 rose by 1.6% to reach 15.3% (GOS, 2017). The results of the
Employment and Unemployment Survey for 2016 showed that illiterate young people constituted a small
percentage of 0.8%; the results also indicate that 96% of young people are enrolled in study. The average wage
in 2014 for both males and females was approximately $8,000 p.a., about 14 percent of which is spent on
transportation (Iman, 2014).
Jordan has a wide network of roads linking the northern, southern, eastern and western sides. Amman, the capital
city of Jordan, is one of the fastest-growing and most densely populated cities in the Middle East, containing
over a third of the Jordanian population. There are few buses operating in Amman, but they cover the main
routes and fares are cheap. Buses are the most prevalent form of transport between cities, but taxis are the most
common within cities. The normal taxi is yellow or grey, called a momayaz, which is considered a “special taxi
with additional services that the passenger can order, which is very popular in the streets of Amman (Ministry of
Tourism and Antiquities, 2017). However, in recent years the quality of taxi services and customer satisfaction
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has steadily declined (Iman, 2014).
This has made Amman ripe for penetration by Uber and similar services seeking to meet public demand for
efficient taxi services, and the population rapidly embraced Uber, invoking the anger and consternation of the
yellow cab drivers disenfranchised from their traditional monopoly. However, the lack of existing research about
this subject inspired the undertaking of this study to fill the gap in the literature and provide useful
recommendations for main stakeholders.
2. Literature Review
There are number of patents for the ride hailing mechanism (US9157748B2, 2013, US9488494B2, 2015,
US9934691B2, 2016). In the recent literature, considerable amount of focus has been provided to the economic
perspective of the ride-hailing applications (Chen & Sheldon, 2016; Kim, Baek, & Lee, 2018; Lee, Park, & Lee,
2018; Zha, Yin, & Du, 2017; Zha, Yin, & Yang, 2016). Few studies have been also conducted on the social
aspects of this shared economy (Peticca-Harris, Degama, &Ravishankar, 2018; Smith & McCormick, 2019).
Having a great influence on the personalised travel mode in US market, studies have been conducted on cities
such as New York (Salnikov, Lambiotte, Noulas, &Mascolo, 2015), Washington DC, (Yang et al., 2018), Atlanta
(Wang & Mu, 2018) and San Francisco (Glöss, McGregor, & Brown, 2016).
In literature, the implications of Uber in the urban transportation system has been studied for metropolitan cities
e.g. London (Glöss et al., 2016), Toronto (Haider, Donaldson, &Nourinejad, 2015), Delhi (Kashyap, 2018).
Studies have been also heighted DiDi- another strong company in the ride-hailing industry (Jacquet, 2018; Jiang,
Chen, Mislove, & Wilson, 2018; Zhang, Guo, Li, & Liu, 2016).
To the best of authors’ knowledge, there is no existing study that can illustrate how these ride-hailing
applications are affecting the personalised travelling experience in Jordan. Imam (2014) studied the
methodological issues pertaining to the investigation of satisfaction with public transportation in Amman. The
key finding from the study revealed that, in general, passengers are not satisfied from public transportation in
Amman, and the author recommended that extensive work is needed to overhaul and improve the system to
solve endemic and serious problems like congestion, accidents, noise, air pollution and fuel consumption.
Therefore, there is a need of elaborate study on travel experience and behaviour which can help the policy
makers to create a harmony in the disrupted traditional transportation industry while providing a better service to
its citizens.
3. Research Design and Methodology
Based on the preliminary finding from our qualitative study using focus group, we designed the questionnaire
using a five-point Likert scale to efficiently quantify the opinions of passengers about using taxis in Jordan. The
simplicity and low cost of this method are additional advantages to its ability to quickly glean quality data from
large groups of people, and the data can be easily analysed used statistical packages such as SPSS. A pilot study
was conducted to test that participants could understand all items and to invite any feedback prior to actually
conducting the study fieldwork (Landau &Everitt, 2004).
Figure 2. Questionnaire data analysis process
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The use of a five-point Likert scale for the questionnaire meant that the data was easy to process digitally using
advanced analysis options in SPSS or standard spreadsheets in MS Excel. The collected data reliability can be
tested, and descriptive statistic data can be presented according to each question in the questionnaire; graphs can
be generated and advanced statistical test can be performed to compare between deferent group and questions
(Creswell, 2003). Figure 1 shows the process of analysing data from the questionnaire.
3.1 Reliability and Validity Testing
The reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha equation:
Reliability coefficient = 𝒏
𝑵𝟏* 𝟏 𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍𝒗𝒂𝒓𝒊𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒒𝒖𝒆𝒔𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒔
𝒗𝒂𝒓𝒊𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒄𝒐𝒍𝒍𝒆𝒈𝒆𝒈𝒓𝒂𝒅𝒆𝒔 (1)
3.2 Demographic Data
Analysis of gender, level of education, age group and occupation was important to present general information
related to participants as well as to provide good grounds to make categories to conduct comparison and test any
differences between different groups (e.g. male and female, level of education, age group and occupation).
3.3 Descriptive Analysis
This part of test was conducted to obtain a general view on the collected votes on each item within each list and
translate that into strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree and strongly disagree.
3.4 Chi-Square Test
Chi-square Test is useful to test whether the distribution of data between the voters is significantly different.
3.5 T-Test
T-test was conducted twice in order to see if the responses between different groups were of statistical
significance. It was performed between males and females, T-test between usage categorisation (frequent or
occasional) and ANOVA test between four groups of users (1 to 10, 11 to 20, 21 to 30 and >30, known as
sections 1-4 respectively).
3.6 ANOVA Test
One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to see if there were significant differences between four
groups of users (sections 1-4).
4. Results and Discussion
4.1 Data Collection and Pilot Study
Before the formal data collection, the survey was filled by five volunteers in order to gather feedback on
structure, clarity of statements, grammatical mistakes or any deficiencies that might have negatively effects on
data analysis or findings. Moreover, the pilot study yielded an indication of how the results might be presented.
The general information about participants including gender, age group, occupation and frequency of taxi use
were collected. The questionnaire was electronically distributed to nearly 400 people and 148 completed
responses were received, representing a response rate of 37%. The key objective of this study was to gather
sufficient responses regarding the identified factors.
4.2 Data Analysis
4.2.1 Cronbach’s Alpha
Cronbach’s alpha was used in order to make sure the collected data is reliable and can be depended upon in
subsequent analysis to provide suitable grounds for making conclusions. A Cronbach’s alpha coefficient from Eq.
1 of (0.90) indicates high reliability and the stability of the scale and the validity of the study. The validity
coefficient (the square of the islands) is (0.95), which shows that the scale is authentic and beneficial in relation
to the studied phenomena.
4.2.2 Demographic Data
The demographic information can be visualised from Figure 2. The gender distribution is not heavily
imbalanced. Figure 2 illustrates the view of the distribution of the sample by male (58.1%) and female (41.9%).
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Gender Education Age cohort Occu pation
User
catago ry
Taxi usage/
month
Figure 3. Demographic information
The distribution of the sample by education according was High School (11.5%), Diploma (6.1%), BSc (56.1%),
MSc (14.2%), PhD (7.4%) and other (0.7%). Most of our samplesrepresents younger demographic. The
distribution of the sample by age cohort: 18 to 25 (33.8%), 26 to 35 (56.8%), 36 to 40 (4.7%) and 41 to 50 (3.4%)
and 51 to 60 (1.4%). The occupation of the participants can be categorised as: government (14.8%),
non-government (39.8%), self-employed (9.8%), student (20.3%), unemployed (8.1%) and other (7.4%).
Most of our participants were occasional taxi users (79.1%). Only 20.9% of the sample are frequent taxi users.
The distribution of monthly usage of taxi services of the sample can be viewed from Figure 2 as 1 to 10 (79.7%),
11 to 20 (6.1%), 21 to 30 (6.1%), student (20.3%) and >30 (8.1%).
4.3 Experience with Yellow Taxis
Table 1 illustrates the frequencies for respondents’ answers concerning their experience with yellow taxis before
Uber.Table 2 illustrates Chi-square test results for respondents’ answers about their experiences with yellow taxis
before Uber.
Table 1. Experiences with taxis before Uber
Statement Strongly
agree
Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly
disagree
1. I have to walk some distance to catch a yellow taxi 56 21 37 24 10
37.8 14.2 25.0 16.2 6.8
2. Yellow taxi drivers are sometimes picky; I prefer
young drivers or individuals without family luggage
70 30 24 14 10
47.3 20.3 16.2 9.5 6.8
3. Yellow taxi drivers sometimes refuse to go to some
destinations or routes
92 27 12 10 7
62.2 18.2 8.1 6.8 4.7
4. Some yellow taxi drivers are rude 57 39 34 11 7
38.5 26.4 23.0 7.4 4.7
5. Some yellow taxi drivers ask for higher
fare/payment or do not use the meter
52 38 33 18 7
35.1 25.7 22.3 12.2 4.7
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6. Some yellow taxi drivers get other passengers to
share with you to maximise their income
40 28 38 30 12
27.0 18.9 25.7 20.3 8.1
7. Some yellow taxi drivers drive carelessly 39 42 40 21 6
26.4 28.4 27.0 14.2 4.1
8. Some yellow taxis are dirty or poorly maintained 48 42 36 14 8
32.4 28.4 24.3 9.5 5.4
9. It is difficult to find yellow taxis at night 59 42 27 15 5
39.9 28.4 18.2 10.1 3.4
10. Some yellow taxi drivers obstruct or do not
display their information card
48 46 29 15 10
Table 2. Chi-square testing for experiences with yellow taxis before Uber
Statement Chi-square Df Sig. Median Scale
1. I have to walk some distance to catch a yellow taxi 33.597 4 0.000 4.00 Agree
2. Yellow taxi drivers are sometimes picky; I prefer young
drivers or individuals without family luggage
59.178 4 0.000 4.00 Agree
3. Yellow taxi drivers sometimes refuse to go to some
destinations or routes
132.667 4 0.000 5.00 Strongly
agree
4. Some yellow taxi drivers are rude 47.085 4 0.000 4.00 Agree
5. Some yellow taxi drivers ask for higher fare/payment or do
not use the meter
33.442 4 0.000 4.00 Agree
6. Some yellow taxi drivers get other passengers to share with
you to maximise their income
14.062 4 0.000 3.00 Neutral
7. Some yellow taxi drivers drive carelessly 25.147 4 0.000 4.00 Agree
8. Some yellow taxis are dirty or poorly maintained 35.147 4 0.000 4.00 Agree
9. It is difficult to find yellow taxis at night 52.822 4 0.000 4.00 Agree
10. Some yellow taxi drivers obstruct or do not display their
information card
36.620 4 0.000 4.00 Agree
The key findings from Table 2 can be interpreted as follows:
1. The Chi-square value for the statement I have to walk some distance to catch a yellow taxi was (33.597)
with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
2. The Chi-square value for the statement yellow taxi drivers are sometimes picky; I prefer young drivers
or individuals without family luggage was (59.178) with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level
of significance (5%).
3. The Chi-square value for the statement yellow taxi drivers sometimes refuse to go to some destinations
or routes was (132.667) with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
4. The Chi-square value for the statement some yellow taxi drivers are rude was (47.085) with P-value
(0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
5. The Chi-square value for the statement some yellow taxi drivers ask for higher fare/payment or do not
use the meter was (33.442) with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
6. The Chi-square value for the statement some yellow taxi drivers get other passengers to share with you
to maximise their income was (14.062) with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of
significance (5%).
7. The Chi-square value for the statement some yellow taxi drivers drive carelessly was (25.147) with
P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
8. The Chi-square value for the statement some yellow taxis are dirty or poorly maintained was (35.147)
with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
9. The Chi-square value for the statement it is difficult to find yellow taxis at night was (52.822) with
P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
10. The Chi-square value for the statement some yellow taxi drivers obstruct or do not display their
information card was (36.620) with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
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There is consensus on the main issues regarding yellow taxis in Jordan. Nine out of ten of the listed points were
agreed upon; there was a neutral response to some yellow taxi drivers gets other passengers to share with you to
maximize their income. Hence, it can be concluded that participants reported a high level of dissatisfaction with
the yellow taxi services in Amman, corroborating findings our earlier study as well. Therefore, that might be
seen as one of the driving factors for the quick deployment of Uber taxi services in Jordan as a good option for
Jordanians to have quality taxi services.
4.4 Disadvantages of Uber Taxi Services
Table 3 displays respondents’ answers about the disadvantages of Uber taxi services. Table 4 shows the
Chi-square test results for respondents’ answers about the disadvantages of Uber taxi services.
Table 3. Disadvantages of Uber taxi services
Statement Strongly
agree
Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly
disagree
1. Subject to satellite navigation/GPS error, mainly
in urban environments
10 19 50 45 24
6.8 12.8 33.8 30.4 16.2
2. Relatively more expensive than yellow taxis 41 32 40 24 11
27.7 21.6 27.0 16.2 7.4
3. Being unregulated is an issue 30 29 40 25 24
20.3 19.6 27.0 16.9 16.2
4. Cultural or social norms makes it a challenge for
both drivers and passengers
19 25 43 22 39
12.8 16.9 29.1 14.9 26.4
5. Card payment option can be seen as a challenge 16 24 39 24 45
10.8 16.2 26.4 16.2 30.4
6. Drivers may lack experience 22 16 48 28 34
14.9 10.8 32.4 18.9 23.0
7. Sharing information might be seen as an issue by
some people
21 29 49 23 26
14.2 19.6 33.1 15.5 17.6
8. Car and passenger insurance might concern some
passengers
23 25 53 19 28
15.5 16.9 35.8 12.8 18.9
9. Parking or waiting areas in public places might be
an issue
25 25 50 25 23
16.9 16.9 33.8 16.9 15.5
10. Uber taxi drivers might be challenged by or clash
with yellow taxi drivers/owners
39 32 46 17 14
26.4 21.6 31.1 11.5 9.5
Table 4. Chi-square testing for disadvantages of Uber taxi services
Statement Chi-square Df Sig. Median Scale
1. Subject to satellite navigation/GPS error, mainly in urban
environments
38.171 4 0.000 3.00 Neutral
2. Relatively more expensive than yellow taxis 15.147 4 0.000 3.00 Neutral
3. Being unregulated is an issue 3.984 4 0.000 3.00 Neutral
4. Cultural or social norms makes it a challenge for both drivers
and passengers
16.233 4 0.000 3.00 Neutral
5. Card payment option can be seen as a challenge 22.202 4 0.000 2.00 Neutral
6. Drivers may lack experience 23.209 4 0.000 3.00 Neutral
7. Sharing information might be seen as an issue by some people 12.589 4 0.000 3.00 Neutral
8. Car and passenger insurance might concern some passengers 21.349 4 0.000 3.00 Neutral
9. Parking or waiting areas in public places might be an issue 12.977 4 0.000 3.00 Neutral
10. Uber taxi drivers might be challenged by or clash with yellow
taxi drivers/owners
22.124 4 0.000 3.00 Neutral
The results of Table 4 can be interpreted as follows:
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1. The Chi-square value for the statement subject to satellite navigation/GPS error, mainly in urban
environments was (38.171) with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
2. The Chi-square value for the statement relatively more expensive than yellow taxis was (15.147) with
P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
3. The Chi-square value for the statement being unregulated is an issue was (3.984) with P-value (0.000),
which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
4. The Chi-square value for the statement cultural or social norms makes it a challenge for both drivers
and passengers was (16.233) with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
5. The Chi-square value for the statement card payment option can be seen as a challenge was (22.202)
with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
6. The Chi-square value for the statement drivers may lack experience was (23.209) with P-value (0.000),
which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
7. The Chi-square value for the statement sharing information might be seen as an issue by some people
was (12.589) with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
8. The Chi-square value for the statement car and passenger insurance might concern some passengers was
(21.349) with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
9. The Chi-square value for the statement parking or waiting areas in public places might be an issue was
(12.977) with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
10. The Chi-square value for the statement Uber taxi drivers might be challenged by or clash with yellow
taxi drivers/owners was (22.124) with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance
(5%).
The participants reflected neutral opinions on the ten listed disadvantages of Uber taxi services, in contrast to
previous literature, specifically being unregulated is an issue, more expensive than yellow taxi and insurance
might be a concern for some passengers). The only possible justification for this is that the high level of
dissatisfaction with yellow taxi services and the low level of competition cause Jordanians to see the
disadvantages of Uber as irrelevant. Furthermore, Jordanian might accept the expense of Uber taxi services, as
some yellow taxi drivers might overcharge. In addition, Jordanians might use unregulated Uber taxi services as it
is often difficult to find a yellow taxi. Finally, Jordanians might see modern Uber vehicles as a safer option than
yellow taxis.
4.5 Advantages of Uber Taxi Services
Table 5displays respondents’ answers about the advantages of Uber taxi services.
Table 5. Advantages of Uber taxi services
Statement Strongly
agree
Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly
disagree
1. It offers a good way to plan my journey 68 32 29 9 10
45.9 21.6 19.6 6.1 6.8
2. It provides anytime, anywhere services 81 29 21 14 3
54.7 19.6 14.2 9.5 2.0
3. New and well-maintained cars 76 36 23 10 3
51.4 24.3 15.5 6.8 2.0
4. Likely to have kind and polite driver 53 44 34 12 5
35.8 29.7 23.0 8.1 3.4
5. Options to choose from available listed drivers and
cars
45 35 43 19 6
30.4 23.6 29.1 12.8 4.1
6. Follows global standards 50 32 44 19 3
33.8 21.6 29.7 12.8 2.0
7. It enables ranking for both passengers and drivers 59 39 33 14 3
39.9 26.4 22.3 9.5 2.0
8. It helps people to have the option not to use private
cars all the time and travel with taxis
56 36 34 16 6
37.8 24.3 23.0 10.8 4.1
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9. It offers people another transport option when they
are unable to drive (e.g. for medical reasons)
62 39 28 14 5
41.9 26.4 18.9 9.5 3.4
10. It helps in solving unemployment issues and helps
offer supplementary income to some
76 33 23 12 4
51.4 22.3 15.5 8.1 2.7
Table 6 shows the Chi-square test results for respondents’ answers about the advantages of Uber taxi services.
Table 6. Chi-square testing for advantages of Uber taxi services
Statement Chi-square Df Sig. Median Scale
1. It offers a good way to plan my journey 58.403 4 0.000 4.00 Agree
2. It provides anytime, anywhere services 113.674 4 0.000 5.00 Strongly
agree
3. New and well-maintained cars 92.589 4 0.000 5.00 Strongly
agree
4. Likely to have kind and polite driver 44.062 4 0.000 4.00 Agree
5. Options to choose from available listed drivers and cars 33.054 4 0.000 4.00 Agree
6. Follows global standards 40.419 4 0.000 4.00 Agree
7. It enables ranking for both passengers and drivers 48.326 4 0.000 4.00 Agree
8. It helps people to have the option not to use private cars all
the time and travel with taxis
41.116 4 0.000 4.00 Agree
9. It offers people another transport option when they are
unable to drive (e.g. for medical reasons)
51.736 4 0.000 4.00 Agree
10. It helps in solving unemployment issues and helps offer
supplementary income to some
83.442 4 0.000 5.00 Strongly
agree
The results of Table (6) can be interpreted as follows:
1. The Chi-square value for the statement it offers a good way to plan my journey was (58.403) with
P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
2. The Chi-square value for the statement it provides anytime, anywhere services was (113.674) with
P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
3. The Chi-square value for the statement new and well-maintained cars was (92.589) with P-value
(0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
4. The Chi-square value for the statement likely to have kind and polite driver was (44.062) with P-value
(0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
5. The Chi-square value for the statement options to choose from available listed drivers and cars was
(33.054) with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
6. The Chi-square value for the statement follows global standards was (40.419) with P-value (0.000),
which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
7. The Chi-square value for the statement it enables ranking for both passengers and drivers was (48.326)
with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
8. The Chi-square value for the statement it helps people to have the option not to use private cars all the
time and travel with taxis was (41.116) with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of
significance (5%).
9. The Chi-square value for the statement it offers people another transport option when they are unable
to drive (e.g. for medical reasons) was (51.736) with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of
significance (5%).
10. The Chi-square value for the statement it helps in solving unemployment issues and helps offer
supplementary income to some was (83.442) with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of
significance (5%).
As expected, participants agreed on seven of the listed advantages and strongly agreed on three of them: it
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provides anytime, anywhere services, new and well-maintained cars and it helps in solving unemployment issues
and helps offer supplementary income to some. The first two are natural reflections of the situation presented in
the preceding two sections, while the third point is linked with the economic difficulties of Jordan which compel
people to seek second job opportunities to cope with the high cost of living and/or to pay their car instalments.
4.6 Future of Uber in Jordan
Table 7displays respondents’ answers about the future of Uber taxi services.
Table 7. The future of Uber taxi services
Statement Strongly
agree
Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly
disagree
1. It will be regulated by government in the near future 63 23 37 17 8
42.6 15.5 25.0 11.5 5.4
2. Uber will bring prices down and attract more
passengers
56 35 35 16 6
37.8 23.6 23.6 10.8 4.1
3. Yellow taxi drivers/owners will start using similar
applications, which will make it harder for
competitors
42 31 41 24 10
28.4 20.9 27.7 16.2 6.8
4. Uber taxi services should be allowed but the
number of Uber cars should be controlled
43 35 40 18 12
29.1 23.6 27.0 12.2 8.1
5. Uber or similar technologies are the future 68 35 25 14 6
45.9 23.6 16.9 9.5 4.1
Table 8 shows the Chi-square test results for respondents’ answers about the future of Uber taxi services.
Table 8. Chi-square testing for future of Uber taxi services
Statement Chi-square Df Sig. Median Scale
1. It will be regulated by government in the near future 56.775 4 0.000 4.00 Agree
2. Uber will bring prices down and attract more passengers 46.698 4 0.000 4.00 Agree
3. Yellow taxi drivers/owners will start using similar applications,
which will make it harder for competitors
16.853 4 0.000 3.00 Neutral
4. Uber taxi services should be allowed but the number of Uber
cars should be controlled
21.194 4 0.000 4.00 Agree
5. Uber or similar technologies are the future 60.961 4 0.000 4.00 Agree
The results of Table 8 can be interpreted as follows:
1. The Chi-square value for the statement it will be regulated by government in the near future was
(56.775) with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
2. The Chi-square value for the statement Uber will bring prices down and attract more passengers was
(46.698) with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
3. The Chi-square value for the statement yellow taxi drivers/owners will start using similar applications,
which will make it harder for competitors was (16.853) with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the
level of significance (5%).
4. The Chi-square value for the statement Uber taxi services should be allowed but the number of Uber
cars should be controlled was (21.194) with P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of
significance (5%).
5. The Chi-square value for the statement Uber or similar technologies are the futurewas (60.961) with
P-value (0.000), which is lower than the level of significance (5%).
It seems that participants are optimistic about the future of Uber in Jordan, seeing Uber or similar technologies as
the future, and they expected it to be regulated by government and to reduce prices. However, they are in the
favour of controlling the number of Uber cars. On the other hand, participants seem to be cautious about the
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future of yellow taxi services by expressing a neutral position about yellow taxi drivers/owners starting to use
similar applications.
Deeper analysis revealed that there are no substantive differences in responses between male and female
participants, type and level of Uber taxi usage; consequently, there is a high level of agreement among
participants.
4.7 Statistical Analysis
In order to check if results might vary according to participants, three more statistical tests were conducted:
T-test between males and females, T-test between usage categorisation (frequent or occasional) and ANOVA test
between four groups of users (1 to 10, 11 to 20, 21 to 30 and >30).
4.7.1 T-Test for Gender
Table 9. T-test for gender
Section Sex N Mean SD T Df Sig.
1
(1-10)
Female 62 3.73 0.890 -0.920 146 0.35
Male 86 3.86 0.870
2
(11-20)
Female 62 2.97 0.768 -0.247 146 0.80
Male 86 3.00 0.797
3
(21-30)
Female 62 3.89 0.977 -0.735 146 0.46
Male 86 4.00 0.881
4
(>30)
Female 62 3.71 1.014 0.072 146 0.94
Male 86 3.70 0.995
Analysing T-test result for gender (Table 9), it can be observed that section 1 (1 to 10) was (-0.920) with a
significance value of (0.35), which is more than the level of significance (5%). The section 2 (11-20) was (-0.247)
with a significance value of (0.80), which is more than the level of significance (5%).The section 3 (21-30) was
(-0.735) with a significance value of (0.46), which is more than the level of significance (5%).The section 4 (>30)
was (-0.072) with a significance value of (0.94), which is more than the level of significance (5%).
4.7.2 T-Test for Taxi User Category
The T-test result for taxi user category (Table 10), section 1 (1 to 10) was (0.442) with a significance value of
(0.65), which is more than the level of significance (5%).
Table 10. T-test for taxi user category
Section Service N Mean SD T Df Sig.
1
(1-10)
Primary 117 3.82 0.857 0.442 146 0.65
Secondary 31 3.74 0.965
2
(11-20)
Primary 117 3.01 0.782 0.665 146 0.50
Secondary 31 2.90 0.790
3
(21-30)
Primary 117 3.97 0.895 0.554 146 0.58
Secondary 31 3.87 1.024
4
(>30)
Primary 117 3.74 0.984 0.966 146 0.33
Secondary 31 3.55 1.060
The section 2 (11 to 20) was (0.665) with a significance value of (0.50), which is more than the level of
significance (5%). The T-test result for taxi user category, section 3 (21 to 30) was (0.554) with a significance
value of (0.58), which is more than the level of significance (5%). The section 4 (>30) was (0.966) with a
significance value of (0.33), which is more than the level of significance (5%).
4.7.3 ANOVA Test between Four User Groups
ANOVA was performed for the four sections of user groups (1 to 10, 11 to 20, 21 to 30 and >30). The value of (f)
test calculated to signify the differences between the numbers of individuals of the study was (0.195) with a
significance value of (0.659), which is more than the level of significance (5%).
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Table 11. ANOVA between four user groups
Source of
Variance
Sum of
Squares
Df Mean
square
F Sig.
Between groups 0.151 1 0.151 0.195 0.659
Within groups 113.166 146 0.775
Total 113.318 147
Table 12. Descriptive statistics between four user groups
Valid N Range Mean SD
1 to 10 118 4 3.80 0.878
11 to 20 9 4 2.99 0.782
21 to 30 9 4 3.95 0.921
>30 12 4 3.70 1.000
5. Limitations and Scope of Future Work
Due to the lack of public research on Uber taxi services in Jordan, the literature review was limited to works
available in the public domain and reviews of studies conducted in other countries which might not share the
same circumstances as Jordan.
Due to the limited time frame to perform data collection, the number of questionnaire responses gathered was
148; while this is respectable, more responses would have conferred greater strength on the findings.
The study was targeted only to passengers; input from other stakeholders would help in obtaining a more
comprehensive overview of Uber taxi services.
There are few future recommendations as follows:
Findings can be enhanced with a wider sample of participants from Amman and other cities in Jordan.
Other studies might be conducted with the inclusion of other stakeholders (e.g. taxi drivers, business
owners and regulators).
Other studies might be conducted to tackle challenges (disadvantages) related to Uber taxi services in
Jordan, mainly those connected with the cultural and social norms.
Other studies might be conducted on the role of Uber taxi services in cutting unemployment.
Other studies can be concocted on how yellow taxi services can be improved to regain passengers’ trust
and enhance their quality of service.
6. Conclusion
The main aim of the research was to evaluate Jordanians’ experiences with yellow taxi services and assess their
opinions toward the advantages and disadvantages of Uber taxi services in Jordan. In addition, it sought to obtain
opinions on the expected future of Uber taxi services. Available studies indicate that Uber is still very new and in
the preliminary adoption stage in most countries in which it operates, facing general barriers to new technology
such as regulation, pricing and safety. Nevertheless, Uber taxi service is becoming more appealing to passengers
worldwide. Therefore, the finding from literature justified the motivation of the study to address a manifest gap
in existing knowledge, and to provide a preliminary overview of Uber in Jordan that can serve as a basis for
future research projects.
Jordanians have a negative experience with yellow taxi services and a high level of dissatisfaction. Uber
disadvantages but it has its own particular disadvantages related to cultural, political and economic
circumstances. While the main disadvantage of Uber is its expense, other disadvantages emphasised by
participants were mainly related to perceived deficiencies in Jordanian readiness rather than being intrinsic to
Uber per se, such as the lack of regulation, cultural barriers, the online card option (i.e. the lack of conventional
cash payments), drivers may lack experience, sharing information might be seen as an issue by some people, and
satellite navigation/GPS errors may be common, particularly in urban environments.
On the other hand, they identified a number of advantages: it allows them to plan their journey easily, the
appearance of new cars seems more attractive, they are willing to use Uber taxi as a global standard, the ability
to choose the driver they like, the friendliness of drivers, seeing Uber as contributing to reducing unemployment
by providing a second job option, the possibility to rate the service and the particular utility of Uber for people
who are unable to drive. Finally, compared to other studies, it seems that Uber taxi service offers extra
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advantages in Jordan and also faces different challenges (disadvantages) pertaining to cultural and social norms.
Jordanians are in favour of Uber taxi services or similar technology and they see it as the future, and they
strongly believe it will be regulated by government in the near future and fair prices will make it more
affordable.
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