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Kano Model for Identification Car Modification Features of Mobile Application

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Modification was an activity to replace the object more attractive especially car modification. Lately, car modification become the one of the promising business since that were providing high profits. The owner of car look for the accessories for their car frequently. Then, the owner of car modification should increasing their facility to make the consumer satisfied. Furthermore, if the consumer satisfied with the service than it provided high profit. For increasing high profit than the owner of car modification should made the innovation. One of the innovation was car modification with mobile application (apps.) by Kano model. The aims of this study was to identify the features in car modification using Kano model. Kano model used to identify consumer needs that divided into 3 category. There are must be, one dimensional and attractive. The result from open questionnaire would be proceed by Kano model. This study revealed that feature of selection car body colour, feature of selection lamp model and feature engine cap model of into one dimensional category, feature of selection car velg, and matching the tire into must be category and feature of selection cutting sticker, and selection of bumper model into attractive category, and priority to develop are feature of selection car body colour, cutting sticker and selection of bumper model. This category should be the reference to be the resource for car modification apps.
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Kano Model for Identification Car Modification Features of Mobile
Application
Muchamad Sugarindra1 and Rian Notia Pratama 2
1&2 Industrial Engineering, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Indonesia
Abstract: Modification was an activity to replace the object more attractive especially car modification. Lately, car
modification become the one of the promising business since that were providing high profits. The owner of car look
for the accessories for their car frequently. Then, the owner of car modification should increasing their facility to
make the consumer satisfied. Furthermore, if the consumer satisfied with the service than it provided high profit. For
increasing high profit than the owner of car modification should made the innovation. One of the innovation was car
modification with mobile application (apps.) by Kano model. The aims of this study was to identify the features in car
modification using Kano model. Kano model used to identify consumer needs that divided into 3 category. There are
must be, one dimensional and attractive. The result from open questionnaire would be proceed by Kano model. This
study revealed that feature of selection car body colour, feature of selection lamp model and feature engine cap model
of into one dimensional category, feature of selection car velg, and matching the tire into must be category and
feature of selection cutting sticker, and selection of bumper model into attractive category, and priority to develop are
feature of selection car body colour, cutting sticker and selection of bumper model. This category should be the
reference to be the resource for car modification apps.
1 Introduction
In this era, business competitions in Indonesia were
getting strict. From that reason above business people
should have some strategic that the product would be
accepted in the market. One of the strategic which used
by the business people were providing the best services
and expanding the market in unreached area [1]. As well
as business competition in car market. Lately, based on
Gabungan industri kendaraan bermotor Indonesia
(Gakindo) the sales of car on 2016 reached 1, 06 million.
It increased about 4,5 % from year 2015 to 2016. This
finding shows that the consumers of car were increasing.
Department of design and sales have the high
contribution to increase the car sales. The consequence of
high sales was swelling of the machine shop. It was for
not only machine maintenances but also car modification.
Generally, Car Company releasing original car. However,
some of consumer needs to modify their car for better
performance although small or huge modification.
Modification was the activity, which changed the object
to be more interesting. The car modification such as
changing the colour of car or alloy wheels. Lately,
business modification very promising. Some of machine
shop got turnover around 40-50 million per month and
profit about 30% from that [2].
Because the growths of workshop then the owner
must to attract the consumer with good services and low
price. Nowadays, even though the consumer got good
services and price, they could not satisfices the consumer.
It happened because of the first target was they satisfied
about the result even though they got high price. If they
were not satisfied yet, they would remain to modify their
car until pleased. If that happened consequently the
consumer would spending a lot of money. For keep away
from repeated modification and good services
accordingly the workshop need applications (apps.) for
car modification on android based. This app. could help
the consumer with simulation modification on android.
With that, simulation would be helpful for consumer.
These apps. Will help the consumer to choice the
modification and for workshop workshop would give the
best services for consumer.
To create the apps., needs identification for user.
There are model to apps. identification. One of them is
Kano model. Kano model used to identify the consumer
needs frequently. This model could give the priority for
the needs based on three category. [3], [4], [5], [6]. [7].
Kano model is methods of overcoming bias of result from
survey to find consumer needs traditionally [8]. In the
Kano model there are 3 main requirements that affect the
needs or customer satisfaction is must be requirement,
one dimensional requirement, and attractive requirements
[9]. Must be requirement was the basis requirement or
minimal criteria that should be full filled by the produce.
However if the requirement weren’t that will not affect
the product; one dimensional requirement was if the
fulfilment more completed then the costumer more
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0
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MATEC Web of Conferences 221, 03003 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201822103003
ICDME 2018
pleasure and attractive requirements was if they weren’t
then the product or services couldn’t influences but if
they were could be increasing the consumers satisfaction.
Those requirements would determine the apps. Which is
necessary or not.
From the reason above, the purposes for this study
was to identify the app., of car modification which
required by the workshop owner and consumer. These
apps., be expected to improve the profit for the workshop
owner, improving the consumer satisfaction, save cost for
consumer and reduce the wasted work.
2 Material and Methods
2.1 Research Design
Design of this study was survey by using primary and
secondary data.
2.2 Data Collection
These data collected by interview with open
questionnaire for primary data and study literature for
secondary data. The questionnaire content was about the
features, which needed in these apps. and desire analysis
about the desire for car modification apps. Study
literature would support the information about apps.
These studies have four questionnaires that distributed to
the consumers. First questionnaires were the open
questionnaires which used to know the customer needs on
information systems which would be created; second
questionnaires was the questionnaires for the decision
level, are they valid enough to be attributed for design;
third questionnaires was Kano model questionnaires
which ask about functional and dysfunctional questions,
the purposes for this Kano model questionnaires were to
identification the features which needed in this apps. such
as positive for functional and negative for dysfunctional
question; fourth questionnaires ask about the features
specification which proposed to car modification apps.
2.3 Subject
Subject on this study were the consumer who has ever
had modification their car and the owner of workshop,
which served car modification with inclusion criteria, was
the people, which could make the decision by age range
between 17-35 years old. The number of samples based
on the formula 1 and the minimum sample based in
formula 2 [10]:
n= Z2.P(1-p)
E2 (1)
The formula of number sampling (n: number of sample;
Z: level of confidence; P (1-p): variation of population; E:
sampling error) [10].
n= 1,6452.0,5(1-0,5)
0,12 (2)
n = 67, 65 ̴ 68 sample
2.4 Data processing and analyses
After data were collected, then the data processing and
analyses were done. The data that obtained would be
analyses by validity and reliability using Pearson Product
Moment. The data was valid if p value > 0.05 and reliable
if r count > r table the criteria of reliability were 0,00
1,19: reliability was very low; 0,20 0,39: low reliability;
0,40 0,59: moderate reliability; 0,60 0,70: high
reliability; 0,80 1,00: very high reliability.
2.4.1. Kano model category
The valid and reliable data would be process with Kano
model for evaluation attribute. These methods to
determine the attribute for the customer satisfaction then
categorization were needed. The result of categorization
would be used for features of apps. The evaluation of
Kano model by input the data based on evaluation Kano
model table (Table 1).
Table 1. Kano model evaluation [11]
Consumer needs Dysfunctional
Functional
L E N T D
L Q A A A O
E R I I I M
N R I I I M
T R I I I M
D R R R R Q
A : Attractive
O : One dimensional
M : Must be
I : Indifference
R : Reverse
Q : Questionable
L : Like
E : Expect
N : Neutral
T : Tolerance
D : Dislike
Figure 1. Kano Diagram [12]
2
MATEC Web of Conferences 221, 03003 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201822103003
ICDME 2018
In the Kano model, there are 5 categories of quality
factors: must-be, one-dimensional, attractive, indifference
and reverse which each have different characteristics and
levels of influence on consumers (M, O, A) [3],
Indifference (I): this feature will not have an impact on
consumers and; Reverse (R): a feature that if held will
cause dissatisfaction on the consumer.
Kano model can know the influence of each attribute
by identifying relative values to meet user satisfaction or
not. In the same conditions, Kano model can be separated
into two conditions, namely customer satisfaction and
customer dissatisfaction following formula 3 & 4 [11]:
Customer Satisfactions (CS)=A+O/(A+O+M+I) (3)
Customer Dissatisfactions (CD)=O+M/(A+O+M+I) (4)
If CS value is closed to 1, then attribute increasingly
influence consumer satisfaction, If CS value is closed to 0,
that means that attribute does not affect consumer
satisfaction. If the CD value is closed to -1 then the
attribute if not met will greatly affect customer
satisfaction and if close to 0 means that the attribute has
no effect on customer disappointment [13]
2.4.2. Conclusion and recommendation
After the step have done, furthermore the features for
apps. Were decided.
3 Result and discussion
3.1. Feature attributes determination
From the open questionnaire about feature attribute, the
subject explained that these feature were needed. They
are features of selection car Body Colour (BC), selection
of Car Velg model (CV), selection of Tire model (T),
selection of colour Car Seat (CS), selection of Cutting
Sticker (CSt), selection of design Interior for Audio (IA),
selection of Bumper Model (BM), selection of
Windshield Glass (WG), selection of Lamp Model (LM),
selection of Cap Engine model (CE), and selection of
Steering Wheel model (SW). These results would be
needed as attributes for car modification app.
3.2 Validity
Table 2. Validity and reliability test of feature attributes for
car modification app.
Feature
attributes
R-
table
R-
Count
Expla
nation
Relia
bility
Expla
nation
BC 0.235 0.473 valid 0.830 reliable
CV 0.235 0.460 valid 0.830 reliable
T 0.235 0.544 valid 0.830 reliable
CS 0.235 0.613 valid 0.830 reliable
CSt 0.235 0.602 valid 0.830 reliable
IA 0.235 0.689 valid 0.830 reliable
BM 0.235 0.672 valid 0.830 reliable
WG 0.235 0.606 valid 0.830 reliable
LM 0.235 0.742 valid 0.830 reliable
CE 0.235 0.663 valid 0.830 reliable
SW 0.235 0.635 valid 0.830 reliable
The results of open questionnaire about the feature
attributes have been done validity and reliability test. The
result shows that all of the features attributes were valid
and reliable (Table 1).
3.3 Kano model category
Table 3. Features attributes category for car modification app.
By Kano model
Attributes A O M I R Q Total
(n) Category
BC 9 46 8 6 1 0 70 O
CV 10 15 37 8 0 0 70 M
T 8 16 34 5 6 1 70 M
CS 4 17 8 38 3 0 70 I
CSt 39 12 8 10 1 0 70 A
IA 15 11 8 32 3 1 70 I
BM 32 18 6 12 1 1 70 A
WG 8 13 6 37 6 0 70 I
LM 10 32 9 14 5 0 70 O
CE 15 28 10 14 3 0 70 O
SW 14 20 6 25 5 0 70 I
Based on table 3, selection of car velg model (CV),
and selection of tire model including categories must-be.
Feature of selection car body colour (BC), selection of
lamp model and selection of cap engine model (CE)
including categories one-dimensional. Selection of
cutting sticker (CSt), selection of bumper model (BM)
including categories attractive. Selection of colour car
seat (CS), selection of windshield glass (WG), selection
of steering wheel model (SW) including categories
indifference. Indifference category has low influence for
customer satisfaction.
After obtained the categorization of each attribute,
continued processing data to determine the level of
consumer satisfaction of product features based on the
formula 3 and 4. Tabulation data can show in table 4:
Table 4. Satisfaction level of respondents.
Attributes Category CS CD
BC O 0,797 -0,783
CSt A 0,739 -0,290
BM A 0,735 -0,353
LM O 0,646 -0,631
CE O 0,642 -0,567
SW I 0,523 -0,400
AI I 0,394 -0,288
T M 0,381 -0,794
CV M 0,357 -0,743
WG I 0,328 -0,297
CS I 0,313 -0,373
3
MATEC Web of Conferences 221, 03003 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201822103003
ICDME 2018
Base on table 4 found attributes include to the priority
category to develop, because these category can influence
customer satisfaction. Feature selection car body colour
became the first priority, feature of selection cutting
sticker became the second priority and feature of
selection bumper model became third priority.
Feature which has been identified from this research
continued with observation and identify special feature
for workshop owner. The result of observation was found
that the selected features need to add the spare part price.
Then, the consumer can calculate directly how much it
will cost to modify his car. This apps in the design
connected with the database owner of the workshop to
know the inventory spare part, invoices to customers and
monthly reports to the owner of the workshop.
4 Conclusion
Kano model effective to divide attributes into 3
categories, making it easier for programmers to prioritize
the attributes that should be developed. The features
application that recommended for car modification could
be divided are:
1. Must be category: feature of selection car velg,
feature of selection tire.
2. One dimensional category: feature of selection car
body colour, feature of selection lamp model
3. Attractive category: feature of selection cutting
sticker, and selection of bumper model.
4. Priority to develop are feature of selection car body
colour, feature of selection cutting sticker and
selection of bumper model.
5. The addition of a price list to selected features for
the consumer user interface, inventory features,
invoices and monthly reports to the user interface of
the workshop owner.
6. Further research can be done in making the
application and testing usability of application
design that has been made
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4
MATEC Web of Conferences 221, 03003 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201822103003
ICDME 2018
... Ma et al. (2019) have conducted study on future vehicle driving services using Kano models. Sugarindra and Pratama (2018) have conducted a research to identify the features in car modification through mobile application using Kano model. Yanget et al. (2015) have conducted a study on assessing the customer satisfaction level for battery electric vehicles using Kano model and found that the immature technology and lack of large-scale production results into higher price of the battery electric vehicles, but it does not create customer dissatisfaction. ...
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Pengembangan Model Integrasi QFD-Kano-Axiomatic Design-Fuzzy Goal Programming Serta Aplikasi Triz Dalam Memaksimalkan Kepuasan Dan Meminimalkan Biaya Pengembangan Produk
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The Need Analysis Of I-Gracias Application Using The Integration Of Web Usability And Kano’s Model
  • Oktriviani Shinta
  • Wulandari Sari
Shinta Oktriviani,Sari Wulandari, Ika Arum Puspita, 2017, The Need Analysis Of I-Gracias Application Using The Integration Of Web Usability And Kano's Model (Study Case On By Telkom University Engineering Faculty College Student ), e-Proceeding of Engineering : Vol.4, No.3 December 2017
Bauran Pemasaran Pengaruhnya terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Mobil Daihatsu pada PT. Astra International Manado
  • A A Ulus
Ulus, A. A. 2013. Bauran Pemasaran Pengaruhnya terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Mobil Daihatsu pada PT. Astra International Manado. Universitas Sam Ratulangi, Manado. Jurnal EMBA ISSN 2302-1174