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Caraway as Important Medicinal Plants in Management of Diseases

  • Tabib Daru Pharmaceutical Co.


Carum carvi or caraway is traditionally used for treatment of indigestion, pneumonia, and as appetizer, galactagogue, and carminative. Essential oil, fixed oil and many other valuable extractive compounds with industrial applications are prepared from caraway. This review article has new deep research on caraway as medicinal plant. For preparing the manuscript, the information was extracted from accessible international databases (Google scholar, PubMed, Science direct, Springer, and Wiley), electronic resources and traditional books by key word of caraway or Carum carvi. The results of traditional studies exhibited that the galactagogue and carminative effects of caraway fruits are superior to other effects. Although, the traditional scholars used it as appetizer, while caraway was the main ingredient of anti-obesity drugs in traditional medicine, which has been confirmed in two modern clinical trials of human studies. Caraway oil in combination with peppermint oil or menthol is used for treatment of functional dyspepsia in clinical studies. Caraway oil topically on abdomen relieves the IBS symptoms in patient. Although, the use of caraway oil is not recommended in adults under 18 years due to insufficient data, but it can topically use as anti-colic and carminative agent in children or infants. The anti-aflatoxigenic, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of caraway oil along with its reputation as spice help the industries to use it as natural preservatives and antioxidant agents.
Caraway as Important Medicinal Plants in Management of Diseases
Mohaddese Mahboubi
Received: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018
ÓThe Author(s) 2018
Carum carvi or caraway is traditionally used for treatment of indigestion, pneumonia, and as appetizer, galactagogue, and
carminative. Essential oil, fixed oil and many other valuable extractive compounds with industrial applications are prepared
from caraway. This review article has new deep research on caraway as medicinal plant. For preparing the manuscript, the
information was extracted from accessible international databases (Google scholar, PubMed, Science direct, Springer, and
Wiley), electronic resources and traditional books by key word of caraway or Carum carvi. The results of traditional
studies exhibited that the galactagogue and carminative effects of caraway fruits are superior to other effects. Although, the
traditional scholars used it as appetizer, while caraway was the main ingredient of anti-obesity drugs in traditional
medicine, which has been confirmed in two modern clinical trials of human studies. Caraway oil in combination with
peppermint oil or menthol is used for treatment of functional dyspepsia in clinical studies. Caraway oil topically on
abdomen relieves the IBS symptoms in patient. Although, the use of caraway oil is not recommended in adults under
18 years due to insufficient data, but it can topically use as anti-colic and carminative agent in children or infants. The anti-
aflatoxigenic, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of caraway oil along with its reputation as spice help the industries to
use it as natural preservatives and antioxidant agents.
Keywords Caraway Carum carvi Obesity Functional dyspepsia Preservative Carvone Limonene
1 Introduction
Carum genus has 25 species, which Carum carvi or car-
away is the only annual and biennial economical one as
spice, aperitif, and carminative in food and pharmaceutical
industries. Caraway is widely used in food products due to
its pleasant flavor and preservative properties. Caraway
fruits are used as remedy to cure indigestion, pneumonia,
and as carminative, appetizer, and galactagogue in different
traditional systems [1,2]. According to European Union
herbal monograph, caraway is traditionally used for
symptomatic relief of digestive disorders (bloating and
flatulence). Caraway fruits are used as popular remedy to
mask alcoholic breath, anemia, and as antidote agent
against venomous beats. Caraway fruits are used for
flavoring of rye bread and its infusion is a remedy for colic
and digestive disorders, and to fight worms [3]. Caraway
fruits possess stimulant, expectorant and antispasmodic
effects and is used for stomach aches, constipation, and
nausea. It increases the secretion of gastric juice and pro-
motes the discharge of bile, which increases the appetite
and has digestive stimulatory effects [4]. Caraway is rec-
ommended by Persian traditional scholars to relieve the
flatulence. It acts by improvement of digestive systems and
deletion of accumulated gas from gastrointestinal tract,
humors from stomach, which also relives the abdominal
pain. For this purpose, the powder containing ajwain
(Trachyspermum ammi), anise (Pimpinella anisum), cumin
(Cuminum cyminum) and caraway with little rock candy is
used daily as three teaspoons [5]. Ibn Sina traditionally
used caraway for weight loss [6], stomach ache, burping,
flatulence and intestinal spasms [7]. Caraway fruits are the
main part of Safoof-e-Mohazzil, which is traditionally used
as weight loss compound [8]. In Iranian folk medicine,
caraway seeds are believed to possess the antiepileptic
effects [9]. Caraway leaves with garlic are used for treat-
ment of inflamed eczema by Indonesian people. Caraway
&Mohaddese Mahboubi
Medicinal Plants Research Department, Research and
Development, TabibDaru Pharmaceutical Company, Kashan,
Natural Products and Bioprospecting,-volV)(0123456789().,-volV)
tea is secreted in the milk with anti-griping effects on
digestive tracts of breast feeding babies [10]. An ointment
containing powdered fruits in Vaseline is used for animal’s
scabies. Caraway fruits contain valuable therapeutic
greenish-yellow essential oil (3–7%), which is used in
many therapeutic formulations from ancient times. Car-
away oil and thyme oil or caraway oil alone in ethanol
(15 mL) and castor oil (150 mL) are used for scabies and
mycosis [11,12]. For supporting the digestive function and
relief of colic and flatulence, a few drops of caraway oil are
added to olive oil and topically are rubbed over the pit of
stomach or abdomen [4,13]. Although, two review articles
have been published [7,8] on pharmacological activities of
caraway, but the difference of our review with others is the
deepness of our views on caraway. For preparing the
manuscript, the information was extracted from accessible
international databases, electronic resources (PubMed,
Science Direct, Springer, Wiley and Google), and tradi-
tional books (Persian or English modern traditional books),
by key word of caraway or Carum carvi.
2 Chemical Composition of Caraway
Caraway fruits contain essential oil (3–7%), fatty acids
(10–18%) (petroselinic, linoleic and oleic acids), protein
(20%), carbohydrate (15%) [14], phenolic acids (caffeic
acids), flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol) [15,16]. Tan-
nins, alkaloids and terpenoids were present in caraway
aqueous extract [17]. Caraway oil is present in all parts of
plant, but its concentration is highest in its fruits and is
extracted by hydro-distillation method. Caraway chaff oil
is produced by hydro-distillation of husks and stalks and
contains less carvone and more terpenes. Caraway oleo-
resin is prepared from crushed dried caraway fruits by
solvents (hexane ethanol, ethyl acetate, ethylene dichlo-
ride), which has greenish shade of yellow color, normally
contain essential oil (20–25%), and fixed oil (60–75%).
Environmental conditions have essential effects on seed
quality, in other word, hot and dry weather is associated
with significant low quality fruits [18]. Changes in quality
of fruits mean the variation in main and major components
of plant.
Fatty acids such as petroselinic, linoleic and oleic acids
contain 10–18% of caraway fruits. A comparative study on
fatty acid contents of caraway fruits among Tunisian,
German and Egyptian ecotypes exhibited that the Tunisian
chemotype had the higher total fatty acid composition
(7.3%), followed by German (5.7%) and Egyptian (2.9%)
ecotypes. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in three
ecotypes with percent of 31.1%, 30.9% and 29.5% in
Tunisian, German and Egyptian caraway fruits. The cor-
responding linoleic acid contents were 28.7%, 30.0% and
29.2% in these oils. Oleic acid was present about 27.5%,
21.6%, 21.2% in Tunisian, German and Egyptian caraway
fruit fixed oil. Myristic acid, palmitic, stearic and linoleic
acids were present at low levels in fatty oils. The unsatu-
rated fatty acids were higher in Tunisian ecotype (87.8%),
followed by German (82.9%) and Egyptian (80.8%) sam-
ples. Saturated fatty acids (12.1–19.2%), monounsaturated
(50.5–56.2%), polyunsaturated (30.2–31.6%) acids were
the chemical profile of fatty acids [19]. Total fatty acid
content of Tunisian annual caraway fruits from three eco-
types varied from 2.95 to 5.68% (w/w). Saturated (myristic,
palmitic and stearic acids), monounsaturated (petroselinic
acid), polyunsaturated (linoleic acid) fatty acids were pre-
sent in three ecotypes [20]. L-fenchone (55.0%), p-methoxy
benzaldehyde (19.2%) and p-methoxy allyl benzene (9.4%)
were identified in caraway fixed oil (yield 4.5%), which is
extracted by soxhlet apparatus with petroleum ether [21]. A
significant reduction in fatty acid content, seed yield and
growth parameters was observed under water deficient
Carvone and limonene are two major components of oil,
which account for 95% of essential oil compounds.
According to European Pharmacopeia, caraway fruit
should contain 3% essential oil with D-carvone (50–65%),
and (?)-limonene (up to 45%) as main components and it
contains less than 1.5% carveol and dihydrocarveol. D-
carvone as the main component of caraway [23]is
responsible for caraway odor reminiscent [24].
Many different factors have essential effects on yield
and chemical compositions of caraway essential oil. Harsh
conditions (heat and pH) have little effect on carvone and
limonene content of essential oil, while the changes in
minor components are very major [25]. Harvest time before
maturation lead to lower essential oil content than that of
full ripeness of caraway fruits. Also, the amount of carvone
enhances during and after maturation [26]. The higher
limonene to carvone ratio is proposed to be responsible for
better quality of caraway. Increasing the storage time
decreases the essential oil’s content and limonene to car-
vone ratio [27].
The limonene and carvone content increase under water
deficit. The yield of fruit essential oil increases under water
deficit [22]. Drying the seeds and reduction in fruit grinded
powder size increase the essential oil yield [3]. Method of
essential oil extraction, grinding methods, harvest time
change the essential oil yields and their chemical compo-
sition. Extraction of oil from whole seed results in high
content of carvone, while grinded fruits and their full
ripeness result in high essential oil yield [28]. The use of
ultrasound method for extraction of caraway oil results in
higher content of carvone than limonene. Carvone and
limonene yields were 1.3–2 times higher in ultrasound
assisted extraction method, depending on temperature, than
M. Mahboubi
hydro-distillation method [29]. The reason is destructive
mechanical effects of ultrasound method on fruits cell
walls, which increases the leakage of cell content, while in
hydro-distillation method, the plant extracts diffuses across
glandular walls and causes cell rupture over a long time.
Ultrasound treatment of caraway fruit result in release of
essential oil after 30 min of extraction with the same yield
for untreated fruit (1.72% vs. 1.68%) [30].
Limonene (48.1%), carvone (32.9%), and myrcene
(7.9%) were the main components of caraway fruit essen-
tial oil, extracted by hydro-distillation assisted by micro-
wave, while limonene (41.7%), carvone (55.8%), and
myrcene were present in accelerated steam distillation
assisted by microwave method [31]. Hydro-distillation by
direct induction heating assisted by magnetic field
(DIHMF) and by water and 6% food salt as electrolyte
solutions resulted in 2.11% (w/w) essential oil, where
limonene (7.4%) and carvone (85.2%) were its main
components. The essential oil yield for hydro-distillation in
presence of 6% food salt were 2.58%, with limonene
(18.7%), and carvone (74.9%) as the main components
[32]. Therefore, the isolation of essential oil by DIHMF is
as efficient as hydro-distillation method, because of shorter
time and higher quality of limonene and carvone. Carvone
(57.7%) and limonene (35.5%) were two major compo-
nents from ten identified compounds from Iranian caraway
essential oil by using ultrasonic assisted with headspace
solid phase micro-extraction (UA-HS-SPME) method [33].
The yields of essential oils obtained by hydro-distillation
and microwave-assisted hydro distillation methods from
Chinese caraway fruits were 4.7% and 4.2%, respectively.
Limonene (43.5%), carvone (32.6%), and apiole (15.1%)
were the main components of caraway fruits essential oil
extracted by hydro distillation method, while limonene
(48.4%), carvone (31.1%) and apiole (12.3%) were the
main components of oil extracted by microwave-assisted
hydro-distillation method [34].
The organ part of caraway causes changes in essential
oil yield and its chemical profile. Dried ripped fruit car-
away oil by hydro-distillation method consists of germa-
crene D (75%), caryophyllene, elemene, humulene,
germacrene A and B, and two cadinenes. Germacrene B
(51%) was the main component of seedlings root oil, which
decreases during development [35].
Geographical location (Table 1) of gathered caraway
fruits had greater effect than genotype on chemical com-
position of essential oil, while genotype had greater effects
than location on morphological traits of fruits [36].
A comparative study on essential oil yields and their
chemical compositions of different ecotypes exhibited that
the yields for essential oil extractions were 1.41%, 1.21%
and 0.48% for Tunisian and German and Egyptian eco-
types. Carvone (61.6–77.4%) and limonene (16.2–29.1%)
were the main components of caraway oils. Carvone
(77.3%), and limonene (16.2%) were the main components
of German caraway essential oil, while the corresponding
values were 76.3% and 19.5% for Tunisian chemotype.
Carvone (61.6%), limonene (29.1%), b-myrcene (3.9%)
and a-selinene (10.9%) were the main components of
Egyptian chemotype [19]. Limonene (43.5%), carvone
(32.6%), and apiole (15.1%) were the main components of
thirty-four components from Chinese caraway seeds
essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation method [34].
The essential oil yield from caraway cultivated in five
locality of Uttarakhand Himalaya, India were 3.3–4.8%.
Carvone (65.77–78.8%), and limonene (19.38–31.64%)
were the essential oil’s main components [37].
The essential oil yields varied from 0.6 to 5.4% for
twenty commercial caraway samples from different coun-
tries. Carvone (44.5–95.9%), limonene (1.5–51.3%), b-
myrcene (0–0.4%), trans-dihydrocarvone (0–0.5%), and
trans-carveole (0–0.2%) were present in these essential oils
Essential oil yields from three Tunisian ecotypes were in
the ranges of 0.86%–1.20% (w/w). Carvone (76.8–80.5%)
and limonene (13.1–20.3%) were the main components of
41 volatile compounds [20]. c-Terpinene (17.86%), cumi-
naldehyde (22.1%), c-Terpinene-7-al (15.41%), and
p-cymene (7.99%) were the main components of caraway
oil from Iran [39]. Therefore, due to the effects of many
factors on chemical composition of essential oil and the
amounts of each compounds, consideration to chemical
composition of caraway oil is inevitable (Fig. 1).
3 Biological Activities of Caraway Essential
3.1 Antimicrobial Effects of Caraway
The antimicrobial activity of caraway essential oil has been
the subject of some in vitro studies. Egyptian caraway
essential oil with limonene (53.4%), b-selinene (11.1%), b-
elemene (10.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (9.8%) as the
main components showed antibacterial activity against
Staphylococcus aureus,Salmonella typhi,Candida albi-
cans,Aspergillus niger and Listeria innocua with MIC
value lower than 1 lg/mL. Pseudomonas aeruginosa had
less sensitivity to Egyptian caraway essential oil (MIC [
16 lg/mL) [40]. Caraway oil with limonene (46.8%), and
carvone (52.3%) as main components showed the MIC
value of 18.8 ±10.3 lL/mL against clinical isolates of S.
aureus (n = 14) from skin lesions of patients. The MIC
value of caraway essential oil on S. aureus ATCC 29213
was 2.1 ±0.9 lL/mL [41]. Pullulan films (10%) contain-
ing caraway essential oil (0.12–10%) with carvone
Caraway as Important Medicinal Plants in Management of Diseases
(52.2%), limonene (43.5%) inhibited the growth of Sal-
monella enteritidis,S. aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae,
and Aspergillus niger on baby carrots samples. S. enteri-
tidis was the most resistant microorganism among the
others. Caraway essential oil inhibited S. cerevisiae,Can-
dida krusei (MIC = 0.06, MFC = 0.12%), S. aureus,B.
subtilis,Penicillium expansum (MIC = 0.12%, MLC =
0.12%), followed by S. enteritidis,Escherichia coli and A.
niger with MIC and MLC values of 0.12% and 0.25% [42].
Caraway essential oil showed anti-Candidal effects against
C. albicans isolates with MIC and MFC values of
0.03–0.11 and 0.06–0.11 mg/mL, respectively [43]. c-Ir-
radiation had no effect on major compounds of essential oil
and its antibacterial activities. Cumin aldehyde, c-ter-
pinene, c-terpinene-7-al and p-cymene had no change after
irradiation. The antibacterial effects of treated and
untreated caraway oil were the same against B. subtilis,S.
aureus,E. coli and P. aeruginosa [44]. Caraway oil showed
antibacterial activity against S. aureus (1 mg/g), and E. coli
(10 mg/g) [45].
Caraway essential oil with c-terpinene (17.9%), cumi-
naldehyde (22.1%), c-terpinene-7-al (15.4%), and p-cym-
ene (8.0%) significantly inhibited aflatoxin production
without any effects on Aspergillus parasiticus growth (IC
621.9 and 56 lg/mL for AFB1 and AFG1, respectively)
Topical caraway hydro-alcoholic extract with c-ter-
pinene (37.2%), cumin aldehyde (18.4%), p-cymene-7-ol
(13.6%) and p-cymene (10.9%) showed the high antibac-
terial activity against S. epidermidis (MIC = 0.39,
MBC = 1.56 mg/mL), S. intermedius (MIC = 0.76,
MBC = 1.56 mg/mL), followed by Streptococcus san-
guinis (MIC = 1.56, MBC = 3.125 mg/mL), S. mitis and
Campylobacter spp. (MIC = 1.56, MBC = 6.25 mg/mL),
respectively [46]. Phenolic compounds from defatted car-
away powder exhibited antibacterial effects against B.
cereus,S. aureus, followed by E. coli, and S. typhimurium
[47]. The results of above studies imply on the antibacte-
rial, antifungal and anti-candidal effects of caraway oil,
although its main components play an important role in its
antimicrobial effects. The antimicrobial effects of caraway
essential oil has a negative correlation with carvone con-
tent, while limonene content of essential oil has positive
correlation with antibacterial activities of essential oil [48].
Caraway is an inhibitor of P-gp efflux pumps [49]. It is
recommended to evaluate the antiviral and anti-dermato-
phyte effects of caraway oil.
3.2 Antioxidant Activity of Caraway
Free radicals are the reason of many ailment in the body or
deterioration of compounds in different industries, so the
antioxidant of compound is valuable [50].
C-irradiated caraway essential oil significantly reduced
DPPH radicals higher than trolox (20.7% vs. 12.6%). The
inhibitory effects of c-irradiated caraway essential oil on
peroxidation process of linoleic acid were not affected
from irradiation [44].
The protective effects of oral caraway oil (10 mg/kg) on
gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity has been confirmed in
rat animal model. Caraway essential oil reduced the
increased plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) in rats exposed
to gentamicin. It also increased superoxide dismutase
(SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-
Px) in rats [51]. The enhancing effects of oral caraway oil
(5, 10, 20 mg/kg) on serum level of GSH-Px, CAT and
Table 1 Chemical composition of Caraway oil from different geographical region
Country Yield (w/
Main components References
German caraway
essential oil
1.21% Carvone (77.3%), and limonene (16.15%) [19]
Tunisian chemotype 1.41% Carvone (76.3%), and limonene (19.52%) [19]
Egyptian chemotype 0.48% Carvone (61.58%), limonene (29.11%), b-myrcene (3.97%) and a-selinene (10.9%) [19]
Egyptian chemotype Limonene (53.4%), b-selinene (11.1%), b-elemene (10.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (9.8%) [40]
Chinese caraway 4.7% Limonene (43.5%), carvone (32.6%), and apiole (15.1%) [34]
Himalaya, India
3.3–4.8% Carvone (65.77–78.8%), and limonene (19.38–31.64%) [37]
0.6–5.4% Carvone (44.5–95.9%), limonene (1.5–51.3%), b-myrcene (0–0.4%), trans-dihydrocarvone
(0–0.5%), and trans-carveole (0–0.2%)
Tunisian ecotype 0.86–1.20% Carvone (76.78–80.53%), and limonene (13.05–20.29%) [20]
Iran c-Terpinene (17.86%), cuminaldehyde (22.1%), c-Terpinene-7-al (15.41%), p-cymene
M. Mahboubi
SOD and the decreasing effects on serum level of MDA in
streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were confirmed. In
other word, caraway oil has reducing effect on the oxida-
tive stress in diabetes mellitus [52]. The preventive effects
of 100 mg/kg essential oil against cecal ligation and
puncture model, which induced septic related oxidative
liver injury in rats showed myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity
and TBARS were suppressed by essential oils in cecal
ligation and puncture model of rats. Caraway oils signifi-
cantly reverse the depleted hepatic cellular Glutathione
(GSH) comparable with 10 mg/kg indomethacin. Caraway
essential oils had significant suppressive effects on aspar-
tate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT).
Plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, albu-
min and total protein were not affected from caraway
essential oil. Essential oils reduced infiltration and
sequestration of PMN, interstitial edema, congestion,
necrosis and the severity of liver injury index in sepsis
model of rats, comparable to indomethacin [53]. The reno-
protective effects of oral caraway essential oil (10 mg/kg)
in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were shown by
increasing in GSH-Px to normal levels of control group and
significant improvement in pathology of diabetic
nephropathy with minor pathological changes in glomeru-
lar lobulation, mild cellular infiltration in interstitial tissue
[54]. Caraway (30, 60 and 90 mg/kg) for 30 weeks reduced
the levels of intestinal, colonic and caecal tissue lipid
peroxidation products (conjugated dienes, lipid hyperox-
ides, TBRAS) and increased the antioxidant enzymes such
as SOD, CAT, GSH, glutathione reductase of rats with
colon carcinogenesis. Caraway seed extract reduced the
activity of tissue GSH-Px, glutathione S transferase (GST),
ascorbic and a-tocopherol levels. Caraway fruits could
decrease the tumor size and tumor incidence. Caraway
make resistant the tumor cells to free radical attack, which
result in reduction of cell proliferation of cancerous cells.
The activation of antioxidant enzymes scavenge the free
radicals in colon cancer rats [55]. The protective effects of
150 mg/kg oral caraway seed aqueous extract on liver,
kidney and fertility exposed to cadmium toxicity in rat
animal model was confirmed. Caraway Seed extract
decreased the AST and ALT enzymes levels. The serum
level of creatinine had the same value with control group.
A significant increase in total antioxidant capacity and a
significant reduction in serum levels of MDA was observed
in caraway female rats. The histopathological samples of
liver from caraway treated rats showed normal structures
with strong fuchsinophilic reaction in hepatocytes. Pre-
treatment of cadmium treated rats with caraway seed
extract improved the histopathological structure of kidney
tubules. An improvement in liver functions was observed
after treatment of cadmium exposed albino rats with car-
away seed extract, which maintain the liver enzymes in
normal level. Caraway seed extract had ameliorative
effects against hepatic histological changes induced by
cadmium [56].
Topical application of caraway hydro-alcoholic extract
on oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil in golden
hamsters improved histological parameters in 5-fluo-
rouracil induced mucositis, which is associated with
reduction in oxidative stress of oral mucosa [46]. Cold-
pressed caraway fixed oil with high total phenolic content
showed high radical scavenging activities in different
antioxidant system with inhibitory effects on human LDL
oxidation [57]. Caraway with high total phenolic content
had been good reducing power in different in vitro
Fig. 1 The chemical structure of main components of caraway fruits
Caraway as Important Medicinal Plants in Management of Diseases
antioxidant system [58]. It has been confirmed high level of
flavonoids [59] and steroid like substances of caraway
inhibited CYP1A1 at mRNA level, which generates reac-
tive metabolites that are toxic or carcinogenic metabolites
with binding property of attachment to DNA [60].
3.3 Anti-diabetic Effects of Caraway
Oral caraway essential oil (10 mg/kg) decreased the fasting
blood sugar in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats [54].
Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats treated with oral doses
of caraway oil (5, 10, 20 mg/kg) had higher weight and
lower level of blood glucose in comparison with control
group [52]. The effects of caraway oil on serum blood
glucose [52] and no effectiveness of plasma level of insulin
from caraway oil imply that reduction in serum level of
glucose is regulated by a mechanism independent of insulin
secretion [61]. The antioxidant effects of caraway oil may
involve in anti-diabetic effects of caraway oil.
3.4 Anti-inflammatory Effect of Caraway
Oral caraway essential oil (10 mg/kg) reduced the pro-in-
flammatory cytokines (IFN-c, IL-6 and TNF-a) in rats
exposed to gentamicin [51]. Oral and intra-peritoneal
administrations of caraway hydro-alcoholic extract (100,
200, 400 mg/kg) and its essential oil (100, 200, 400 lL/kg)
in an immunological model of colitis of rats induced by
trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) reduced colon tissue
lesions and colitis index, comparable to prednisolone and
. Caraway extracts and its essential oil reduced the
inflammation and infiltration of white blood cells in mucus
and sub-mucosal layers [62]. The immunological effects of
caraway has been confirmed [63].
Therefore, caraway can be a good candidate for man-
agement of inflammatory diseases such as Irritable Bowel
Syndrome (IBS), and Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
3.5 Anticonvulsant Effects of Caraway
The antiepileptic effects of caraway [9] have been the
subject of study according to folk believes. Caraway
aqueous extract (200, 400, 800, 1600 and 3200 mg/kg i.p)
and essential oil (25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p) in
comparison with diazepam (3 mg/kg) in pentylenetetrazole
(PTZ) induced convulsion of mice animal model dose
dependently increased the latency time the onset of myo-
clonic and clonic seizures. Caraway oil or its extract had
preventive effect against tonic seizure and PTZ induced
death. The anticonvulsant effects of essential oil was higher
than its aqueous extract. Essential oil or extract had no
effect on neuromuscular coordination. Therefore,
relaxation of muscle was not involved in its anticonvulsant
effects [17].
3.6 Diuretic Effects of Caraway
The ripe fruits of caraway is used as diuretic in Moroccan
Traditional Medicine. The diuretic effects of acute and sub-
chronic oral dose of 100 mg/kg caraway seed aqueous
extract was compared with 10 mg/g furosemide in normal
male Wistar rats. Caraway seed extract increased the urine
output, total volume of excreted urine, urinary level of K
and Na
comparable with furosemide in except of urinary
level. The plasma K
and Na
was not affected from
caraway seed extract. The administration of caraway seed
aqueous extract for 8 days showed strong diuretic effects
and virtually had no effect on urinary K
excretion for the
entire 8 days. Caraway seed extract had no renal toxicity
during 8 days of treatment [64].
3.7 Anti-glycemic Effects of Caraway
Caraway seed aqueous extract decreased the cholesterol
and triglycerides in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.
Six hours after oral administration of 20 mg/kg caraway
seed aqueous extract, the plasma level of triglycerides and
cholesterols of normal rats decreased. Oral single dose of
caraway seed extract decreased the plasma cholesterol
levels only in streptozotocin induced rats. No change was
observed in plasma triglycerides concentration in caraway
treated streptozotocin induced rats. Repeated oral admin-
istration of caraway extract for 15 days significantly
reduced the plasma triglycerides in normal and streptozo-
tocin rats [65].
3.8 The Effects of Caraway on Reproductive
The modulation effects of caraway on sexual function and
fertility in females have been claimed in Egyptian folk
medicine. 150 mg/kg oral caraway seed aqueous extract on
fertility organ exposed to cadmium toxicity in rat animal
model increased the serum estrogen in proestrus phase of
cadmium treated rats. Atretic follicles and minor degen-
erative changes, stratified uterine epithelium and cystic
endometrial gland with weakly reacted glands was
observed in caraway treated rats, which exposed to cad-
mium. Caraway fruit aqueous extract showed antifertility
effects, it significantly increased the estrogen level and
reduced the progestrone and FSH levels at proestrus phase
[56]. Caraway aqueous or ethanol extracts from doses
higher than 200 mg/kg showed estrogenic effects. After
30 days administration of caraway extracts, changes in
vaginal smear, was observed. The ovary weight, uterus
M. Mahboubi
weight and estrogen levels increased, while gonadotropins
levels decreased [66].
3.9 Other Biological Activities of Caraway
The pharmacokinetic properties of paracetamol (oral,
intraperitoneal) are affected from chronic intake of car-
away oil [67]. Administration of 100 mg caraway with
rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide in 20 healthy vol-
unteers increased the plasma levels of antibiotics. Caraway
increased the bioavailability indices C
of antibiotics and
area under curve (AUC) [68]. Caraway enhanced the action
of rifampicin [69], isoniazid and pyrazinamide in rats
[69,70]. KCl (80 mM) related tonic contraction and the
phasic contraction to acetylcholine (320 nM) of rat isolated
uterus dose dependently was inhibited by caraway essential
oil, which implicates to its usefulness for control of uterus
spasm [71]. Feeding the lactating cow with 0.2 and 1 g
caraway oil/kg dry matter for 24 days had no effect on food
consumption, methane emission and milk production. The
milk had higher fresher aroma and lower stored aroma [72].
Caraway oil had no effect on growth promotion and feed
intake in weaning piglet [73]. Caraway oil especially car-
vone is a good potato sprouting inhibitor [74]. The mol-
luscicidal activity of caraway seed powder, ethanol extract
with LC
140.58 mg/L after 96 h and 130.61 mg/L after
24 h was confirmed against snail Lymnaea acuminate and
may be due to limonene content [75].
4 The Efficacy of Caraway in Clinical Trials
of Human Diseases
4.1 Caraway in Management of Thyroid
Caraway increased the TSH level in patients with papillary
thyroid carcinoma under treatment with fixed dose of
levothyroxine. 40 mg/kg/day caraway capsule and
100 lg/day levothyroxine in a hypothyroidism patients
increased TSH level, 2 weeks after ingestion of caraway.
Five months after discontinuation of caraway, the TSH
level returns to normal level. T
and T
levels decreased by
consumption of caraway [76]. The enhancing effects of
caraway on T
and T
, and decreasing effect on TSH [77]
and its anti-hypothyroidism effects stimulate metabolic
rate, which reduces body fat and body weight [78].
4.2 Caraway in Management of Obesity
According to ancient Unani medicine texts, obesity (Sa-
man-e-Mufrat) means excessive fat, which accumulates in
the body. It is a phlegmatic disease, which balgham
predominates in the body. Phlegm with blood produces
viscosity of the blood and constrict blood vessels. Depo-
sition of fat (Atherosclerosis) obstructs passage of oxygen
in the organs, which can cause death. It is recommended to
obese patients to eat 5 g Safoof-e-Muhazzil with 20 mL
Arq-e-Zeera (caraway water or distillate of caraway in
order to gathering the water containing soluble essential
oil), twice a day. There are some clinical studies, which
evaluates its efficacy.
In randomized, triple blind, placebo-controlled clinical
trial, the efficacy of caraway water on weigh loss of women
with BMI 25–39.9 kg/m
was evaluated in comparison
with placebo. Caraway water was prepared by hydro-dis-
tillation of 1 kg caraway fruits and producing 10 L car-
away water. Placebo was containing 1% g/L caraway
essential oil. The patients in each group are recommended
to use 30 mL intervention or placebo, 20 min before lunch
for 3 months. The patients were visited every week from
the beginning until the end of treatment. The regimen
program and any probable side effects were recorded
during the study. Clinical assessments on vital parameters
along with blood and urine tests and biochemical param-
eters were evaluated. The mean weight, BMI, waist cir-
cumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body fat percent
significantly reduced in caraway water compared to pla-
cebo group. The body muscle percent increased in caraway
water group. Vital clinical symptoms including heart rate,
systolic and diastolic blood pressure, urine specific gravity
and lipid profile had no significant difference with placebo
group [79]. A significant reduction in appetite level and
carbohydrate intake was observed after 90 days treatment
with caraway extract. Caraway extract had no significant
effect on fat and protein intake of the overweight subject,
compared to control group. All of the anthropometric
indices (waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, thigh cir-
cumference, and mid-upper arm circumference) exhibited a
significant reduction in caraway oil, compared with pla-
cebo group. The average appetite level significantly
reduced in caraway extract group [80]. The limitation of
two studies are placebo group. Indeed caraway water is a
kind of diluted caraway oil, which is used as placebo in this
4.3 Caraway in Management of Functional
The most important application of caraway is its use as
remedy for digestive problems. In one clinical trial, the
efficacy and tolerability of enteric-coated capsule con-
taining caraway oil and menthol was compared to placebo
in Functional Dyspepsia patients (Rome III criteria) taking
their usual medications (PPIs, H2RAs, anticonvulsants,
beta blockers, antihistamines, antidepressants/TCAs, pain
Caraway as Important Medicinal Plants in Management of Diseases
modulators, and antiacids). Each capsule was containing
25 mg of caraway oil and 20.75 mg L-menthol. The
patients took two capsules of intervention or placebo, twice
daily, 30–60 min before a meal in the morning and at
dinner time for 28 days. Changes in Global Overall
Symptom and Clinical Global Impressions, safety and
tolerability were examined. The results of study showed
that the reduction of symptoms was numerically superior in
intervention group than that of placebo. 61% and 49% of
patients found intervention and placebo treatments ‘‘good’
or ‘‘very good’’ in improvement of Clinical Global
Impressions (p = 0.23). No serious adverse events were
reported in intervention group [81].
In a prospective, double-blind, multicenter trial, 114
outpatients with chronic or recurrent functional dyspepsia,
the efficacy of peppermint-caraway-oil preparation
(n = 58) or placebo (n = 56) was evaluated on improve-
ment of abdominal pain and discomfort. The patients took
capsules, twice daily, in the morning and dinner. 8.6% and
5.4% in intervention and placebo groups left the study,
before the end of treatments. A significant improvement in
symptoms was observed in intervention group compared to
placebo group (p = 0.0004). The average symptom scores
reductions were 7.6 ±4.8 (62.3%) and 3.4 ±4.3 (26%) in
intervention and placebo groups (p \0.0001). The corre-
sponding at least 10% improvements were 86.2 and 57.1%,
respectively. Disease-specific symptoms, quality of life
(QoL) in patients with functional dyspepsia symptoms
improved consistent with epigastric pain syndrome and
postprandial distress syndrome [82].
The efficacy of caraway oil (50 mg) and peppermint oil
(41.5 mg) versus placebo over a treatment period of
28 days in reduction of Global Overall Symptoms (GOS)
and Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) of patients suffering
from functional dyspepsia were evaluated. At the end of
treatment, PDS (78%) and EPS (72%) patients in inter-
vention group reported the treatment ‘‘good’’ or ‘‘very
good’’ in CGI assessment, while the corresponding values
in placebo group were 50% (PDS) (p = 0.09) and 40%
(EPS) (p = 0.046), respectively. The sensations of pressure,
heaviness, fullness, reduction in epigastric pain or dis-
comfort symptoms improved no significantly compared to
placebo group [83].
The effect of capsule containing 25 mg of caraway oil
and 20.75 mg of L-menthol versus placebo for functional
dyspepsia symptoms was evaluated after 24 h. In this
study, 100 subjects suffering from functional dyspepsia
(Rome III criteria) took two capsules of intervention or
placebo in the morning and at dinner time. The patients
were categorized into PDS or EPS predominant based on
their symptoms and took their routine treatments. The self-
reported Global Overall Symptoms (GOS) were used in
patients at 24 h. At 24 h, a significant (p= 0.04) reduction
in PDS symptoms and significant improvement in EPS
symptoms (p = 0.076) in the overall population were
observed [83].
Enteric-coated and non-enteric-coated capsules, which
contain 90 mg peppermint and 50 mg caraway oil had
effects on the migrating motor complex of healthy volun-
teers and decreased the number of contractions and con-
traction amplitudes during the various phases of the
migrating motor complex. The effects of non-enteric-
coated capsule was mainly during the first migrating motor
complex after administration, while the effects of enteric-
coated capsule temporally had delayed during the second
migrating motor complex. Both capsules were safe and had
local smooth muscle relaxing effect [84].
Evaluating the efficacy of enteric-coated capsule con-
taining 90 mg peppermint and 50 mg caraway oil (twice
daily) on 118 patients suffering from functional dyspepsia
in comparison 30 mg cisapride daily on the base of pain
score (VAS), frequency of pain and dyspeptic symptom
score (DSS) showed that intensity of pain decreased from
6.6 ±1.3 to 2.0 ±2.2 in enteric-coated capsule group.
The corresponding values were 6.5 ±1.3 and 1.9 ±2.3 at
baseline and after twenty-ninth day in cisapride group. The
mean reduction in frequency of pain and DDS was com-
parable in two groups after 29 day (1.9 ±2.2 vs. 2.0 ±2.5
and 12.7 ±14.0 vs. 13.2 ±14.3, respectively). Twelve
and 14 patients in enteric-coated capsule and cisapride
experienced non-serious adverse effects, which diarrhea
was reported as the most frequent symptoms [85].
In a prospective, randomized, placebo controlled mul-
ticenter trial, the effect of enteric-coated capsule on dys-
peptic symptoms and life quality of male with functional
dyspepsia after 2 and 4 weeks of evaluation on the base of
pain score, discomfort score, Nepean Dyspepsia index
symptom score, and Nepean Dyspepsia index total scores
showed that enteric-coated capsule was superior to placebo
in reducing all variables. Pain score, the discomfort score
and Nepean Dyspepsia index symptom score (p \0.000l)
and Nepean Dyspepsia index total score (p = 0.0037)
improved significantly compared to placebo. The treatment
was well tolerated and improved the quality of life in
patients [86]. For management of functional dyspepsia,
caraway oil is used in combination with menthol or pep-
permint oil.
4.4 Caraway in Management of Irritable Bowel
Syndrome (IBS)
In randomized controlled cross-over trial, the efficacy of
hot poultice made with caraway poultice in treatment of
IBS for 3 weeks, followed by 2 week ‘wash-out’ phases,
was compared with hot or cold poultices of olive oil. Forty-
eight patients with diarrhea dominant IBS were in this
M. Mahboubi
study. Two-third of patients applying caraway oil poultice
found the treatment good or very good. A significant dif-
ference in symptom severity were found among caraway
oil poultice and cold poultice. The response rate was
43.9%, 20% and 18.9% for caraway oil, hot or cold olive
oils, respectively. The IBS-QOL total score, subscales
health worry and dysphoria, Bristol stool scale had sig-
nificant difference in caraway oil with the others. The
treatment with caraway oil was without any adverse
effects. The adequate relief was reported 51.8%, 23.5% and
25.8% for caraway oil, hot or cold olive poultices [87].
Caraway is the active components of Iberogast as remedy
for treatment of gastro-intestinal motility, and as anti-in-
flammatory, anti-oxidant agents, which inhibit the gastric
acid production [88].
5 Daily Dose of Caraway
0.15–0.3 mL of essential oil in three divided daily dose is
recommended for adults and elders. The oral administra-
tion of caraway essential oil is not recommended for
children and adolescents under 18 years old, during lacta-
tion and pregnancy. Semisolid preparations of caraway oil
in concentration of 2% can be applied daily as a thin layer
on the abdominal area of infants, children, adolescents,
adults and elders [89]. Caraway fruits (1.5–6 g) or its
essential oil (0.15–0.3 mL) are described as carminative,
spasmodic gastro-intestinal complaints, bloating, flatulence
and sensation of fullness. 0.3 mL of caraway oil is corre-
sponded to 273 mg of caraway oil (density 0.91 g/mL).
Caraway aqueous or ethanol extracts from doses higher
than 200 mg/kg showed estrogenic effects [66].
6 Contraindication and Precaution
The use of preparation containing caraway oil on broken
skin, around the eyes or mucous membranes and in the
patients with liver disease, achlorhydria, cholangitis, gall-
stones or other biliary disorders is not recommended [89].
Caraway fruit or caraway oil is not recommended to use
during pregnancy and lactation due to insufficient data. A
warning of use in patients with obstruction of bile ducts,
liver diseases, cholangitis, gallstones or other biliary dis-
eases is present due to complete inhibitory effects of car-
away on gallbladder emptying in healthy humans [90]. The
contraindication with inflammation of kidneys was repor-
ted and overdoses of caraway oil for long time causes
kidney and liver damage [4].
7 Toxicity of Caraway
The acute oral and dermal LD
of caraway oil in rats and
rabbits were 3.5 and 1.78 mL/kg, respectively. Pure car-
away oil had no irritating effects on the backs of hairless
mice. Applying 4% caraway oil in petrolatum on 25 human
subjects had been no irritating and sensitization reactions
effects in a 48 h closed patch test [91].
In the ESCOP monograph, the acute oral LD
of car-
away oil in rats was reported from two different studies as
3.5 and 7.4 mL/kg, respectively. The acute dermal LD
caraway oil in rabbits was reported as 1.8 mL/kg. Intra-
peritoneal, intravenous LD
of D-carvone in mice were
482.2 and 1500 mg/kg, the oral LD
of D-carvone in rats
and guinea pigs were 1640 and 766 mg/kg. ADI (Accept-
able Daily Intake) for D-carvone was 0–1 mg/kg/day [90].
In a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled study,
the safety of caraway aqueous extract was evaluated on 35
overweight and obese healthy women compared with pla-
cebo. The patients received 30 mL of caraway water or
placebo (diluted caraway essential oil) for 12 weeks, and
the general health status, urine test, blood pressure, heart
rate and blood chemistry were evaluated. No adverse
events were reported after 12 weeks of treatment. Heart
rate, liver, kidney functions were not affected from inter-
ventions. A significant difference in red blood cell and
platelet distribution width levels were observed among two
groups. A significant increase in red blood cell and sig-
nificant reduction in platelet distribution width were
observed in caraway water, which imply that the possible
beneficial effect of caraway seed aqueous extract for the
treatment of anemia. Hyperthyroidism is associated with an
reduction of platelet distribution width [78]. Caraway is
well tolerated in therapeutic doses and showed no toxic
effects toward human [10]. Acute toxicity of caraway
exhibited the maximum nonlethal dose of caraway essen-
tial oil and aqueous extract were 400 and 3200 mg/kg,
respectively [17]. The established ADI for D-carvone is
0.6 mg/kg bw/day [92].
8 Concluding Remarks and Future
Directions of Research
The review article has a deep view on caraway fruits as
famous medicinal plants in different pharmaceutical, food
and cosmetic industries. Caraway fruits are used in dif-
ferent traditional systems as curative plants for manage-
ment of different ailments, especially for management of
digestive disorders. In traditional medicine, the galacta-
gogue and carminative effects of caraway fruits are supe-
rior to other biological effects. Although, traditional
Caraway as Important Medicinal Plants in Management of Diseases
scholars use caraway fruits as appetizer in foods, but car-
away fruits or its water are one important ingredient of
anti-obesity drugs in Unani traditional medicine [93].
There are two parallel clinical trials, which confirmed the
anti-obesity effects [78,80] of caraway water (Zeereh-
Aragh) in comparison with placebo. Caraway reduces the
plasma triglycerides and cholesterol levels in normal and
streptozotocin rats [65] and also it enhances T
and T
levels. All above mechanisms along with its decreasing
effect on TSH [77], are proposed the activation of meta-
bolism in the body. The important role of caraway oil in
management of functional dyspepsia has been confirmed in
many clinical studies, but caraway oil always is used in
combination with peppermint oil or menthol in enteric
coated pills [85,86]. The topical use of caraway oil around
the abdomen has relieved the IBS symptoms in patient
[87]. Although, the use of caraway oil is not recommended
for adults under 18 days due to insufficient data, but it can
be topically used as anti-colic and carminative agent for
children or infantile. Although, caraway fruits are used for
treatment of many human disorders according to traditional
believes, the antiepileptic, anti-inflammatory, galactagogue
effects of caraway oil have been confirmed in pre-clinical
studies. Due to the high yield of essential oil, the use of
caraway oil as antioxidant [50,59] and preservatives [94]
in food industries are recommended. Caraway could act as
bioenhancers [49,95]. Evaluating the safety of topical
creams as abdominal pain reliever in children should be
considered. The anti-aflatoxigenic, antioxidant and
antimicrobial effects of caraway oil along with its reputa-
tion as spice help the industries to use it as natural
preservatives and antioxidant agents instead of synthetic
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative
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tribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give
appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a
link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were
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Caraway as Important Medicinal Plants in Management of Diseases
... Many studies have recently investigated caraway seeds' bioactivities through in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies. In vitro, studies showed antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive effects [14,15]. Besides, in vivo, experiments displayed anti-colitic activity, anticonvulsant, hepatoprotective, and wound healing properties [14][15][16]. ...
... In vitro, studies showed antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive effects [14,15]. Besides, in vivo, experiments displayed anti-colitic activity, anticonvulsant, hepatoprotective, and wound healing properties [14][15][16]. In clinical trials, caraway exhibited an anti-obesity effect, functional dyspepsia management, and irritable bowel syndrome soothing [14,15]. ...
... Besides, in vivo, experiments displayed anti-colitic activity, anticonvulsant, hepatoprotective, and wound healing properties [14][15][16]. In clinical trials, caraway exhibited an anti-obesity effect, functional dyspepsia management, and irritable bowel syndrome soothing [14,15]. The terpenes in caraway essential oil, predominantly carvone, and limonene, are the active components responsible for caraway bioactivity [14]. ...
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Background Carum carvi (caraway) of the Apiaceae family has been used in many cultures as a cooking spice and part of the folk medicine. Previous reports primarily focus on the medicinal properties of caraway seed essential oil and the whole seeds extract. However, no effort has been made to study caraway proteins and their potential pharmacological properties, including nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP), necessitating further research. The current study aimed to characterize nonspecific lipid transfer protein 1 (nsLTP1) from caraway seed, determine its three-dimensional structure, and analyze protein–ligand complex interactions through docking studies. We also evaluated nsLTP1 in vitro cytotoxic effect and antioxidant capacity. Additionally, nsLTP1 thermal- and pH- stability were investigated. Methods Caraway nsLTP1 was purified using two-dimensional chromatography. The complete amino acid sequence of nsLTP1 was achieved by intact protein sequence for the first 20 residues and the overlapping digested peptides. The three-dimensional structure was predicted using MODELLER. Autodock Vina software was employed for docking fatty acids against caraway nsLTP1. Assessment of nsLTP1 cytotoxic activity was achieved by MTS assay, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TAC) was determined. Thermal and pH stability of the nsLTP1 was examined by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Results Caraway nsLTP1 is composed of 91 residues and weighs 9652 Da. The three-dimensional structure of caraway nsLTP1 sequence was constructed based on searching known structures in the PDB. We chose nsLTP of Solanum melongena (PDB ID: 5TVI) as the modeling template with the highest identity among all other homologous proteins. Docking linolenic acid with caraway protein showed a maximum binding score of -3.6 kcal/mol. A preliminary screening of caraway nsLTP1 suppressed the proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 in a dose‑dependent manner with an IC50 value of 52.93 and 44.76 μM, respectively. Also, nsLTP1 (41.4 μM) showed TAC up to 750.4 μM Trolox equivalent. Assessment of nsLTP1 demonstrated high thermal/pH stability. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study carried out on nsLTP1 from caraway seeds. We hereby report the sequence of nsLTP1 from caraway seeds and its possible interaction with respective fatty acids using in silico approach. Our data indicated that the protein had anticancer and antioxidant activities and was thermally stable.
... Tannins, alkaloids, and terpenoids are also available caraway. 21 Flavonoids present in caraway fruit are quercetin and kaempferol. 21 Carvone and limonene are the main constituents present in caraway oil. ...
... 21 Flavonoids present in caraway fruit are quercetin and kaempferol. 21 Carvone and limonene are the main constituents present in caraway oil. 22 Caraway inhibits the P-gp transporter. ...
... 4 Caraway is widely utilized as a spice and carminative in food products and pharmaceutical industries. 21 Caraway is also used as a stomachic, aromatic, and diuretic. 1 Caraway also possesses antimicrobial, Antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activity. ...
... They are collected for domestic use as well as sale purposes due to their high market value. Carum curvi seeds are a rich source of protein, B vitamins, vitamin C, and several dietary minerals, especially iron, phosphorus, and zinc (Giordano et al, 2022; Mahboub, 2019) [29,30] . The leaves of the Allium sps. ...
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Abstract An attempt has been made to explore the wild edible plants (WEPs) of Spiti Valley, a cold desert region in Trans Himalaya. The Spiti Valley is inhabited by the Bhotia or Bhot tribal community and largely depends on wild resources to meet day-to-day needs. During the study, extensive field surveys were conducted from 2012 to 2017 in different localities of the valley. A total of 65 plant species belonging to 45 genera and 21 families were collected. A questionnaire was developed and first-hand information was gathered by conducting interviews of native people. These plants were consumed either raw and/or cooked. Leaves were the most harvested parts (37 sps.) followed by fruits (11 each sps.), roots (10 each sps.), seeds (6 sps.), inflorescence (4 sps.), aerial part (3 sps.), whole plant (3 sps.), bulb (2 sps. each). The habitat of most of the plant species has shrunk due to environmental degradation primarily due to heavy livestock grazing, the uncontrolled and unscientific harvest of species, unregulated tourism, and the construction of roads etc. Thus, community participation is the suggested solution for the conservation and sustainable use of the wild edible plants in the study area. Keywords: Wild edible, cold desert, traditional knowledge, Spiti, India
... Caraway (Carum carvi), an herbaceous plant, is a member of the Apiaceae family and is widely native to Asia, Europe, and Africa [16]. It is used as an ingredient in food, and its leaves and roots are mainly consumed as vegetables worldwide [17]. ...
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Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) causes brown spots on the leaves, stems, and fruits of plants, called bacterial leaf scorch (BLS). For the control of pathogens, antibiotics have been used frequently, and they can develop the resistance. In this study, the bactericidal and synergistic effects of caraway oil and its main components against the pathogen (Xcv) were investigated. The tested caraway oil consisted of 58.4% of carvone and 31.1% of limonene. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of caraway oil and carvone was the same as 125 μg mL ⁻¹ , and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 1000 μg mL ⁻¹ for caraway oil and 500 μg mL ⁻¹ for carvone, while limonene showed no inhibition below 1000 μg ml ⁻¹ . In the growth of Xcv, carvone treatment over 31.3 μg mL ⁻¹ inhibited dose-dependently, and the bactericidal effect showed after 18 h more than 250 μg mL ⁻¹ ; It was agreed with the release of intracellular components over 250 μg mL ⁻¹ , especially. Furthermore, carvone damaged the plasmid DNA of Xcv, and it would be the reason for the bactericidal activity. The synergistic effect of carvone was found with β-lactams selectively; the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indexes of carvone with ampicillin or amoxicillin were below 0.5, and the mixture of carvone (125 μg mL ⁻¹ ) and ampicillin (500 μg mL ⁻¹ ) showed the bactericidal activity as well.
... Currently, more than half of the drugs come from natural sources [3,4]. One of the most important medicinal plants is caraway (Carum carvi L.), it is considered one of the most vastly used medicinal, spice, and essential oil herbs in the world [5]. Egyptian caraway oil contains main components such as limonene (53.4%), β-selinene (11.1%), β-elemene (10.1%), and caryophyllene oxide (9.8%). ...
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The food industry uses essential oils derived from natural sources as flavouring and preservatives. The purpose of this study is to investigate how temperature affects the essential oil extracted from Trachyspermum ammi, seeds which has the best antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, in order to find a green substitute for toxic chemically produced preservatives used in food and pharmaceutical chemistry. Trachyspermum ammi (ajwain seeds) seeds were hydrodistilled at various temperatures (60°C to 90°C). The amount of essential oil was found to decrease on increasing temperature (2.1ml, 1.5 ml and 1.0 ml at 70°C, 80°C, and 90°C respectively). Hence, 70°C was the ideal temperature for extracting the essential oil from ajwain seeds. 25 components were discovered in the essential oil extracted from ajwain seeds by GC-MS technique. The predominant ingredient was shown to be thymol (31.40%). The percentages of scavenger activity against hydrogen peroxide were 70.75%, 86.99%, and 95.28% for 70°C, 80°C, and 90°C respectively. Due to the presence of the largest concentration of thymol (67.66%), the results showed that essential oil extracted at 90°C demonstrated the highest level of antioxidant property. By using the disc diffusion method, the antimicrobial activity of an essential oil made from ajwain seeds was evaluated. MIC50 of standard essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi seeds against gram positive strain was observed 10 µL/mL of culture and 25µL/mL of culture was observed against gram negative bacteria. Essential oil extracted at 70°C showed antimicrobial activity by forming zones of inhibition with diameters including discs of 18.3 mm and 14.36 mm against S. aureus and E. coli, respectively. Essential oil extracted at 80°C produced zones of inhibition with diameters of 18.68 mm and 15.30 mm, respectively. In the case of essential oil extracted at 90°C, the zones of inhibition against S. aureus and E. coli had diameters of 18.690.3 mm and 15.38 mm, respectively. As a result, using Trachyspermum ammi essential oil as a food preservative and the temperature at which it is extracted are unaffected by an increase in extraction temperature. Hence, essential oil obtained from Trachyspermum ammi seeds can be used as green alternative of chemically synthesized toxic preservatives used in food and pharmaceutical chemistry.
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Pharmacopoeias are important resources for the quality control of medicinal plants and their products. Considering that approximately 80% of the world population to different extents relies on medicinal plants for the prevention and treatment of medical ailments the safety and suitability of medicinal plants is extremely important. Unfortunately, for many medicinal plants the active component or group of components responsible for their pharmacological activity are unknown. In such cases, the standardization of the medicinal plant material is performed using reference compounds that are either contained in the plant, but are known to not mediate the plants biological activity or are not contained in the plant at all, but find use as auxiliary reagents, for example, to help identify the necessary chromatographic zones/peaks. Additionally, many medicinal plants do not have qualitative or quantitative analysis procedures in place or use methods with low selectivity (spectrophotometry, colour reactions). In these cases, it is impossible to confidently and adequately standardize the medicinal plant material. Two other issues that complicate medicinal plant standardization include the variability of its chemical composition depending on multiple biotic and abiotic factors and the lack of sufficient data on the chemical composition of some plants. In this review, we analyzed medicinal plants common to the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), European, United State and Japanese Pharmacopoeias. We have analysed and systematized literature data devoted to the relation between the chemical composition and pharmacological activity of the plants presented in this review. Based on the analysed data, we have suggested more rational and adequate methods for the quality assessment and quantitative standardization of medicinal plants.
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Phytonutrients and Neurological Disorders: Therapeutic and Toxicological Aspects provides and assesses the latest research and developments surrounding the use of phytonutrients for the treatment of neurological disorders. The volume analyzes advances in phytonutrient isolation, characterization and therapeutic applications, giving particular emphasis to mechanisms and safety profiles. The book takes toxicological considerations into account, including adverse drug reactions, toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. Sections cover bioactive compound classes and biosynthesis pathways, general considerations, including quality control, standardization, and technology, and toxicology. This title is a comprehensive work on the latest research in phytonutrients and neurological disorders that will be useful to researchers and medical practitioners.
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Objective To investigate the protective effects of aqueous seed extracts of fennel “Foeniculum vulgare” (FVE) and caraway “Carum carvi” (CCE) on liver, kidney and reproductive organs in female rats against cadmium chloride (CC) intoxication. Methods A total of 36 adult female rats were divided into six groups, six in each group. Control group (fed normal diet), CC-treated group (50 mg CC/kg diet), CCE-treated group (150 mg CCE/kg diet), CCE + CC group, FVE (150 mg/kg diet) and FVE + CC. One month later, all rats were sacrificed and all samples were collected at proestrus phase. Results The toxic effects of CC were confirmed biochemically by significant increase of serum concentration of liver enzymes (P < 0.05), and creatinine (P < 0.001). Moreover, CC increased significantly the serum level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (P < 0.001). In addition, serum concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Histopathologically, CC-treated group revealed marked pathological changes in renal, hepatic, ovarian and uterine tissues. All toxic findings observed in liver and kidney with CC treatment were found to be ameliorated markedly after co-treatments with FVE or CCE. Furthermore, co-treatment of FVE with CC improved significantly all studied reproductive parameters (P < 0.01). Conclusions Both FVE and CCE could be used as efficient treatments for liver and kidney against CC intoxication. Moreover, FVE could be utilized as a potent treatment to protect and improve female fertility from cadmium intoxication.
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Carum carvi L. was used traditionally in different populations for many medical complains. The seeds are used for culinary purposes and medicinal treatment. The study was aimed to investigate the chemical composition of fixed oil of Carum carvi L. (seeds). The oil was extraction by petroleum ether (60-80°C) using a Soxhlet apparatus. Carum carvi L. seeds oil showed 4.5% yield of fixed oil. The oil of Carum carvi L. seeds were Extract has been investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques Total of eight compounds were detected for petroleum ether oil extract. From the eight identified constituents, representing 100% of the oilthe most main abundant compounds detected were L-Fenchone (55.01%); p-Methoxy benzaldehyde (19.15%) and p-Methoxy allyl benzene (9.46%). Carum carvi L. seeds are rich sources of oils containing diverse group of phytochemicals.
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IntroductionStaphylococcus aureus is an important etiological agent of skin and soft tissue infections. Due to the increasing resistance of this bacterium to antimicrobial agents, treatment of staphylococcal infections remains a great challenge for clinicians and requires an alternative treatment options. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of essential oils: caraway (CEO), patchouli (PEO) and geranium (GEO) against S. aureus strains isolated from skin lesions in the course of staphylococcal skin infections. Methods: The antibacterial activity of essential oils was tested using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton broth. Results: The antimicrobial effect of CEO, PEO and GEO was observed. The highest antimicrobial activity showed PEO (MIC = 1.7±0.8 μl/ml), the lower was observed for GEO (MIC = 5.4±2.0 μl/ml) and CEO (MIC = 18.8±10.3 μl/ml). Conclusion: All tested essential oils showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus strains isolated from skin lesions of patients with staphylococcal skin infections. Application of the CEO, PEO and GEO can become an alternative method of treatment of staphylococcal infections, but further microbiological tests and clinical trials should be assessed. key words: Staphylococcus aureus, caraway oil, patchouli oil, geranium oil, staphylococcal skin infections
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Many studies showed that medicinal plants possessed immunological effects. The plants with immunological effects were included: Agrimonia eupatoria, Alpinia galanga, Althaea officinalis, Althaea officinalis, Althaea rosea, Avena sativa, Bauhinia variegata, Betula alba, Brassica rapa, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Caesalpinia cristaCalendula officinalis, Calotropis procera, Canna indica, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Carthamus tinctorius, Carum carvi, Cassia occidentalis, Cichorium intybus, Cistanche tubulosa, Citrus species, Clerodendrum inerme, Clitoria ternatea, Convolvulus arvensis, Cordia myxa, Crocus sativus, Cuminum cyminum, Cydonia oblonga, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotuntdus, Eupatorium cannabinum and Euphorbia hirta. This review will highlight the immunological effects of these medicinal plants.
Background: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a very common condition affecting more than 10% of the population. While there is no cure, a few drugs have been found to be effective for the relief of symptoms, although most are only effective in a subgroup of patients. We assess and compare the efficacy of a fixed peppermint/caraway-oil-combination (Menthacarin) on symptoms and quality of life (QoL) in patients with FD symptoms consistent with epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) and postprandial distress syndrome (PDS). Methods: In a prospective, double-blind, multicenter trial, 114 outpatients with chronic or recurrent FD were randomized and treated for 4 weeks with the proprietary peppermint- and caraway-oil-preparation Menthacarin or placebo (2×1 capsule/day). Improvement of abdominal pain and discomfort were used as co-primary efficacy measures (scores measured with the validated Nepean Dyspepsia Index). Key results: After 2 and 4 weeks, active treatment was superior to placebo in alleviating symptoms consistent with PDS and EPS (P all <.001). After 4 weeks of treatment, pain and discomfort scores improved by 7.6±4.8 and 3.6±2.5 points (full analysis set; mean±SD) for Menthacarin and by 3.4±4.3 and 1.3±2.1 points for placebo, respectively. All secondary efficacy measures showed advantages for Menthacarin. Conclusions & inferences: Menthacarin is an effective therapy for the relief of pain and discomfort and improvement of disease-specific QoL in patients with FD and significantly improves symptoms consistent with EPS and PDS.
In this book the author utilizes his over fifty years of experience in food chemistry and technology in order to produce the most detailed and comprehensive guide on natural food flavors and colors. Unique coverage of natural flavors and natural colorants in the same volume. Includes chemical structures of all principal constituents and CAS, FEMA and E numbers. Includes techniques and characteristics of extracts, such as solvent extraction, dispersion and solubitization, nutraceutical function and effect of heat.
Carvone occurs naturally as dextrorotatory (d-) and levorotatory (l-) enantiomers in several food items; these may also be used as a pesticide, food flavouring, feed flavouring, in feed additive, in personal care products and as (veterinary) medicine. In order to improve coherence regarding the risk assessment of carvone in the different food and feed sector areas, EFSA asked its Scientific Committee to establish a single ADI for carvone, estimate the overall exposure of European consumers, and quantify the contribution for each source of exposure to the overall exposure of carvone. Having reviewed the information available the Scientific Committee decided to address d-carvone and l-carvone separately and limit its assessment to the oral intake of d- and l-carvone. The Scientific Committee established an ADI of 0.6 mg/kg bw/day for d-carvone, based on the BMDL10 of 60 mg/kg bw/day for an increase in relative liver weight in the rat 90-day studies and an uncertainty factor of 100. The Scientific Committee could not establish an ADI for l-carvone because of a lack of toxicological data for this enantiomer. The highest level of aggregated exposure to d-carvone is estimated to be 0.60 mg/kg bw/day, i.e. is at the level of the ADI established for d-carvone. The highest level of aggregated exposure to l-carvone is three-fold that of d-carvone. In view of key uncertainties 1) on the toxicity of l-carvone, 2) on the biological relevance of the endpoint selected to establish the ADI for d-carvone and its use as a surrogate for the observed lethality in tested animals, 3) whether d- and l-carvone should be considered together for possible combined effects and 4) in the aggregated exposure assessments to d- and to l-carvone, the Scientific Committee recommended generating additional data to refine the current risk assessment.
Many essential oils and their terpene constituents display antimicrobial properties, which may affect rumen metabolism and influence milk production parameters. Many of these compounds also have distinct flavors and aromas that may make their way into the milk, altering its sensory properties. Essential oils from caraway (Carum carvi) seeds and oregano (Origanum vulgare) plants were included in dairy cow diets to study the effects on terpene composition and sensory properties of the produced milk, as well as feed consumption, production levels of milk, and methane emissions. Two levels of essential oils, 0.2 and 1.0 g of oil/kg of dry matter, were added to the feed of lactating cows for 24 d. No effects on feed consumption, milk production, and methane emissions were observed. The amount and composition of volatile terpenes were altered in the produced milk based on the terpene content of the essential oils used, with the total amount of terpenes increasing when essential oils were added to the diet. Sensory properties of the produced milk were altered as well, and milk samples from animals receiving essential oil treatment were perceived as having a fresher aroma and lower stored aroma and flavor. The levels of essential oils used in this study mimic realistic levels of essential oils in herbs from feed, but were too low to affect milk production and methane emissions, and their inclusion in the animal diet did not adversely affect milk flavor.