Article

Fragile synchronicities: diverse, disruptive and constraining rhythms of employment-related geographical mobility, paid and unpaid work in the Canadian context

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Abstract

Household, journey-to-work, and workplace dynamics intersect and are diverse and changing. These intersections contribute to gendered, classed, and racialized divisions of labour at home, at work, and on the road. Research on journeys-to-work has generally focused on journeys that happen daily, follow similar routes, at similar times, and involve travel to a single, fixed workplace. Time geography has shared some of this focus in its attention to fixity and constraints that shape these kinds of movements in time and space. However, change and disruption in home lives, journeys-to-work and in the location and scheduling of work are widespread. Feminist intersectional rhythmanalysis may be better equipped to address these. This article draws on insights from a body of Canadian research captured here in the form of 5 vignettes that describe intersecting home, work, environmental and employment-related geographical mobility (E-RGM) rhythms and some of their consequences across diverse groups, sectors and contexts. The vignettes are derived from research among trucking, construction, seafood processing, homecare, and precariously employed urban immigrant workers. We focus on groups engaging in complex, extended and often changing E-RGM to and within work. The vignettes highlight ways diverse gendered, classed and some racialized spatio-temporal rhythms of work, E-RGM, weather and seasons, and household lives intersect to disrupt and, as we move through the vignettes, increasingly constrain the capacity of these diverse groups of workers and their households to achieve even fragile synchronicities, reflecting the extension of coercion beyond the workplace into life at home and work-related mobilities.

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... There are people who engage in extended and often multi-modal daily commutes to work, particularly if they travel by public transit and work in large metropolitan areas like Toronto and Vancouver. [5][6][7] There are others who come from all over Canada, and potentially from outside of Canada, to go to a remote workplace, such as a mine in Northern Ontario, an oil and gas development in Alberta or Saskatchewan, 4 or in transient treeplanting locations. Many Canadians and some international migrant workers work in mobile workplaces such as those in trucking, fishing, shipping, or the airline sector. ...
... Such is the case with some precariously employed immigrant workers in cleaning and other temp agency work in Toronto, 6 and homecare workers in different contexts. 6,7 There are mobility situations that require varying amounts of time spent away from home ranging from days, through weeks, and even years. There are long-term employment relationships that require mobility, but also short-term employment relationships. ...
... They would likely not be classified as engaged in long commutes in the Census. 7,19 Because of their mobility within work, these workers may confront similar hazards and likely make similar investments (time and costs) in mobility as other extended/complex mobility groups. 7 Additionally, the Census captures only commutes to work and does not capture intermittent but potentially quite frequent E-RGM that can be part of work (such as business trips). ...
Article
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Globally, employment-related geographical mobility (mobility to and within work) is a pervasive aspect of work that has potential health and safety implications. As an introduction to this special issue, this article defines the mobile workforce as those who engage in complex/extended mobility to and within work encompassing >two hours daily, less frequent but more extended mobility between regions and countries, and mobility within work such as between work sites or in mobile workplaces. Focusing on the Canadian context, we discuss the challenges associated with developing a statistical profile for this diversely mobile workforce and provide an overview of articles in the special issue identifying key health and safety challenges associated with extended/complex employment-related geographical mobility. We estimate that up to 16 percent of Canada’s employed labor force (including those commuting > one hour one-way, temporary residents with work permits, and transportation workers) engage in extended/complex mobility related to work.
... The construction industry is grounded in "temporary employment in transient worksites" (Neis et al., 2018). During any construction project, the types of trades needed will shift over the course of the project and when a project is finished, contractors and employees need to move to new locations that can be near-by or far away, depending on the type of construction and availability of work. ...
... These challenges would be aggravated by changes in work locations with repercussions for commute times and requirements. Neis et al. (2018) highlighted the story of "Andrew," a construction worker whose work day plus commute took up a majority of his waking hours, leaving him just 9 and a half hours to sleep and interact with his wife and children on his working days and, because of the short-term nature of his contract, leaving the household apprehensive about having to adjust to new schedules and patterns in the future. Extended daily commuting also raises concerns around occupational health and safety including the risk of accidents on the road, and can be associated with workplace anxieties, fatigue, uncertainty, and stress (Premji, 2018;Ryser et al., 2018;Butters et al., 2019;Lippel and Walters, 2019). ...
... Neis et al. (2018) highlighted the story of "Andrew," a construction worker whose work day plus commute took up a majority of his waking hours, leaving him just 9 and a half hours to sleep and interact with his wife and children on his working days and, because of the short-term nature of his contract, leaving the household apprehensive about having to adjust to new schedules and patterns in the future. Extended daily commuting also raises concerns around occupational health and safety including the risk of accidents on the road, and can be associated with workplace anxieties, fatigue, uncertainty, and stress (Premji, 2018;Ryser et al., 2018;Butters et al., 2019;Lippel and Walters, 2019). ...
Technical Report
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Faced with increased demand, an aging labour force, and climate risk, there are concerns that the construction industry in Canada will face recruitment challenges over the next decade. With rising housing prices and related increases in commute times and often cost in global cities such as Toronto and Vancouver, there is concern these are pushing low-income residents to areas further from the downtown, potentially reducing the labour supply of construction workers in inner cities. To investigate this, we generated a preliminary synthesis of existing research on the impact of housing prices and commuting costs on labour markets in big cities, with a focus on the effects these might be having for workers in the construction sector. Overall, we found little research on urban construction labour markets in Canada’s biggest cities and no studies directly linking the labour market dynamics of the urban industry to housing and commute challenges. This is an area requiring further research.
... Synchronizing the rhythms of work with those rhythms associated with other life needs is crucial to the human need to achieve a level of temporal self-determination (Nowotny 1994;Neis et al. 2018). For an increasing number of people in the current age of escalating cross-border migration, "the overarching, pervasive presence of immigration control" institutionalizes temporal uncertainty in the lives of migrants (Cwerner 2001, 21), thereby complicating the quest for temporal stability. ...
... This concept, which has been developed from the literature on precarious employment (Vosko 2006), has been employed as a framework to understand how restrictive immigration controls overlap with the rise of global labour market flexibilization and precarious forms of work (Fudge and Fiona 2009;Goldring, Berinstein, and Bernhard 2009;Preibisch 2010). Bringing together the concepts of reworking rhythms and precarious status contributes to our understanding of how the broader social context of labour migration may affect migrant workers' access to and negotiation of everyday mobilities (Cresswell, Dorow, and Roseman 2016;Neis et al. 2018;Reid-Musson 2018). ...
... On the other hand, the promise of permanence offered participants the dream of an imagined future in which they may no longer have to harmonize their domestic and family lives to the disciplinary rhythms of circulatory labour migration. In the interests of reaching the long-term goal of attaining eurythmic tranquility through a process of two-step migration, participants strategized their mobility practices in an effort to "synchronize" (Neis et al. 2018) a kaleidoscope of disparate rhythms and temporalities. ...
Article
This article examines low-wage migrant workers’ experiences of secondary internal mobility within Canada during the period between 2011–2016 during which the federal government imposed an immigration rule whereby migrant workers were forced to leave the country after four years of continuous residence. Introducing the concept of reworking rhythms, the article examines how a landscape of uneven and complicated immigration policies produced an environment in which low-wage temporary migrant workers in Canada had to move between subnational borders in order to find a potential pathway to permanent residence status or face compulsory repatriation within four years. The politics of a forced scheduled departure in tandem with narrow pathways to permanent residence intensified the speed with which workers had to strategize their attempts to formally convert their residence status. Drawing from interviews with workers themselves, this article examines workers’ first-hand experiences of engaging in secondary internal migration to demonstrate how these frenzied attempts to synchronize the discordant rhythms of domestic life with those of international temporary labour migration were a crucial element contributing to the politics of mobility in the Canadian context.
... It is thus responsive to the 'distinctive temporalities' including increasing volatilities in acceleration and deceleration, that accompany the organizational demands for both adaptability and stability in resource production, including oil (Rogers, 2015). If the temporal demands of resource production inscribe particular teleologies and affects onto lived experiences and understandings of time (Ferry and Limbert, 2008: 4), the FIFO regime extends and intensifies the reach of those effects beyond the times and spaces of production into nearby work camps, transportation networks, and faraway homes (Neis et al., 2018;Straughan et al., 2020). ...
... This explains why camps rely on heavily routinized 'dressage rhythms' (Straughan et al., 2020) to maintain temporal order. At the same time, the complex and conflicting 'fragile synchronicities' of work and life that ensue (Neis et al., 2018; see also Collinson, 1998;Mayes, 2020;Straughan et al., 2020) cannot necessarily or always be neatly contained, and what's more, managing them produces its own temporal challenges. Liminality scholars urge us to ask what this means for workers (Söderlund and Borg, 2018). ...
... If routinizing synchronizes with camp rhythms, and disrupting desynchronizes with them (if only temporarily), a third kind of temporal tactic labors to synchronize with external rhythms, thus cautiously suturing the spatio-temporal fragmentation of work and life engendered by the FIFO regime (Dorow and Mandizadza, 2018;Mayes, 2020;Neis et al., 2018). Calling, texting, or video chatting with people at home is one such mundane but important practice. ...
Article
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Fly-in fly-out (FIFO) work camps are built and organized to ensure that long-distance rotational workers are fed, housed, and mobilized in sync with the pressing yet unpredictable rhythms of resource extraction. Positioned thus ‘betwixt and between’ the complex relations of work and life (Johnsen and Sorensen, 2015), the work camp is a generative yet hitherto neglected example of permanent liminality (Bamber et al., 2017) and its temporalities. But what does this mean for workers? If camp does the liminal work of managing the temporal challenges of the resource-based mobility regime, how do FIFO workers experience and respond to its ‘in between’ time? Drawing on rare qualitative fieldwork in Canada’s Athabasca Oil Sands, we explain the effects of camp time—disorientation, monotony, and entrapment—and examine the temporal tactics workers deploy to manage those effects, from embracing and disrupting internal camp routines to aligning and syncing with outside and future-oriented temporalities. We argue that workers becoming ‘competent liminars’ (Borg and Söderlund, 2015) of camp time is crucial to the latter’s disciplining function. Our findings call for renewed attention to how liminal places and people mediate multiple and conflicting temporalities, especially in contexts where social time is institutionally harnessed in service of production.
... Touring professionals experience insecurity on a seasonal basis. Neis et al. (2018) describe the "fragile synchronicities" that mobile workers face, arguing the need to expand theories of employment mobility to better understand the many forms of seasonal or longdistance travels to work. Touring work fits this call. ...
... Respondents described similar situations where they lost work because artists' popularity declined or decided not to tour, or for a host of contingent factors. Accordingly, workers are victims of these "fragile synchronicities" (Neis et al. 2018) through the seasonality of work, lack of choice in work, the insecurity and limited tenure of contracts and the changing tastes of consumers. ...
Article
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The proliferation of online streaming music has led to a loss of income from the sale of recorded music pressuring artists and technicians to find alternate avenues to earn income, particularly through touring. Yet, there is little study on the lives and experiences of workers who tour. I use Lefebvre’s rhythmanalysis to analyze how the rhythm of “tour life” exposes workers to vulnerability and risk. Touring requires synchronizing the needs of daily life to an extreme form of employment-related geographical mobility. On tour, artists and workers struggle with basic self-care, eating, and sleeping in the context of constant travel. The rhythm of touring forces workers to be “always on” and always away in architectures that blur living and working space. The tour bus is a liminal space – neither home or worksite – yet features elements of both. Cultural work further produces an arrhythmic arrangement through the absorption of work into leisure time. For the public, travel or attending concerts are a form of leisure, the eurythmic counterpoint to their daily routines. For musicians and crew these are the quotidian elements of work. Working in the live music industry is seasonal, contractual and contingent on numerous cultural and economic forces. While touring music workers are an extreme case of employment related mobility, the rhythms of their working lives offer insight into the risk and vulnerability experienced by an increasingly mobile workforce.
... Everyday rhythms shape places and shed light on lives lived in and between places and spaces (Conlon 2010(Conlon , 2011. While interactions between places and time have been studied in rhythm-analysis research, for example, within the context of migrant lives (King and Lulle 2015;Marcu 2017) and working rhythms (Neis et al. 2018), the expenditure of energy needs more consideration. One way to analyse this is to look at automatised mobilities, where vehicles require energy, but the other is to broaden the notion and consider also the mental and physical energy required from people in their interactions with place and time. ...
... In power relations, vulnerabilities, and disciplinary conditions (Reid-Musson 2018) are the greatest for nannies. This case study contributes to rhythm-analysis studies (Marcu 2017;Neis et al. 2018;Wee, Goh, and Yeoh 2019) through attention to the expenditure of human energy via mundane mobilities. Nannies lift children, walk, crawl, hold hands with children, run after them. ...
Article
Drawing on 32 face-to-face interviews with mothers and childcare providers in Latvia, this paper examines the mundane mobilities. We argue that attention to mundane mobilities reveals crucial arrangements of childcare rhythms. Moving to and from childcare places, and around homes with children are central to the provision of childcare. These mobilities are expressed in temporal and personal rhythms, continuities, and disruptions. Mundane mobilities link locations between family and care providers. Childcare mobilities are further shaped by a reduction in the formal supply of childcare in post-socialist Latvia and its replacement by informal arrangements. Through the morally negotiated responsibilities of informal childcare, certain rhythms emerge, including care-time in neighbourhoods, walking and other travel routines, and play activities with children. The paper’s theoretical contribution builds on geographical and sociological interpretations of the mobility literature, here with a focus on rhythm analysis applied to childcare in everyday life. Its applied contribution rests on an understanding of how precarity is experienced, and responsibilities negotiated, with a special focus on a post-socialist society.
... It also encompasses mobility within work, as in situations where workers commute to transient and sometimes multiple worksites, or are employed in mobile workplaces such as in trucking and seafaring (Neis and Lippel 2019). This body of research includes qualitative and mixed methods studies to address the intersections of work, mobility, and family and community using insights from economic geography, feminist political economy, and labour studies (Haan et al. 2014;Cresswell et al. 2016;Neis et al. 2018;Barber 2018;Roseman, Barber & Neis 2015), undergirded by a concern with the politics of mobility (Cresswell 2010;Neis and Lippel 2019). Overall, diverse complex/ extended mobilities are a fundamental characteristic of the construction sector and have thus been a core focus of some OTM social science researchers, as we will expand on further in what follows. ...
... Despite extensive rhetoric about how the industry is changing, they find little evidence to support this and, rather, come to the common conclusion that construction workers in Canada are still likely to be male, married, and with lower levels of education. The fact that most workers are married is significant, because it points to the fact that there are often household members working behind the scenes to support construction work, including its mobility-related challenges (Neis et al. 2018). The authors also document the fairly significant shift in the geographical origins and mobility patterns of workers, and speculate that this may be constraining women's engagement in the industry. ...
Article
This introduction serves several purposes. First, it provides some context around the phenomenon of Employment-Related Geographical Mobility. Second, it introduces the papers included in this Special Issue.
... Family-related challenges arise partly from the effort and financial, emotional, and other costs associated with synchronizing the complex and often shifting rhythms of family lives, mobility and work schedules and rotations (Neis et al. 2018). Being separated from a partner and other family members can cause tension in relationships and create challenges around child, elder and other forms of care (Dorow and Mandizadza 2018;Ferguson 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
An estimated 17% of the Canadian labor force engage in complex/extended employment-related geographical mobility ranging from extended daily commutes to regional, interprovincial and international mobility. The opportunities and challenges of particular types of mobility for family lives have been studied most often in isolation (i.e. daily commutes, fly-in/fly-out or international migration), and attention to mobility is largely absent from the work-family literature. Drawing on presentations and discussions at two recent conferences with a focus on families, work and mobility in Canada, this Research Note highlights some of the gaps in existing knowledge about families, work and mobility and some family-related challenges associated with extended/complex mobility for work from the standpoint of those living it, those studying it and those striving to serve and support these workers and their families. Examples discussed here encompass families where members are employed offshore, in other provinces and in the military. The impact of mobility on the family lives of temporary foreign workers is also discussed. We conclude with a few policy recommendations related to helping workers and their families deal with extended/complex mobility.
... A feminist intersectional rhythmanalysis "emphasizes the processual and repetitive patterns and routines within which social categories of difference are both constituted and contested" (Reid-Musson 2017, 13). It has been argued that feminist intersectional rhythmanalysis is better equipped than other analytic frameworks to study the disruptions which occur in changing journeys-to-work, location and scheduling of work, as well as home lives (Neis et al. 2018). The focus on power relations and gender in this intersectional approach constitute an important addition to rhythmanalysis, as well as studies of the transportation industry, and truck driving in particular. ...
Article
The trucking industry in Canada, as well as other Western countries, is currently experiencing a significant labour shortage. This crisis has been explored through the lens of mobilities and in relation to how global logistics has impacted the supply chain. Building from these works, this article examines the Canadian provincial trucking industry through a rhythmanalysis framework, based on participant observation and interviews with truck drivers, employer representatives, and key informants. This analysis connects the large-scale rhythms of contemporary global capitalism to familial rhythms at the local level, examining how these rhythm patterns interrelate and the high potential for disruptions. The feminist intersectional focus of the analysis highlights gendered rhythms within the trucking industry and familial life, as well as power dynamics, particularly in relation to logistical power. The intersections of these, often incompatible, rhythms are sources of current pressures within the transportation industry and particularly the lives of truck drivers. These tensions within the lives of truck drivers are linked to recruitment issues and labour shortfalls the industry faces, not only within Canada but globally.
... In reference to gender, several articles report steady growth in the number of women working in construction (Dalmia 2012;Mitra & Mukhopadhay 1989), despite the discrimination they face in the industry (Madikizela & Haupt 2010, Neis et al., 2018. In India, Mitra and Mukhopadhay (1989) find that 3.55% of the labour force is female in 1971, and that this increases to 4.04% by 1981. ...
Article
Construction is an important employer in all developed countries, which bolsters the local and global economy. The construction industry is responsible for creating structure that improve productivity and quality of life not only in Canada but also in other developed and developing countries. Although considerable research exists on important facets of the industry (including education, skills and training; precarious work; migration and labour mobility; gender, working-time and work-life balance), few studies look at how the labour force has changed over time. In this paper we model the factors that predict participation in the Canadian construction industry in 1986 and 2016, and document the changes between these two points in time. We find broad similarities between the sociodemographic characteristics of workers in 1986 and 2016, and large changes in the source regions of these workers. We also find different geographical mobility patterns between 1986 and 2016, and discuss the implications of these changes for both the industry itself, and the workers and families that derive their livelihoods from construction work.
... There is also a sizeable literature that employs rhythmanalysis to study labor mobility and migration (Ballinger, 2012;King and Lulle, 2015;Marcu, 2017;Syring, 2009). In fact, some of the most powerful applications of rhythmanalysis have come out of feminist studies of labor mobility and migration, which use rhythmanalysis to parse the interlaced rhythms of gender, class, race, and citizenship within specific spatial contexts (Mayes, 2019;Neis et al., 2018). For example, Emily Reid-Musson (2018) develops an intersectional approach to rhythmanalysis in order to examine the rhythms and mobilities of migrant farmworkers in Ontario, Canada. ...
Article
Whenever scholars inquire into the relationship between space and power, you can almost invariably find a reference to Henri Lefebvre. However, his initial popularization by David Harvey involved an overemphasis on the political-economic dimensions of his work. This article revisits The Production of Space to show that Lefebvre considered rhythmanalysis – and not a political economy of space – as the ideal method for transforming space and everyday life. Lefebvre argues that a more embodied and intimate knowledge of spatial rhythms can inform the appropriation of space by its everyday inhabitants, in opposition to capital and state power. To demonstrate the radical political potential of rhythmanalysis, I follow my reading of The Production of Space with an examination of “The Siege of the Third Precinct in Minneapolis,” a rhythmanalytic account of the recent Minneapolis uprising. This account, which was circulated online to share tactical insights with other protesters, evokes a number of new avenues for rhythmanalytic research.
... The attention to the rhythm of movements and processes of humans and natures is especially pertinent in rural and coastal communities that have melded their lives around seasonal employment. Previous work on seafood processing in Oceanside 1 New Brunswick (NB) (Knott 2016;Knott and Neis 2017;Neis et al. 2018), has outlined how the development of the seafood industry created a way of life that was both shaped by the capitalist commodification of herring through the historical colonization of North America, but was also limited to the cyclical rhythms of the herring themselves, who travelled to the area and were caught first in herring weirs (similar to a net), and later seine boats, between May and November . Herring, harvested via the traditional weir fishery in NB, was a relatively lucrative, stable fishery. ...
Article
This paper explores how an intersectional rhythmanalysis approach that includes attention to animals, ecosystems and corporate capital investment strategies can provide crucial insight into reported labour shortages. This paper unpacks the systemic relations of difference and power among mobile workers by highlighting the reorganization of temporal rhythms of work and life, but also animals and environments, that work to create or reproduce immobility and enclosure. Drawing on interview data and document analysis related to the seafood processing sector, the paper argues that the construction of qualitative labour shortages is tied to racialized, gendered and classed workers who are migrant or mobile. Critically, this includes new rhythms of capital accumulation, and related arrhythmias in the work/home lives of local and interprovincial migrant Canadian workers, through changes to schedules and seasonal contracts. These rhythmic changes make employment in these plants less desirable or feasible for these workers and support employers’ claims of labour shortages.
... Movement through hard times is a critical dimension of history. And yet, adversity remains unevenly distributed between groups and worldwide, implicates us differently, and meets varying responses and navigations (e.g., Vigh, 2009), while some lives are far more vulnerable than others (e.g., Butler, 2004: 30-32 Gender structured mobilities and movement through precarity as well (e.g., Boese et al., 2020;Neis et al., 2018 (Vertovec, 2007), living with and forming relationships across diversity and difference, are important to both migrants and their host environments. At the same time, they have been subject to episodic flare-ups of anxieties and tensions, including debates about migrant intake, particularly from certain groups, and questioning of migrants' capacity and willingness to socialise, occasional allegations of self-segregation, fears about violence or concerns about migrants as not integrating or conforming to local ways (e.g., Harris, 2013;Majavu, 2020;Soutphomassane, 2018). ...
Thesis
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This research examines how Eritrean professionals navigate work and intercultural connections in Melbourne. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork, I engage with my interlocutors’ movements through novel social environments over time, and expand theoretical discussions on discrimination, localness, precarity, mobility and conviviality. See also here: https://dro.deakin.edu.au/articles/thesis/Ambivalent_motion_Eritreans_work_pursuits_and_intercultural_connections_in_Melbourne/21118069
Article
The Canadian government recently launched initiatives to promote immigrant settlement outside of traditional gateway cities, in small towns and rural areas. These initiatives attempt to mitigate socio‐economic impacts of population decline, and address barriers to successful integration in urban areas. Drawing on the geographies of hope, this paper examines how newcomers navigate hopes as they imagine rural resettlement in Ontario. Based on focus groups with immigrants (n = 50), the findings suggest that newcomers' imagined rural futures are a dynamic and mobile process, shaped by competing hopes for a stable life. Rural imaginaries can sometimes provide a generative space to realize hopes and develop new future aspirations, other times they can constrain hopes for intergenerational futures. We contend that newcomer hopes arise in moments of relocation uncertainty, shaped by competing visions, interests, and priorities at individual and collective scales. Newcomers' expectations of rural futures are always enlivened with a sense of optimism for what has not yet become, but are equally replete with angst and anxiety for the future. This article concludes that future geographic research on migration‐hope‐place interactions, particularly in the health subfield, should engage constructions, experiences, and enactments of hope that mediate relocations and the policies governing them. Newcomers' imagined future hopes are complex and contradictory, playing out unevenly across geography and social groups. The permeability of hope‐migration‐relocation interactions creates tenuous realities for immigrants navigating relocation. Geographic work should examine the creation and termination of hope mediating relocation and the policies governing them. Newcomers' imagined future hopes are complex and contradictory, playing out unevenly across geography and social groups. The permeability of hope‐migration‐relocation interactions creates tenuous realities for immigrants navigating relocation. Geographic work should examine the creation and termination of hope mediating relocation and the policies governing them. Le gouvernement canadien a récemment lancé des programmes visant à promouvoir l'établissement d'immigrants à l'extérieur des grandes villes. Ces projets tentent d'atténuer les impacts socio‐économiques du déclin des zones rurales et de contourner les obstacles pouvant exister en zones urbaines. En dévoilant une géographie de l'espoir, cet article étudie de quelle manière les nouveaux arrivants composent avec leurs attentes lorsqu'ils imaginent une nouvelle vie dans l'Ontario rurale. S'appuyant sur le contenu de groupes de discussion avec des immigrants, nos résultats suggèrent que le futur imaginaire des Néo‐Canadiens se forme à travers un processus dynamique et évolutif, façonné par des espoirs concurrents organisés autour du concept de vie stable. Les imaginaires ruraux qui en résultent peuvent parfois fournir un espace générique mythique propice aux grandes espérances de même qu'aux moments d'incertitude. Ces imaginaires sont façonnés par des visions, des intérêts et des priorités contradictoires aux échelles individuelle et collective. Les attentes des nouveaux arrivants à l'égard de l'avenir en milieu rural sont animées par un sentiment d'optimisme mais elles sont également remplies d'angoisse et d'anxiété. Ce texte conclut que les futures recherches sur les interactions entre migration, espoir et lieu, en particulier dans le domaine de la santé, devraient prendre en compte les représentations et les expériences qui influencent les réinstallations et les politiques qui les gouvernent.
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This article considers how construction workers based in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) negotiate the need to be mobile for work at different scales and with what effects. It tackles the seldom considered question of how travel becomes normalized as a facet of work in construction, an employ-ment sector characterized by volatility. Specifically, we explore the experiences of workers and their families negotiating the shift from having extensive employment options in different places during a time of high labour demand, to limited and constrained options that may require significant changes (for instance, relocation, more time apart from family, or lower pay) in a period of economic contraction. How workers respond to these conditions contributes to conceptualizations of agency and mobility in construction work-place cultures. The article draws on 73 semi-structured interviews with workers, employers and industry and community stakeholders conducted between 2014 and 2018, and data from project employ-ment reports and field observations. The article reveals how long commutes and extended periods away from home are understood to be inevitable aspects of construction work that shape the field of expectations of workers and their families, and what this dominant discourse means on the ground in lived experience.
Article
This paper uses an intersectional rhythmanalysis approach to examine the predominantly female, working-class home care workers’ employment-related geographical mobility (E-RGM) (their mobility to, from and within work) in two very different contexts: workers living and working in St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, a small city on Canada’s east coast, and workers living in Southwest Newfoundland, a rural region of the same province and working in a different province. This paper seeks to: 1) document the rhythms associated with these two patterns of E-RGM; 2) explore the eurhythmias (rhythms in harmony) and arrhythmias (rhythms in disharmony) associated with these and their consequences for the workers involved; and 3) investigate how rhythms relate to gender and class. This paper adds to the research on intersectional rhythmanalysis by comparing the rhythms of workers in the same position but engaged in two very different forms of E-RGM and the arrhythmias and “fragile synchronicities” associated with each. Common rhythms influencing and influenced by E-RGMs include those related to transportation schedules, weather, care cycles, worker’s stage of life, client’s natural rhythms, family rhythms, and work schedules. Arrhythmias occur during care cycles, severe weather, and irregular work schedules and are reflected in precarious employment. Eurhythmias occur when home care work cycles, client’s natural rhythms, and family rhythms are in sync, but these are often in “fragile synchronicity.” Gender relations and class relations (re)constitute the rhythms of these workers’ everyday lives.
Article
This article considers experiences of rhythmic change related to employment-related geographical mobilities in parts of the Canadian construction industry. Drawing on Lefebvrian rhythmanalysis and aspects of time-geography, we consider how workers and their loved ones negotiate changes in space-time patterns across careers in industrial construction, especially work at projects tied to resource development and extraction. Data are derived from in-depth career history interviews conducted with workers in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador between 2014 and 2018. Three “career path” cases illustrate mobile rhythms of differently positioned workers from their entry into construction to their career stage at the point of the interview, ranging from apprenticeship through mid-career journeyed to retirement. These workers pursue training and jobs involving variable mobilities between home and work across shifting locations. We contribute to recent efforts to highlight the compatibility of rhythmanalysis with an expanded, feminist, biographical approach to time-geography, and the applicability of such an approach for the applied study of mobilities. We also respond to recent calls to study experiences of rhythmic change in the lives of mobile and migrant workers. Findings reveal that changes in mobile rhythms may be small and incremental, as in the case of schedule or rotation adjustments, or sweeping and large scale, as in the case of shifts from working locally to working in distant locations amidst the disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Experiences of disruption and responses to change are personal and familial, conditioned by social positions and subjectivities.
Article
This paper argues that many low-wage migrants moving to work in rural areas of the developed world end up in very specific and precarious employment and housing contexts: working in temporary/ seasonal jobs within horticultural labour markets; and often living in employer-provided tied accommodation. This context – which we profile by drawing on qualitative case-study evidence from Norway, the UK and the US – makes integration virtually impossible. It is only after moving on from precarious temporary/ seasonal work and out from tied accommodation that rural integration becomes viable. Yet, even then, the integration of these workers is often limited. Migrants are largely “quarantined” and separate and invisible from the host society. Not surprisingly, migrants tend to treat their lack of rural integration as “liminal” i.e. a temporary and in-between life-stage. They also engage in “transnational simultaneity” by maintaining family/ communal relations back home, whilst focusing largely on work in the host country. This liminality and transnational simultaneity help working-class migrants survive their quarantined lives. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Within visual culture, postcyberpunk films are best approached as places of Otherness whereby human identity and agency are downplayed and posthumans are magnified in highly technopolic societies marked with scientific determinism. Postcyberpunk treats the posthuman enclave as a heterotopic site, oscillating between utopian and dystopian spaces, potentially and optimistically, creating a space for humanity to be reassessed and renegotiated. Against this backdrop, the current research endeavor proposes a Spatio-Cognitive Model of Posthuman Representation focusing attention on heterotopic ‘spaces’ and ‘bodies’ in hyperconnected environments. While the model owes a substantial debt to Foucault’s writings on heterotopia and the utopian body, in tilting the focus of enquiry, this paper is informed by the tenets of polyrhythmia, hypermimesis, spatial repertoires, semiotic assemblages and cognitive embodiment as insightful interventions. Blade Runner 2049 is taken as a fertile case study grounded in paradoxes and ambiguities around the contradiction between humans and replicants, artificial intelligence and super-large enterprises. The hybridity pertinent to the postcyberpunk film genre and the inner and outer topographies of posthuman representation proved to be insightful investigative vantage points of multimodal inquiry for the socio-political and technocratic implications they underlie. With technology seamlessly integrated into social spaces and posthuman bodies, Blade Runner 2049 is arguably structured as an emotional journey composed of multiple heterotopias (spatial layers, ruptures and bifurcations expressed through socio-political capitalist projections). The article adamantly argues for new philosophical perspectives and praxis in redefinition of the social relationship between human and posthuman.
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This article examines rhythmanalysis within the context of Henri Lefebvre’s critique of everyday life and identifies gaps in his framework from the vantage point of intersectional feminist scholarship. Intersectional rhythmanalysis, I argue, provides a framework through which to conceptualize the braiding together of rhythms, social categories of difference, and power on non-essentialist bases. I interweave findings from doctoral research on migrant farmworker rhythms in rural southern Ontario, Canada. The article argues that rhythms help produce unequal subject positions of migrants in Canada, yet also represent lived uses of space and times which permit transgressions of racial, gender, and class boundaries.
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This paper explores the rhythm of temporary mobility experiences of young Eastern Europeans in Spain, after the European Union (EU) enlargement towards the East. Following Lefebvre's rhythmanalysis approach, and drawing on 60 in-depth qualitative interviews, this paper investigates how rhythms are linked to youth mobility and how different interplays of rhythms are connected and disconnected in multiple ways. I argue that both the EU socio-economic context and the personal and professional life-course circumstances of young Eastern Europeans who practice mobility create different, uneven rhythms that influence their everyday lives and their perceptions of mobility. This paper highlights the issue of rhythmic change in temporary mobility, uncovering ‘arrhythmic’ mobility, reflected in the loss and insecurity in the lives of those who practice it; ‘polyrhythmic’ mobility, practised by people looking to study and/or work and expressed through uncertainty on the one hand and the possibility of establishing a certain rhythm in their lives on the other; and ‘eurhythmic’ mobility, used by those with a stable professional status in one of the EU countries, in this case, Spain. The conclusions provide a better comprehension of Lefebvre's thinking, offering insights for wider applications. They show the need to advance the theoretical and empirical understandings of rhythm in relation to mobility during the lifecourse.
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The delivery of welfare and professional helping, such as in medicine, nursing and social work is largely treated as though it is achieved through static and immobile practices. Research has been dominated by a focus on the sedentary as studies have stayed rooted in places like hospitals and offices, failing to follow practitioners when they go out to see their service users in their communities and homes. This paper explores the mobile character of professional helping through a focus on social work by examining what its practices look like through the lens of movement based social science. The paper draws on empirical data from my mobile and sensory ethnography of child protection work, where I went along with social workers and interviewed them in the car and observed them on home visits to families. It is argued that attention to movement gets to the heart of what these practices are, as shown in the multiple meanings of car journeys, and how keeping children safe relies on worker’s capacities to move their bodies when in the home by walking, playing with and staying close to the child. Professional help goes on through what Jenson calls “negotiation in motion”. Fundamentally, social work is work on the move.
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Care for the elderly is a contemporary issue of multi-level, feminist concern. In Switzerland, private agencies offer so-called 24-h care services, for which they place or employ mobile women as live-in caregivers in private households. The larger discourse has debated care workers’ movements to Switzerland with much controversy. The article explores this interest in issues of mobility and place in an analysis of three central narratives within the larger discourse: care agencies’ ‘warmth’ discourse, scholarship’s uses of ‘ethnicisation’, and public discussions of ‘female care migrants’. Analysis of the narratives shows how care agencies ascribe care workers a particular ‘heart-felt warmth’ based on their so-called countries of origin. Scholarship’s reference to processes of ‘ethnicisation’ in live-in care illustrates a similar focus on care workers’ characteristics, nation-states, and nationalities. While the public discussion of care workers as ‘female care migrants’ frames care workers’ movements as a migration between discreet and distant places. The article argues that the ways in which the three narratives emphasise the places associated with care workers position these places in terms of difference. From a feminist perspective, this focus on difference is of underlying significance for the perpetuation of fundamental inequities in live-in care. In particular, the discursive differentiation between nation states serves to continually justify lower pay for workers associated with ‘other’ places. As such, the article’s analysis suggests that the discursive invocation of places of difference underlies the marked inequities in Swiss live-in care.
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Although the “mobility turn” has captured the critical imaginations of researchers studying an array of topics, its possible contributions to analyses of the spectrum of employment-related geographical mobility have only begun to be defined. Studies of work have engaged with the growing body of mobility theory in limited ways; by the same token, mobilities studies have taken a somewhat narrow and sometimes uncritical view of work, labor, and employment. This article draws on a major interdisciplinary research project into the socio-historical patterns, contexts, and impacts of employment-related geographical mobility in Canada to build a conceptual bridge between these two literatures. We re-visit established bodies of work on migration, work, and political economy and look at new avenues for conceptualizing employment-related geographical mobility. We then examine a case study from the Alberta Oil Sands and suggest an agenda for future research on mobility and work.
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In Canada, patterns of employment-related geographical mobility (E-RGM) are becoming more complex and nuanced, with implications for employers, workers, and their families. This article introduces the concept of E-RGM, and argues that because mobility is a pervasive aspect of working lives in Canada, it deserves more systematic and extensive research. To date, most studies of labour mobility have focused on permanent relocation or short-distance daily commuting. We argue for more research that disaggregates the socio-economic characteristics of those engaged in E-RGM and untangles its complexity. Using the 2006 Canadian confidential master file to create a statistical portrait of E-RGM reveals considerable variation among the Canadian working population, particularly those engaging in more extensive work journeys.
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Unpredictability is a distinctive dimension of working time that has been examined primarily in the context of unplanned overtime and in male-dominated occupations. The authors assess the extent to which female employees in low-skilled retail jobs whose work schedules are unpredictable report greater work-life conflict than do their counterparts with more predictable work schedules and whether employee input into work schedules reduces work-life conflict. Data include measures from employee surveys and firm records for a sample of hourly female workers employed across 21 stores of a U.S. women's apparel retailer. Results demonstrate that, independent of other dimensions of nonstandard work hours, unpredictability is positively associated with three outcomes: general work-life conflict, time-based conflict, and strain-based conflict as measured by perceived employee stress. Employee input into work schedules is negatively related to these outcomes. Little evidence was found that schedule input moderates the association between unpredictable working time and work-life conflict.
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Little is known about how work schedules affect social connectedness beyond family relationships. The authors use detailed time diary data from 12,140 respondents in the 2008 through 2010 American Time Use Surveys to examine how work schedules affect six forms of community involvement. Results show that night and evening shift work reduces community involvement, but only on weekdays. Daytime shifts reduce community involvement when they are very short, when they involve working from 8 to 5 instead of from 7 to 4, and when they are on weekends. These results call into question tacit assumptions about how shift work affects workers' social lives.
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The vast majority of caregivers, whether formal or informal, paid or unpaid, are women. Health care restructuring across the West, inspired by a shift from the welfare to neoliberal state, has greatly impacted caregiving. The idea for this collection arose as a result of a special paper session on the geographies of caregiving, held as part of the Association of American Geographers Meeting (Chicago, 2006). In hearing the papers presented, it became clear that geographers are engaged in interesting and innovative research in this area, much of which involves women's caregiving work in particular. As both unpaid informal family caregiving and paid formal practitioner-provided care are mainly addressed in this collection, they are briefly discussed in this editorial. This is followed by a discussion of the geographical contributions to the growing caregiving literature, which provides the foundation for an overview of ongoing and new research directions. The four articles that make up this special issue are then reviewed in brief. Finally, we identify issues that cut across all four articles, leading to a discussion of future research directions.
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In light of the renewed attention for time geography in the transport modelling field in recent years, this paper provides a timely state‐of‐the‐art review of the contributions of the time‐geographic approach to the closely related research areas of transport planning and accessibility analysis. Specific attention will be devoted to the ways in which recent advances in time geography have deepened the understanding of human activities and travel possibilities in space and time. From this literature review, a detailed research agenda is derived and the latest research attempts to deal with lingering time‐geographic issues are discussed.
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The aims of this paper are twofold. Firstly, taking inspiration from recent criticisms of non-representational theory, namely its over-valorization of the evental over the contextual, the paper argues for an ecological perspective on practices and performances, which is attentive to both the contextual and the evental. Secondly, and more specifically, this is approached through an examination of the hybrid temporalities of street performance through the gaze of Henri Lefebvre's 'Rhythmanalyst' as the performing body is choreographed into being in the admixture of pre-personal affects and non-human forces of nature (anxiety and frustration, sun and rain) in the playing out of performances. Rhythmanalysis is employed in thinking through the street performance ecology, and particularly the inter-relation of temporal prescriptions placed on performances in Covent Garden, London [linear rhythms], and the natural temporalities of bodies (performers' and audiences'), the outdoor environment (sun, rain and day), and the performances themselves [cyclical rhythms]. This is pursued in relation to: trying to perform when a crowd will not form; a performance's encounter with rain; and performing in the July afternoon sun. I conclude by problematizing Lefebvre's 'Rhythmanalytical Project' and speculate on its usefulness in the elaboration of the small details of 'chronic' everyday life, both evental and contextual.
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The free movement of labour and the creation of a European Labour Market have been the objectives of the European Union since its creation, but it is only with the 2004 enlargement that this has started to become a reality, with substantial numbers of East European workers seeking employment in the old member states. This paper uses the data from the UK Worker Registration Scheme and that compiled by the European Commission to examine the nature of this movement and its impact on the economies of both the existing and the new member states.
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Precarious employment is rapidly growing, but qualitative data on pathways to and mechanisms for health and well-being is lacking. This article describes the cumulative and intersecting micro-level pathways and mechanisms between precarious employment and health among immigrant men and women in Toronto. It draws on semi-structured interviews conducted in 2014 with 15 women and 12 men from 11 countries of origin. The article describes how precarious employment, conceptualized by workers as encompassing powerlessness, economic insecurity, work for multiple employers, nonstandard and unpredictable schedules, hazardous working conditions, and lack of benefits and protections, negatively impacts workers' physical and mental health as well as that of their spouses or partners and children. It documents pathways to health and well-being, including stress, material and social deprivation, and exposure to hazards, as well as commuting difficulties and childcare challenges. Throughout, gender and migration are shown to influence experiences of work and health. The findings draw attention to dimensions of precarity and pathways to health that are not always highlighted in research and discourse on precarious employment and provide valuable insights into the vicious circle of precarious employment and health.
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Precarious employment is on the rise in Canada, increasing by nearly 50% in the last two decades. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which it can impact upon geographical mobility. Employment-related geographical mobility refers to mobility to, from and between workplaces, as well as mobility as part of work. We report on a qualitative study conducted among 27 immigrant men and women in Toronto that investigates the relationship between precarious employment and daily commutes while exploring the ways in which gender, class and migration structure this relationship. Interview data reveal that participants were largely unable to work where they lived or live where they worked. Their precarious jobs were characterized by conditions that resulted in long, complex, unfamiliar, unsafe and expensive commutes. These commuting difficulties, in turn, resulted in participants having to refuse or quit jobs, including desirable jobs, or being unable to engage in labour market strategies that could improve their employment conditions (e.g. taking courses, volunteering, etc.). Participants’ commuting difficulties were amplified by the delays, infrequency, unavailability and high cost of public transportation. These dynamics disproportionately and/or differentially impacted certain groups of workers. Precarious work has led to workers having to absorb an ever-growing share of the costs associated with their employment, underscored in our study as time, effort and money spent travelling to and from work. We discuss the forces that underlie the spatial patterning of work and workers in Toronto, namely the growing income gap and the increased polarization among neighbourhoods that has resulted in low-income immigrants increasingly moving from the centre to the edges of the city. We propose policy recommendations for public transportation, employment, housing and child care that can help alleviate some of the difficulties described.
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Canada's Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP) is highly con-tentious. Particularly contentious are those parts of the program that have al-lowed for exploitative labour practices and the replacement of Canadian work-ers. Mobility for employment has been increasing, and researchers have focused on different types of mobile workers ranging from international (including the TFWP) to intra-provincial migrants, often in isolation from each other. Less research has focused on multiple mobilities within one industry to understand how and why labour force composition and employee mobility patterns change over time. Also under researched is why demand exists for TFWs in areas with high unemployment. This paper uses a case study of the seafood processing in-dustry (both wild and farmed) in a rural region of New Brunswick to explore this industry's claims about labour shortages and serial reliance on differently mobile labour forces over time. It draws on findings from a review of relevant documents and ethnographic fieldwork including interviews. Using the historical changes in the (im)mobility patterns of processing workers in this region, this paper highlights how the increased use of the TFWP by seafood processing com-panies is tied to manufactured raced and gendered employer practices.
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This article provides an editorial introduction to a special issue of Applied Mobilities on mobile work and work on the move. Drawn from an open call for articles at a workshop held at Lancaster University in March 2015, contributors interpreted the workshop theme in a number of different theoretical and contextual perspectives. This introduction provides some of the overarching context for the study and theorising of mobile work and explores some of the connecting themes and possible future directions relating to the physicality of work.
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The growing literature on individual transferable quotas (ITQs) and on intensive salmon aquaculture and its negative impacts on the environment and other users of related marine space has been little connected to the developing literature on financialization and to the literature on ocean grabbing within fisheries. This paper seeks to address this gap through a case study of the recent history of herring fisheries and intensive aquaculture in New Brunswick, Canada, exploring how specific neoliberal processes – including privatization and marketization (in herring fleet ITQs and aquaculture lease systems), (re)regulation, financialization and globalization – have interacted to support the reshaping of regional fisheries from mixed small-scale, family-based, petty commodity fisheries towards vertically-integrated, corporate, financialized fisheries characterized by ocean grabbing.
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This paper introduces the special section on the implications of long distance commuting (LDC) in the mining and oil and gas sectors on rural regions. The papers in the special section draw largely from the Canadian context but also from international examples and comparative analysis to further illuminate the challenges and opportunities such work arrangements present for rural communities, residents and organizations. This introductory paper provides a brief overview of the growing trend of 'mobility' including LDC, which can occur along a spectrum from commuting that includes long absences from home to extended daily commutes. This mobility has become particularly important for the extractive industries, and specifically the mining and oil and gas sectors. This paper also discusses the implications of LDC for source and host communities and the role of policy and planning in mitigating these impacts.
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In the 1990s, many women commuted shorter distances and less time than men, and research underscored the pernicious effects of racial and ethnic segregation and access to transportation on minority women’s commuting. Since then, growing income inequality and the bifurcation of employment between well-paid and secure jobs and a growing number of insecure and poorly paid jobs have been accompanied by the concentration of jobs at central and suburban locations and the transformation of women’s roles in the labor market. We investigate some of the geographical implications of these trends by analyzing commuting in the New York metropolitan region. In 2010, gender and race differences in commuting varied across the metropolitan area. Regression analysis demonstrates that the impacts of wages and household composition on commuting differ between the highly valued center that has benefited from private and public investment, the suburbs where traditional gender roles persist, and the deteriorating inner ring where minority women still commute long times on slow public transit. The findings highlight racial and gender disparities in geographical access to employment within the metropolitan region.
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Age is now considered alongside other differentiating categories for exploring mobility experiences, yet little work has emerged conceptualizing the im/mobilities of marginalized young people living in particularly difficult circumstances. This article, therefore, explores the relational im/mobilities of young female sex workers in Ethiopia aged between fourteen- and nineteen-years-old to understand how their livelihoods are shaped by the connections between their relations with others, im/mobilities, and survival in everyday life. The article draws on detailed narratives and participatory mobility mapping with sixty young sex workers in two locations in Ethiopia. Conceptually this article moves beyond sedentary and nomadic conceptions of mobility to what Jensen (2009) termed critical mobility thinking, where lives do not just happen in static enclaves or nomadic wanderings but are connected through multiple communities of interest and across time and space. Through these processes, everyday livelihoods are shaped and experienced. Further, drawing on Massey’s (2005) relational geographical theory, where sociotemporal practices constitute places in a complex web of flows, the article reveals that young sex workers’ critical im/mobilities are relational: Their livelihoods and identities are shaped within and between places based on their ability to move or not. The article reveals that these relational im/ mobilities are important for securing work, protection, and accessing services, both within and between places and across a variety of sex work livelihoods. The article concludes by demonstrating that consideration of livelihoods as relational and mobile is central for the development of appropriate interventions.
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Homecare work is female-dominated, generally precarious, and takes place in transient and, sometimes, multiple workplaces. Homecare workers can engage in relatively complex employment-related geographical mobility to, from, and often between work locations that can change frequently and are remote from the location of their employer. Like other precarious workers, homecare workers may be more likely to experience work-related health and safety injuries and illnesses than non-precarious workers. Their complex patterns of employmentrelated geographical mobility may contribute to the risk of injury and illness. This paper explores patterns of employment-related geographical mobility and ways they influence the risk of injury and illness among unionised homecare workers living and working in two regions of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, on Canada’s east coast. It uses Quinlan & Bohle’s ‘pressure, disorganisation, and regulatory failure’ model to help make sense of the vulnerability of these workers to occupational safety and health risks. The study uses a qualitative, multimethods approach consisting of semi-structured interviews and a review of government and homecare agency policies, as well as 20 Newfoundland and Labrador homecare collective agreements. It addresses two main questions: What are the work-related health and safety experiences of interviewed unionised homecare workers in Newfoundland and Labrador?; How do policies (government and homecare agency) and collective agreements interact with employment-related geographical mobility to mitigate or exacerbate the occupational safety and health challenges confronting these workers? Findings show that these workers experience numerous work-related health and safety issues, many of which relate to working in remote, transient and multiple workplaces. While collective agreements mitigate some health and safety issues, they do not fully address particular occupational safety and health risks associated with working alone, working remotely from employers, and working in transient workplaces, or the risks associated with commuting between workplaces. More active union engagement with these issues could be a mechanism to improve the health and safety of these and other homecare workers.
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This article develops a feminist political economy framework for analyzing employment-related geographical mobility. We emphasize the relevance of political economy studies of class, neoliberalism, and globalization as well as feminist research on the interconnectedness between paid employment and social reproduction. Overall, we make the case for attending to how class, gender, racialization and/or ethnicity, citizenship, and other forms of difference are core constitutive elements in employment-related mobility processes. At the end of the paper, we illustrate our approach with short empirical case studies of two mobile workers who came to Canada from the Philippines.
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Although construction is one of the most labour-intensive industries, people management issues are given inadequate attention. Furthermore, the focus of attention with regards to HR has been on the strategic aspects of HRM function - yet most problems and operational issues arise on projects. To help redress these problems, this book takes a broad view of HRM, examining the strategic and operational aspects of managing people within the construction sector. The book is aimed at project managers and students of project management who, until now, have been handed the responsibility for human resource management without adequate knowledge or training. The issues addressed in this book are internationally relevant, and are of fundamental concern to both students and practitioners involved in the management of construction projects. The text draws on the authors' experience of working with a range of large construction companies in improving their HRM operational activities at both strategic and operational levels, and is well illustrated with case studies of projects and organizations. © 2003 Martin Loosemore, Andrew Dainty and Helen Lingard. All rights reserved.
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Much of the research on immigrants has centered on their economic assimilation or integration. Few scholarly articles have examined the impact that immigrants have on the transportation system, especially those immigrants who have bypassed central city locations and settled in suburban areas where transit infrastructure is more limited. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on two interrelated issues: (1) the effect immigration has on metropolitan public transportation infrastructure in terms of high usage rates, and (2) the effect the governing structure in metropolitan areas has on immigrant settlement and integration in terms of the need for government investments in public transportation in the suburbs. The greater Toronto area is used as a case study to examine these issues. The implications for transit and immigration policies across different urban scales and levels of government are also discussed. The study concludes that transit needs to be recognized as a key ingredient for the success of the immigrant settlement process, which requires the involvement of all levels of government in the provision of modern and effective public transit services.
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Rather than a marginal activity, visiting friends and relatives (VFR) is a fundamental part of the migrant experience. We illustrate this assertion by an in-depth study of Latvian labour migration to Guernsey. Since the 1990s, low incomes and high unemployment in post-Soviet Latvia combine with niche-specific labour demands in Guernsey to create migratory flows of mainly female workers. The small-scale nature of this circular migration system allows a deeper theorisation of the many linkages between migration and VFR. In particular we deploy time-geography and rhythmanalysis to explore the various ways that migration and VFR are enfolded within each other, within the life-courses of the protagonists, and within the capitalist rhythms of temporary labour migration. Empirical evidence comes from interviews with 90 Latvian migrants in Guernsey and with 16 employers. VFR mobilities are space-time events of co-presence which can take place either in Latvia or in Guernsey. Both directions of visits can involve touristic functions, and VFR to Guernsey can also carry the potential to stimulate further migration. Further research could pay more attention to gender aspects and to prospects for permanent return migration to Latvia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Cheap Wage Labour is the first analysis of shore work and shoreworkers in British Columbia from the 1860s to the mid-1980s. Muszynski provides an interpretation of events that led to the creation of a cheap wage labour force of shoreworkers, their organization within the framework of the fishermen's union (UFAWU), and, as a consequence, the steady decline of their numbers until today they represent only a small portion of the labour force. She looks at factors contributing to the destruction of First Nations culture and economy, such as the displacement of aboriginal peoples from key fishing sites and work in the salmon canneries, and examines the structure and patterns of Chinese and Japanese immigration and the development of the capitalist class and the white working class. Cheap Wage Labour situates the history of B.C. shoreworkers within the much larger and more complex historical enterprise of industrialization, patriarchy, and colonialism and provides keen insights into the current fisheries crisis on the West Coast.
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Today logistics has become central to the orchestration of globalized trade and production. Yet, despite the focus on global connections and disconnections across a range of disciplines, the material operations that enable logistical practices have gone largely unexplored in social and cultural investigations into the operative dimensions of the global. This series of five theses provides a programmatic introduction to a longer research project that aims to reverse this situation. Understanding logistics as power means questioning many of the economic and political shibboleths of current approaches to the global, whether they derive from generalizations about neo-liberal deregulation or assertions about the historical continuity of the state. In particular, it allows a rethinking of the global production of time and space in relation to the production of living labor and the production of subjectivity.
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In natural resource management, law and temporality have interesting dimensions that are complicated by perceptions of and relations with environment. This paper examines the relationship between legal pluralism, temporality and oceans management. Oceans are managed at multiple levels with multiple chronometers. International standards encourage policy reform at a rapid pace, introducing in quick succession and over a short time-frame concepts such as privatization, community-based management, integrated management, evidence-based management, ecosystem-based management, spatial management and adaptive management for sustainability. There is often a temporal dissonance between these and national regulation, which tends to follow such policy directions more slowly. Meanwhile, the development of new institutions at the local level to facilitate management of localized resources is occurring at a glacial pace, with many barriers and roadblocks along the way. The lack of synchronization in regulatory chronometers is only enhanced by temporal challenges in scientific methodology, which complicate the science-to-policy nexus. This paper uses a case study from the Canadian Maritimes inshore fishery to examine scalar issues, sustainability shortfalls and the stratifying effects of these interesting temporal challenges.
Article
The economic well-being of African-Americans and Latinos in the US depends critically on women's employment and earnings. Gender differences in labor market segmentation are central to the spatial mismatch debate, both in their effects on wages, occupation, and transportation access and their links to place-based variation in commuting and spatial access to employment. Using 1980 PUMS data for northern New Jersey, we examine the spatial mismatch between jobs and residences for employed black and Hispanic women and the links between labor market segmentation and spatial mismatch. Minority women have poorer spatial access to jobs than white women, but they typically have better spatial access to employment than minority men. The mismatch is greatest for African-American women, reflecting their heavy reliance on mass transit and poor spatial access to employment in all economic sectors. Latina workers have more localized labor markets, but also the lowest earning of any group. For Latinas, the primary problem is not spatial access to employment but rather a lack of access to well-paying jobs. These differences in mismatch reflect the combined effects of gender-and race-based segmentation and spatial access to employment and transportation. -from Authors
Article
Increasingly, work schedules in retail sales are generated by software that takes into account variations in predicted sales. The resulting variable and unpredictable schedules require employees to be available, unpaid, over extended periods. At the request of a union, we studied schedule preferences in a retail chain in Québec using observations, interviews, and questionnaires. Shift start times had varied on average by four hours over the previous week; 83 percent had worked at least one day the previous weekend. Difficulties with work/life balance were associated with schedules and, among women, with family responsibilities. Most workers wanted: more advance notice; early shifts; regular schedules; two days off in sequence; and weekends off. Choices varied, so software could be adapted to take preferences into account. Also, employers could give better advance notice and establish systems for shift exchanges. Governments could limit store hours and schedule variability while prolonging the minimum sequential duration of leave per week.
Article
This paper is based on qualitative research on commuting and women's everyday lives. In the project ‘Re-reading time-geography from a feminist perspective’, labour force mobility is an important way of analysing women's time-space use and identifying the constraints experienced when organising everyday life. We claim that time-geography provides a useful set of analytical tools that successfully collaborate with social science theory such as gender studies. Time-geography has been questioned by feminists as well as others. However, we argue that time-geography could provide gender studies with a close, empathic and micro-levelled interventional approach that makes obstacles and constraints due to spatio-temporal conditions visible and thereby changeable. In this paper we use results from previous research to prove that time-geography is an approach with several sets of useful concepts that describe and analyse women's everyday struggles and possibilities in an era in which mobility and transport have become undisputed factors of everyday life. In order to do this, time-geography needs to be read from a gendered standpoint. Although we are still in the formative stages of this re-reading of original texts and the formation of additional sets of concepts, the indications are that this work is worth pursuing and expanding.
Article
The reorganization of health care in Quebec, as in the rest of Canada, has helped reinforce inequities based on gender, race, ethnic status, etc. in employment in this field. Home health care workers in Quebec, called auxiliaires, are mostly women, frequently immigrants, and often immigrant women of colour. Their jobs are low status and badly paid, yet auxiliaires express a high degree of attachment to the work and find it highly rewarding. We suggest this is largely due to the worker's mobility and physical distance from the institutions that employ them; this allows them considerable autonomy and gives them the freedom to provide service beyond the requirements of the job. Drawing on recent analyses of Mauss' notion of the gift, as well as Tronto and others, we look at ‘giving' in home health care, and its implications for the workers. En el camino y estar solo: Autonomía y Regalando en el cuidado de salud en casa en Quebec La reorganización del sistema de salud en Québec, como en el resto de Canadá, ha ayudado reiterar las inigualdades de género, raíz, etnicidad, etcétera, en el empleo de salud. La mayoría de los trabajadores de salud en Québec—que se llaman ‘auxiliaires'—son mujeres y muchas veces inmigrantes y además, mujeres inmigrantes de color. Su trabajo se considera como estatus inferior y tiene salario bajo, sin embargo ‘auxiliaires' declaran un apego significativo al trabajo y lo encuentran gratificante. Sugerimos que el apego y gratificación se resultan de la movilidad de las trabajadoras y sus distantes físicos de la institución; ésta situación las permite una autonomía considerable y como consecuencia tienen ellas la libertad para proveer asistencia por encima de los requisitos del trabajo. Usando unos análisis recientes de la noción del regalo de Gauss, además de Tronto y otros, examinamos ‘regalar' en el cuidado de salud en casa y las implicaciones para las trabajadoras.
Article
It is widely known that women work in different occupations and industries from men. With data from the Worcester, Massachusetts metropolitan area, we examine the extent to which employment opportunities are also spatially segmented along gender lines. After reviewing the reasons for previous scholarly neglect of the question of the location of employment opportunities by gender at a fine spatial scale, we present several reasons for expecting such patterns to exist. Our analysis of special runs from the 1980 Census Journey-to-Work File for Worcester reveals striking differences in the locations of women'svs. men's employment at the censustract level. Moreover, within each industrial sector, e.g., manufacturing or consumer industries, women work in different parts of the metropolitan area from men. We begin to explore the processes that might generate such patterns by examining the distances traveled by women vs. men to work in census tracts where the employment is held predominantly by workers of one sex. The findings show that men generally travel longer distances to work than do women working in the same tract regardless of the sex composition of the tracr's labor force. Moreover, women's travel distances to workplaces in the suburbs vary according to whether employment in the tract is held primarily by men or by women; women travel shorter distances to work in suburban tracts with female-dominated employment than they do to work in suburban tracts with male-dominated employment. The analysis suggests that suburban women in particular face spatially constrained local labor markets. We conclude with some thoughts on the implications of the patterns we have documented.
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Drawing on original interview and survey data, this paper examines the local labor-market dynamics for immigrant Mexicana household workers in San Diego, California. The study focuses on paid domestic “job workers” who clean the homes of several different employers each week and who are generally paid “under the table.” This paper addresses two questions: (1) What is the social and geographical organization of the local labor market for paid household workers in San Diego? and (2) What are the implications of the local labor-market dynamics for the social relations of domestic workers and the space of the city? The analysis particularly emphasizes the role of job search in defining the terms of employment in paid household work. Because one of the most important ways of finding house-cleaning jobs is through personal referrals, the social networks of workers are also explored. The paper argues that the labor-market dynamics for paid household work contribute to the residential clustering of immigrants, and help create and maintain differences among domestic workers and hierarchical relations between workers and their employers. The findings of this case study have implications for other expanding contingent and informal labor markets.
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The average U.S. male historically commutes further and longer than his female counterpart. Yet pivotal changes at home, as younger women especially increase their influence on household location and work decisions, and in the labor market, and as women's participation rates and profiles approach men's, strongly suggest that gender's influence on travel might be changing as well. Furthermore, the independent and interactive influence of other demographic factors, not least age and race, remain unclear. This study analyzes national microdata covering the past 20 years to examine both issues. We find sources of both convergence and divergence in travel behaviors by sex. The gender gap in commute length of older workers is growing, even while that of younger workers steadily closes. At the same time, racial differences in mode choice and commute times are becoming less pronounced—both by race and by gender. Thus, gendered elements of travel demand are indeed evolving, if not in predictable directions.
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This article explores the role of place in explaining variation in caregiver compensation. Using the labour category of Personal Support Worker (PSW) in Ontario, Canada, it contrasts wage rates across three health care settings: hospitals, long-term care facilities and private homes. An evaluation of current literature from disciplines spanning geography, gender studies, political science and sociology is combined with a critical analysis of policy documents and wage data to reveal that, despite holding similar qualifications and performing comparable job duties, hospital-based workers receive higher wages than home-based workers. I theorize that this wage disparity is partially attributable to the historical privileging of hospital settings in Canada, based on a medical-social continuum of health care valuation. Given that the hospital is constructed as a highly medical place, whereas the home is considered to be a social place, caregiving work enjoys greater financing protection in the former. I argue that these constructions stem from deeply gendered historical roots which view the marketplace as a male-dominated setting for productive waged labour, and the home as a female-dominated setting for unpaid social pursuits. Thus, when personal support services shift from public institutions into private homes, these activities become invisible to the state, and their provision beyond its purview. I conclude that the medical versus social nature of the duties performed by PSWs has become secondary to the medical versus social nature of the setting in which these activities take place. This has translated into lower wages for home-based PSWs, effectively resulting in wage discrimination.
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This paper highlights three major aspects of gender differences in employment in Haifa, Israel (1972 and 1983): commuting distance, place of residence, and employment location. In 1972 working womenaposs residences were more central-city-oriented, whereas in 1983 they were more suburbanized. Commuting distances increased between 1972 and 1983 for both sexes, but more for men than for women. This shorter “female'’distance is related to the location of employment and its occupational segregation. The lower commuting values in Haifa compared to other places relate to the size, housing patterns, and structure of the study area, and to its levels of suburbanization and automobile ownership.
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Recent discussion in human geography has heightened awareness of the problems and possibilities of the use of social theory in empirical research. This paper is concerned with showing how insights from feminist theory and Giddens's theory of structuration informed a study focusing on women's mothering practices in a Canadian suburb. In concert these approaches cast attention to the implications of recognizing subjects as knowledgeable human agents in analyses of social and economic change. These include a renewed emphasis on the "everyday' and its links with general processes, an interest in methods appropriate for investigating the generation of meanings central to our social and spatial worlds, and the need to incorporate women's experiences in the construction of theoretical knowledge. Included in a new research agenda within feminist geography are questions concerning the active construction of gender identities through practices which vary over time and space. The meaning of the domestic workplace to mothers of young children was explored. It is shown how the notion of motherhood and the sets of practices making up mothering work were interpreted and negotiated as women responded to social and economic structuring in a particular place. The paper includes a concluding discussion on the links between the theoretical underpinnings of the study and its empirical findings. -Author
Article
Acknowledgements. 1. Feminism and Geography: An Introduction. 2. Women and Everyday Spaces. 3. No Place for Women?. 4. The Geographical Imagination: Knowledge and Critique. 5. Looking at Landscape: The Uneasy Pleasures of Power. 6. Spatial Divisions and Other Spaces: Production, Reproduction and Beyond. 7. A Politics of Paradoxical Space. Notes to Chapters.
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The growing prevalence of shift work and non-standard working hours is challenging many taken-for-granted notions about family and household life. This article examines how rotating shift schedules shape household strategies with regard to childcare and unpaid domestic work. In 1993-94 in-depth interviews were conducted with 90 predominantly male newsprint mill-workers and their spouses living in three communities located in different regions of Canada. The analysis in this article is based on these interviews as well as data collected in a questionnaire survey administered to a much larger sample. The article focuses on the effects of rotating shifts and the extent to which household strategies differ between households with one or two wage-earners. The findings reveal that the onus for adjusting to shifts fell mainly on the spouses of mill-workers, who felt constrained in their own choices regarding employment and childcare by the demanding regimen of their partner's shift schedules. In the vast majority of households a traditional division of labour predominated with regard to both childcare and domestic work. When women quit paid employment to accommodate the schedules of shift-workers and ensure time for the family to be together, traditional values reassert themselves. Surprisingly, a high level of satisfaction with current shift schedules was found, despite the significant adjustments to family life they had necessitated. By comparing families employed in the same industry but living in three very different communities, the analysis underscores the importance of local circumstances in mediating the strategies households deploy in coping with shift work, especially with regard to childcare.
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Since the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, DC on 11 September 2001, Muslims or Muslim-looking people in the USA have experienced a significant increase in hostility and hate violence. The anti-Muslim hate crimes have affected the lives of these people of color in significant ways. In this article I seek to recover part of the post-September 11 experiences of American Muslims that were obfuscated by the dominant anti-Muslim master narrative, which conflated the Islamic faith with terrorism and constructed all Muslims as dangerous anti-American outsiders. I explore a way of telling stories about these experiences using the expressive power of geospatial technologies. Using the experiences of a Muslim woman in Columbus (Ohio, USA) as an example, I describe how the technological spaces afforded by geographical information systems (GIS) may be used to illuminate the impact of the fear of anti-Muslim hate violence on the daily lives of Muslim women and to help articulate their emotional geographies in the post-September 11 period.
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Feminists have long known that gender and mobility are inseparable, influencing each other in profound and often subtle ways. Tackling complex societal problems, such as sustainability, will require improved understandings of the relationships between gender and mobility. In this essay I propose new approaches to the study of mobility and gender that will provide the knowledge base needed to inform policies on sustainable mobility. Early in the essay I survey the large literature on gender and mobility, teasing out what I see as two disparate strands of thinking that have remained badly disconnected from each other. One of these strands has informed understandings of how mobility shapes gender, while the other has examined how gender shapes mobility. Work on how mobility shapes gender has emphasized gender, to the neglect of mobility, whereas research on how gender shapes mobility has dealt with mobility in great detail and paid much less attention to gender. From this overview of the literature, I identify knowledge gaps that must be bridged if feminist research on gender and mobility is to assist in charting paths to sustainable mobility. I argue for the need to shift the research agenda so that future research will synthesize these two strands of thinking along three lines: (1) across ways of thinking about gender and mobility, (2) across quantitative and qualitative approaches, and (3) across places. In the final part of the essay I suggest how to achieve this synthesis by making geographic, social and cultural context central to our analyses.
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This article examines the importance of place at multiple scales in the construction and experience of concentrated immigrant poverty and social exclusion in the Canadian metropolitan areas of Toronto and Vancouver. We emphasize four contributions: first, recognition that place has a profound effect on the shaping of immigrant lives; second, consideration of the multiple geographical scales implicated in the construction and experience of poverty; third, setting the immigrant experience in Canada in the broader comparative context of immigrant outcomes in the United States and western Europe; and fourth, complementing quantitative analyses of poverty effects with a qualitative methodology using focus groups to generate narratives that offer insight on the meaning of concentrated poverty in everyday life. The gateway cities of Toronto and Vancouver display an increasing spatial (and statistical) association between immigrant distributions and areas of concentrated poverty. Through focus groups with newcomers to Canada in nine poverty districts in Toronto and Vancouver we identify the role of the nation-state in shaping immigrant opportunities; sociospatial exclusion as it varies between city and suburban sites; and the penalties of living in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty, including the stigmatizing effects of neighborhood labeling by gatekeepers such as the media, police, and educators. At the same time, different sites display variable effects. We conclude by isolating neighborhood spaces of hope, where respondents offered more positive assessments.