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Students’ Attitude and Motivation in Bilingual Education

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Motivation and attitude are two affective factors that can determine the success of students’ learning. The objective of this study is to investigate how attitude and motivation affect students in bilingual teaching programs. This study comprised a total of 159 Spanish students and was conducted in the third and fourth year of primary education in which the level of the L2 corresponds to A2.1 of the CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference). The study involved two schools in the province of Cordoba (Andalusia) in which CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) program is implemented. A quantitative methodology has been used whereby students´ attitude and motivation have been analysed through a questionnaire. The results show that although motivation and attitude are positive in science subjects within the bilingual program, it is necessary to pay greater attention to diversity and to the different pace of learning among students.
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Students Attitude and Motivation in Bilingual Education
Beatriz Calderón Jurado1 & Cristina Morilla García1
1) University of Cordoba, Spain
Date of publication: October 24th, 2018
Edition period: October 2018 February 2019
To cite this article: Calderón Jurado, B., & Morilla García, C. (2018).
Students attitude and motivation in bilingual education International Journal
of Educational Psychology, 7(3), 317-342. doi: 10.17583/ijep.2018.3558
To link this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.17583/ijep.2018.3558
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IJEP International Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 7 No. 3
October 2018 pp. 317-342
2018 Hipatia Press
ISSN: 2014-3591
DOI: 10.17583/ijep.2018.3558
Students Attitude and
Motivation in Bilingual
Education
Beatriz Calderón Jurado, Cristina Morilla García
University of Cordoba
Abstract
Motivation and attitude are two affective factors that can determine the success of
students’ learning. The objective of this study is to investigate how attitude and
motivation affect students in bilingual teaching programs. This study comprised a
total of 159 Spanish students and was conducted in the third and fourth year of
primary education in which the level of the L2 corresponds to A2.1 of the CEFR
(Common European Framework of Reference). The study involved two schools in
the province of Cordoba (Andalusia) in which CLIL (Content and Language
Integrated Learning) program is implemented. A quantitative methodology has been
used whereby students´ attitude and motivation have been analysed through a
questionnaire. The results show that although motivation and attitude are positive in
science subjects within the bilingual program, it is necessary to pay greater attention
to diversity and to the different pace of learning among students.
Keywords: attitude; motivation; bilingual program; CLIL; science subjects.
IJEP International Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 7 No. 3
October 2018 pp. 317-342
2018 Hipatia Press
ISSN: 2014-3591
DOI: 10.17583/ijep.2018.3558
Actitud y Motivación de los
Estudiantes en la Educación
Bilingüe
Beatriz Calderón Jurado, Cristina Morilla García
University of Cordoba
Resumen
La motivación y la actitud son dos factores afectivos que pueden determinar el éxito
del aprendizaje de los alumnos. El objetivo de este estudio es indagar cómo la
actitud y la motivación afectan a los estudiantes con respecto al programa bilingüe.
Esta investigación comprende un total de 159 estudiantes españoles y ha tenido
lugar en el tercer y cuarto año de educación primaria en el que el nivel de la L2
corresponde al A2.1 del MCER (Marco Común Europeo de Referencia). El estudio
se ha realizado en dos centros de la provincia de Córdoba (Andalucía) en los que el
programa AICLE (Aprendizaje Integrado de Contenidos e Idiomas) está
implementado. Se ha aplicado una metodología cuantitativa en la que se ha
analizado la actitud y la motivación de los estudiantes mediante un cuestionario. Los
resultados muestran que aunque la motivación y la actitud son positivas en las
asignaturas de ciencias dentro del programa bilingüe, es necesario reforzar la
atención a la diversidad y los diferentes ritmos de aprendizaje.
Palabras clave: actitud; motivación; programa bilingüe; CLIL; asignaturas de
ciencias.
IJEP International Journal of Educational Psychology, 7(3)
319
owadays, English is a language that is spoken around the world,
according to Broughton, Brumfit, Pincas and Wilde (2002), there
are 300 million native speakers in every continent of the globe. In
addition, there are over 250 million speakers who use English as a
second language in their daily life: it is the language of mass media, official
institutions and the language of the commercial and industrial organizations.
Consequently, it has become a necessity to learn English at school. The
target language has been integrated into the Spanish education system in
such a way that educational programs have become bilingual in nature.
These programmes require students to become familiar with the foreign
language while learning subjects such as science, art and physical education
among others. Therefore, affective factors such as attitude and motivation
can play an important role in the process of acquiring the second language.
According to Latchanna and Dagnew (2009), attitude is seen as a relevant
concept for understanding human behaviour and is defined as a mental state
which includes feelings and beliefs. Beliefs are connected with success in
language lessons. Following Lennartsson (2008), motivation and the desire
to learn a second language are considered more relevant factors than social
ones; positive attitudes among students tend to raise students´ motivation. In
fact, a good teacher should tap into the sources of intrinsic motivation and
try to find ways to relate them to external motivation factors. Likewise, it is
appropriate to identify learners´ objectives and needs in order to develop
accurate motivational strategies. Appropriate attitudes and feelings are
needed to raise the competence of students in language learning lessons. The
aim of this research is to investigate the value of affective factors such as
attitude and motivation in bilingual education.
The competence of attitude and motivation in bilingual education
Learning a foreign language is a complex process in which several factors
are involved. The process of learning a foreign language not only implies a
cognitive approach. Rather, there are several factors which influence the
learning of a foreign language, such as the context, learning achievement,
intelligence, age, etc. and affective factors as attitude, motivation and
anxiety. Focusing on attitude, Gardner and Lambert (1972) demonstrated
N
Calderón Jurado & Morilla García Bilingual Education
320
that the ability of students to achieve proficiency in a second language is not
only influenced by mental competence or language skills, but also on the
learners´ attitudes and perceptions about the target language. Furthermore,
Victori and Lockhart (1995) asserted that students´ negative beliefs are
related to class anxiety, low cognitive achievement and negative attitudes.
Following this line, Reid (2003) stated that attitude is related to the
achievement of the student due to the fact that learning a foreign language
implies not only the intellectual capacity of the learner but also the attitude
towards language learning. In addition, Montano and Kasprzyk (2008) assert
that:
Attitude is determined by the individual´s belief about outcomes or attributes of
performing the behaviour (behavioural beliefs), weighted by evaluations of these
outcomes or attributes. Thus, a person who holds strong beliefs that positively
valued outcomes will result from performing the behaviour. Conversely, a
person who holds strong beliefs that negatively valued outcomes will result from
the behaviour will have a negative attitude (p.71).
The same happens with motivation. In fact, there are several models
based on motivation and language learning. Gardner and Lambert (1972)
established the socio-psychological model: for them, there are two kinds of
motivation: the first kind is integrative motivation which refers to learners´
willingness to learn the language in order to take part in the community
which speaks that language. The second kind is instrumental motivation,
which deals with learners´ desire to acquire foreign language proficiency for
practical purposes. Another framework concerns Self-Determination Theory
(Deci & Ryan, 1985; Noels, 2001; Noels, Pelletier, Clément, & Vallerand,
2003). This theory covers also two kinds of motivation: extrinsic motivation,
which deals with external factors that influence the learning of a foreign
language; and intrinsic motivation, which refers to the interest of learners
generated by doing an activity. According to Dörnyei (1998), motivation
affects success rate of learners. In fact, if motivation is lacking, even the
most remarkable learners with the most impressive abilities are unable to
achieve a long-term goal. Likewise, motivation plays an important role in
the acquisition of a foreign language as it is a communication coding taught
at school. It is an integral part of individual identities, as well as being a
form of social organisation that is embedded in a culture community.
IJEP International Journal of Educational Psychology, 7(3)
321
Content Language and Integrated Learning (CLIL) in Andalusia
According to García (2009) teachers have a responsibility to educate
students as responsible citizens who are prepared for the globalized world.
For these reasons it is essential to implement bilingual education in Spain
and to follow a suitable approach for the acquisition of the lingua franca.
According to Peter Mehisto (2012), and based on the definition provided by
Maljers, Marsh and Wolff (2007), CLIL is a dual-focused teaching and
learning approach in which the L1 and the additional language or two are
used for promoting both content mastery and language acquisition to pre-
defined levels. Several subjects can be taught through the CLIL program
depending on the qualification of teachers. Nowadays the focus is on history,
geography, science and social sciences specifically in Secondary Education.
According to Pérez-Cañado (2012), the materials used for these subjects can
be adapted from authentic sources or designed with the assistance of
Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Coyle (2010)
established the 4C Framework, which are, according to him, the four basic
ingredients for the CLIL classroom: content, communication, culture and
cognition.
Method
Objectives and Research Questions
The aim of this research is to investigate specific research questions
concerning the attitude and motivation of students towards their school’s
bilingual program, more specifically, with regards to science subjects. To do
so, a quasi-experimental design has been developed using a questionnaire.
According to Campbell and Stanley (1963) a quasi-experimental design is
made from situations which already exist in the real world and are more
representative in an educational context. It is difficult to control many of the
variables and the groups cannot be modified. Specific objectives, attitude
and motivation have been evaluated in relation to the following research
questions:
1. Are students feeling motivated with the bilingual program at school?
2. Is this bilingual program improving their attitude towards English?
Calderón Jurado & Morilla García Bilingual Education
322
3. Do children value the fact that they can learn English in subjects such
as science?
4. How do they feel when the teacher makes use of the second language
in the classroom?
Contextualization and Data Gathering
The present study was carried out in two different public education schools
of primary education. The first one is the CEIP 14001682, which is situated
in center Córdoba. The second one is the CEIP 14004075, which is situated
in a town in northern Córdoba. Number of students and schedules for
bilingual classes in every school are presented in table 1 and table 2.
Table 1
Number of students and schedule CEIP 14001682
Table 2
Number of students and schedule CEIP 14004075
Groups
Schedule
Number of students
3rd A
4th TIME
21
4th A
5th TIME
16
The instrument employed for data collection was a questionnaire, named
“Attitude and motivation in bilingual education within the primary school”.
Groups
Schedule
Number of students
3rd A
1rst TIME
26
4th A
2nd TIME
24
4th B
3rd TIME
22
4th D
4th TIME
24
3th B
5th TIME
26
IJEP International Journal of Educational Psychology, 7(3)
323
This instrument was revised for three experts specialized in the subject of the
area in order to validate it. The Delphi method was used: a) one EFL
professor, b) one applied linguistics university lecturer, and c) one computer
engineer specialized in e- learning. The questionnaire is composed of 21
questions divided into four dimensions: students´ motivation towards the
bilingual program, students´ attitude towards the bilingual program,
assessment of students about learning English in subjects such as sciences,
and the use of the second language in the classroom. Each item is rated on a
5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree).
The data obtained is quantitative in nature; however, as responses were
descriptive, qualitative data is also offered. Besides, Alpha´s Cronbach has
been used, which demonstrates the internal reliability of the questionnaire
(See table 3). This statistical method gives us information about “the degree
to which the items in a scale measure similar characteristics” (Pérez-Paredes
& Martínez-Sanchez, 2000-2001, p. 341). The more the results are
approximated to .1, the more reliable the questionnaire; the developed
questionnaire yields an internal consistency of .726, which means that the
reliability of the questionnaire is acceptable.
Table 3
Reliability statistics
Alpha´s
Cronbach
Alpha´s Cronbach
based on
standardized
items
N of items
,691
,726
23
Results
The results and data analyses presented below are grouped into four
dimensions in order to answer the research questions respectively.
The first dimension addresses students´ motivation towards the bilingual
program, and the obtained results respond to the first research question.
Calderón Jurado & Morilla García Bilingual Education
324
Table 4
Valid percentage questionnaires´ results, question 1
“Students are pleased when using the foreign language among themselves”.
As it can be shown in table 4, children demonstrate a positive attitude
towards speaking English among themselves; additionally, in table 5, it is
observed that the use of the ICT in lessons makes students appreciate
learning the lingua franca. Nowadays ICTs are a great tool for teaching
English. There are many applications and games that help students to learn
English and improve their attitude and motivation towards the second
language.
Table 5
Valid percentage questionnaires´ results, question 2
“Students value the use of ICTs for learning contents”.
Frequency
Percentage
Valid
percentage
Accumulated
percentage
Valid
I agree completely
115
72,3
72,3
72,3
I agree
32
20,1
20,1
92,5
I do not know
8
5,0
5,0
97,5
I disagree
1
,6
,6
98,1
I disagree completely
3
1,9
1,9
100,0
Total
159
100,0
100,0
Frequency
Percentage
Valid
percentage
Accumulated
percentage
Valid
I agree completely
116
73,0
73,0
73,0
I agree
21
13,2
13,2
86,2
I do not know
17
10,7
10,7
96,9
I disagree
3
1,9
1,9
98,7
I disagree completely
2
1,3
1,3
100,0
Total
159
100,0
100,0
IJEP International Journal of Educational Psychology, 7(3)
325
Table 6
Valid percentage questionnaires´ results, question 3
“The use of the mother tongue in lessons makes students feel confident when they
are unable to understand the concept in English”.
Frequency
Percentage
Valid
percentage
Accumulated
percentage
Valid
I agree completely
101
63,5
63,5
63,5
I agree
15
9,4
9,4
73,0
I do not know
8
5,0
5,0
78,0
I disagree
14
8,8
8,8
86,8
I disagree completely
21
13,2
13,2
100,0
Total
159
100,0
100,0
Furthermore, in table 6 it is exposed that more than half of students (63,5%)
completely agree, saying that they feel more confident when the teacher uses
the mother tongue to clarify something they have not understood in English.
It may be that sometimes students are unable to properly understand
vocabulary in English and that they need further explanations. In addition to
that, as it is analyzed in table 7, 61,6 % of students completely agree
considering English useful as a valuable tool for the future, and, this idea has
a positive effect on their attitude and motivation.
Table 7
Valid percentage questionnaires´ results, question 4
“Students approve learning science subjects within the bilingual program”.
Frequency
Percentage
Valid
percentage
Accumulated
percentage
Valid
I agree completely
98
61,6
61,6
61,6
I agree
21
13,2
13,2
74,8
I do not know
18
11,3
11,3
86,2
I disagree
6
3,8
3,8
89,9
I disagree completely
16
10,1
10,1
100,0
Total
159
100,0
100,0
Calderón Jurado & Morilla García Bilingual Education
326
Table 8
Valid percentage questionnaires´ results, question 5
“Students value the possibility of practising English at home with their parents”.
Frequency
Percentage
Valid
percentage
Accumulated
percentage
Valid
I agree completely
113
71,1
71,1
71,1
I agree
17
10,7
10,7
81,8
I do not know
16
10,1
10,1
91,8
I disagree
6
3,8
3,8
95,6
I disagree completely
7
4,4
4,4
100,0
Total
159
100,0
100,0
Finally, it needs to be mentioned that table 8 is representative by showing
that 71,1% of learners agree completely and appreciate their parents´ help
with their English homework. This constitutes great scaffolding by parents
and increases children’s motivation to continue learning English.
The second dimension that is analyzed is the students´ attitude towards the
bilingual program that addresses the second research question of the study.
Table 9
Valid percentage questionnaires´ results, question 6
“Students feel satisfaction when the teacher uses the lingua franca”.
Frequency
Percentage
Valid
percentage
Accumulated
percentage
Valid
I agree completely
86
54,1
54,1
54,1
I agree
43
27,0
27,0
81,1
I do not know
21
13,2
13,2
94,3
I disagree
7
4,4
4,4
98,7
I disagree completely
2
1,3
1,3
100,0
Total
159
100,0
100,0
IJEP International Journal of Educational Psychology, 7(3)
327
It is appreciated in table 9 that most of the students demonstrate a positive
attitude towards the use of the second language when the teacher is
explaining the lesson. This is a positive result because English is a language
of communication and within the bilingual the program is necessary to teach
at least 50-70% of the lessons in English.
Table 10
Valid percentage questionnaires´ results, question 7
“Learning science subjects through English is beneficial for us”.
Frequency
Percentage
Valid
percentage
Accumulated
percentage
Valid
I agree completely
84
52,8
52,8
52,8
I agree
41
25,8
25,8
78,6
I do not know
16
10,1
10,1
88,7
I disagree
7
4,4
4,4
93,1
I disagree completely
11
6,9
6,9
100,0
Total
159
100,0
100,0
Furthermore, in table 10, the item of "learning science subjects through
English is beneficial for us", most of students agree completely (52'8%) or
agree (25´8%) with that statement. This is a positive result concerning
attitude and motivation as well as the bilingual program. They value the
opportunity of learning science subjects through English. The results
concerning the ability of students to learn in English (table 11) show that
most of them (36,5% and 22,6%) agree. This aspect is related to attitude
because it shows that the students enjoy the lessons and, consequently, their
attitude is positive.
Calderón Jurado & Morilla García Bilingual Education
328
Table 11
Valid percentage questionnaires´ results, question 8
“Bilingual lessons are accessible to everybody”.
Frequency
Percentage
Valid
percentage
Accumulated
percentage
Valid
I agree completely
58
36,5
36,5
36,5
I agree
36
22,6
22,6
59,1
I do not know
28
17,6
17,6
76,7
I disagree
12
7,5
7,5
84,3
I disagree completely
25
15,7
15,7
100,0
Total
159
100,0
100,0
The third dimension is related to the third research question of the study,
dealing with the assessment of students about learning English in subjects
such as sciences.
Results in table 12 indicate that, although learners feel shy when they have
to speak in front of the class not using their mother tongue, they enjoy
participating in lessons (53,3%). That is, despite feeling embarrassed using
it, they are able to use the lingua franca, which is desirable because they are
communicating in English. Tables 13 and 14 show that 60,4% and 47,7% of
students are highly motivated about learning English. This is a significant
result, Gardner (1985, p.10) described that if students show desire when
doing an activity, they will have a satisfactory experience that is relevant for
language learning.
IJEP International Journal of Educational Psychology, 7(3)
329
Table 12
Valid percentage questionnaires´ results, question 9
“Students are pleased with using the second language among peers and the teacher”.
Frequency
Percentage
Valid
percentage
Accumulated
percentage
Valid
I agree completely
85
53,5
53,5
53,5
I agree
27
17,0
17,0
70,4
I do not know
29
18,2
18,2
88,7
I disagree
6
3,8
3,8
92,5
I disagree completely
12
7,5
7,5
100,0
Total
159
100,0
100,0
Table 13
Valid percentage questionnaires´ results, question 10
“Students really appreciate bilingual lessons”
Frequency
Percentage
Valid
percentage
Accumulated
percentage
Valid
I agree completely
96
60,4
60,4
60,4
I agree
36
22,6
22,6
83,0
I do not know
18
11,3
11,3
94,3
I disagree
5
3,1
3,1
97,5
I disagree completely
4
2,5
2,5
100,0
Total
159
100,0
100,0
Calderón Jurado & Morilla García Bilingual Education
330
Table 14
Valid percentage questionnaires´ results, question 11
“Students wait enthusiastically for bilingual lessons”
Frequency
Percentage
Valid
percentage
Accumulated
percentage
Valid
I agree completely
76
47,8
47,8
47,8
I agree
30
18,9
18,9
66,7
I do not know
30
18,9
18,9
85,5
I disagree
7
4,4
4,4
89,9
I disagree completely
16
10,1
10,1
100,0
Total
159
100,0
100,0
Table 15
Valid percentage questionnaires´ results, question 12
“Learners would like to have more subjects within the bilingual program”.
Frequency
Percentage
Valid
percentage
Accumulated
percentage
Valid
I agree completely
52
32,7
32,7
32,7
I agree
25
15,7
15,7
48,4
I do not know
17
10,7
10,7
59,1
I disagree
18
11,3
11,3
70,4
I disagree completely
47
29,6
29,6
100,0
Total
159
100,0
100,0
Moreover, as we can appreciate in table 15, 32,7% of the students disagree
completely with this statement. This can be produced by two factors. On the
one hand, we have to take into account the level of difficulty of the subjects,
it might be more complicated to learn concepts in the foreign language. The
second factor is related to the quantity of subjects offered inside the bilingual
program. For instance, CEIP 14001682 includes physical education, music
and science in its bilingual program; results in table 16 indicate that 61,6%
of students completely agree; they consider English useful as a valuable tool
IJEP International Journal of Educational Psychology, 7(3)
331
for the future, and, this idea has a positive effect on their attitude and
motivation.
Table 16
Valid percentage questionnaires´ results, question 13
“Students approve learning science subjects within the bilingual program”
Frequency
Percentage
Valid
percentage
Accumulated
percentage
Valid
I agree completely
98
61,6
61,6
61,6
I agree
21
13,2
13,2
74,8
I do not know
18
11,3
11,3
86,2
I disagree
6
3,8
3,8
89,9
I disagree completely
16
10,1
10,1
100,0
Total
159
100,0
100,0
Lastly, concerning the role of the families, the analysis in table 17 shows
that 68,8% of the children agrees completely. This implies motivation on the
part of both parents and students and that they consider English a useful tool
for the future.
Table 17
Valid percentage questionnaires´ results, question 14
“Students´ families value the opportunity to learn English through the bilingual
program”.
Frequency
Percentage
Valid
percentage
Accumulated
percentage
Valid
I agree completely
109
68,6
68,6
68,6
I agree
18
11,3
11,3
79,9
I do not know
25
15,7
15,7
95,6
I disagree
2
1,3
1,3
96,9
I disagree completely
5
3,1
3,1
100,0
Total
159
100,0
100,0
Calderón Jurado & Morilla García Bilingual Education
332
The last dimension that is analyzed concerns “the use of the second language
in the classroom”. The results obtained respond to the fourth research
question of our study. As can be observed in table 18, understanding the
teacher using the second language, generates varied results. Some students
(25,5%) agree completely with that affirmation, whereas others (27%),
disagree completely. However, it is advisable to help students to feel
comfortable with the second language and make use of it. Likewise, the
obtained results in table 19 show that 85,5% of the students feel grateful for
having a teaching assistant at school: they can help students to promote
English as a medium of communication.
Table 18
Valid percentage questionnaires´ results, question 15
“Students feel weak when they are unable to understand contents which are
explained in the second language”.
Frequency
Percentage
Valid
percentage
Accumulated
percentage
Valid
I agree completely
40
25,2
25,2
25,2
I agree
26
16,4
16,4
41,5
I do not know
27
17,0
17,0
58,5
I disagree
23
14,5
14,5
73,0
I disagree completely
43
27,0
27,0
100,0
Total
159
100,0
100,0
Table 19
Valid percentage questionnaires´ results, question 16
“Students appreciate the role of the teaching assistant in the lessons”.
Frequency
Percentage
Valid
percentage
Accumulated
percentage
Valid
I agree completely
128
80,5
80,5
80,5
I agree
14
8,8
8,8
89,3
I do not know
11
6,9
6,9
96,2
I disagree
1
,6
,6
96,9
I disagree completely
5
3,1
3,1
100,0
Total
159
100,0
100,0
IJEP International Journal of Educational Psychology, 7(3)
333
Aside from this, assistant teachers can introduce learners to their culture and
by doing so students can gain knowledge about some typical customs of the
country of the second language. Finally, results in table 20 shows that,
although students like learning science through the L2, they feel shy when it
comes to taking part in the bilingual lesson. That is a negative aspect of the
bilingual program that needs to be tackled, perhaps by building greater
cooperation between teachers and pupils.
Table 20
Valid percentage questionnaires´ results, question 17
“Students feel shy participating on bilingual lessons”.
Frequency
Percentage
Valid
percentage
Accumulated
percentage
Valid
I agree completely
43
27,0
27,0
27,0
I agree
19
11,9
11,9
39,0
I do not know
17
10,7
10,7
49,7
I disagree
17
10,7
10,7
60,4
I disagree completely
63
39,6
39,6
100,0
Total
159
100,0
100,0
As a global result, it can be contended that the bilingual program improves
students´ attitude and motivation. Learners feel satisfaction when they are
learning sciences through English because they know they own the
possibility to improve their English quality apart from being English an
opportunity for their future career. However, sometimes, when the teacher
makes use of the second language in the classroom, they hesitate about their
answers. It is relevant to make students feel restored and help them when
using the second language.
Furthermore, a comparison between both schools has been carried out taking
into account students from the 3rd and 4th years. The following figures show
the results of this comparison:
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Figure 1. Average questionnaires´ results 3rd A CEIP 14001682
Figure 2. Average questionnaires´ results 3rd A CEIP 14004075
IJEP International Journal of Educational Psychology, 7(3)
335
According to the data gathered, the figures above represent the average
answers for each question from the questionnaire. Firstly, in 3rd year
students from the CEIP 14001682 (see figure 1), the majority of answers
were positive, with the most chosen answers being “I completely agree” and
“I agree”, as can be observed in the diagram. Regarding 3rd year students
from the CEIP 14004075 (see figure 2), most of the results are also positive,
with the answers “I completely agree” and “I agree” appearing in response to
most of the questions. However, with question number 7 “I do not like when
the teacher speaks English in the classroom”, children hesitate about the
answer in both institutions, and most of them choose number 3 “I do not
know”. Then, in question number 8, I feel shy when I have to take part in
the English lesson”, students from CEIP 14001682 nearly agree whereas
students from CEIP 14004075 do not know. Finally, question number 15,
related to intrinsic motivation, “I would like to have more subjects in which
English is spoken”, learners from CEIP 14001682, are close to “I do not
know”, while children from CEIP 14004075 agree. This may be due to the
quantity of subjects offered in each bilingual school.
These results, which are reflected in figures 1 and 2 respectively, are
positive. Nevertheless, students have some problems when the teacher uses
the L2 in the classroom and when they need to use it. Moreover, it is
important that students feel comfortable in the lessons, as well as using the
second language. In this case, the role of emotional intelligence is relevant.
According to Pavón and Ávila (2009, p. 91), emotional intelligence is
essential for the acquisition of the L2: it helps to develop the student’s own
abilities and enables them to interact within the classroom.
When focusing on students from 4th year (see figure 3 and figure 4), in
question number 2, “If I do not understand something that my teacher has
explained in English I feel weak”, nearly all students from CEIP 14001682
answered “do not know”, and, students from CEIP 14004075 are close to
disagree. If we focus on question number 4, in both institutions there is a
positive result towards learning English in subjects such as science.
However, in question number 7 “I do not like when the teacher speaks
English in the lesson”, students from both schools hesitate. Nevertheless, the
4th year group from CEIP 14001682, seems to be more confident when the
teacher speaks the second language in the classroom. Question 12 “I really
like to take part in lessons in which English is spoken because I feel
comfortable with my peers and my teacher”, students from CEIP 14001682
Calderón Jurado & Morilla García Bilingual Education
336
agree, although students from CEIP 14004075 “do not know”. This
difference may be a product of the number of years spent within the
bilingual program in each school. Following with question number 14, in
both schools, children wait for lessons enthusiastically, meaning that they
exhibit positive motivation.
Finally, in question number 15 I would like to have more subjects in
which the English language is spoken” in both primary schools the result is
close to “I do not know”, however in the CEIP 14004075, children seem
more in favour of having more subjects; currently, they only study science
within the bilingual program. According to this analysis, attitude and
motivation are favourable among the two groups. It has been demonstrated
that attitude and motivation bear an influence on the acquisition of a foreign
language. What’s more, if these two affective factors are high, students’
English will improve because attitude and motivation are related to how
students feel and behave.
Figure 3. Average questionnaires´ results 4th A CEIP 14001682
IJEP International Journal of Educational Psychology, 7(3)
337
Figure 4. Average questionnaires´ results 4th A CEIP 14004075
Discussion and Conclusion
The aim of this study is to investigate several aspects regarding the
acquisition of a foreign language, especially the attitude and motivation of
primary school students towards science subjects within the bilingual
program. It has been analysed through a questionnaire. Referring to the
research questions, students feel motivated and also have a positive attitude
towards the bilingual program at school. Likewise, they value learning
different subjects through English due to their future possibilities. However,
sometimes, it is complicated for them to understand the teacher using the L2.
As it can be observed in Q1, some students have problems when using the
L2. It is advisable to make students feel comfortable listening and speaking
to the foreign language; they need to be confident when doing so. However,
referring to Q4, although they got some problems understanding the L2, the
majority of students show a great interest in learning English. This result
reveals that attitude is decisive and is related to the interest of the students in
acquiring a second language. Focusing on the role of the parents, as Q20
reveals, they are a great support, which makes students feel confident
Calderón Jurado & Morilla García Bilingual Education
338
learning English. According to Kara (2009), attitude has a key influence on
language learning acquisition as well as on the students´ behaviour.
The results show that attitude and motivation towards the bilingual
program at school are high. Having an assertive attitude implies great
efficiency when learning English, due to the fact that students´ behaviour
and attitude are related to language learning (Kara, 2009). However,
question number 8 “I feel shy when I have to take part in the lesson” is a
negative result which needs to be tackled because English is a language for
communication.
Respectively, the number of subjects offered in CEIP 14001682 (science,
music and physical education) may have had an influence on these answers,
as more bilingual subjects are offered here compared to the CEIP 14004075
(science). Moreover, attention to diversity should also be considered: not all
students have the same level of English. In relation to the comparison
between the institutions and the subjects which are offered by them, the most
relevant aspect can be found in question number 8, where students hesitate
when the teacher uses the target language. Additionally, if a comparison is
made among the four classes, it can be said that the results are similar among
all classes. In question number 15 all learners hesitate. These questions refer
to the use of the second language on the part of the teacher and teaching
more subjects within the bilingual program at school. Nevertheless, students
from the CEIP 14004075 seem to be more in favour of having more subjects
within the bilingual program. In light of the results, once again, dealing with
attention to diversity is a must in order to solve this dilemma.
With regards to the research question about the motivation of students
towards the bilingual program at school, it can be said that they feel
motivated: not only due to the fact that they enjoy lessons and eagerly wait
for them, but also because they want to learn English as they think it is
useful for their future. Secondly, when focusing on the bilingual program in
relation to the improvement of their attitude towards English, it should be
noted that the bilingual program is helping with this issue: it is improving
their attitude towards English because they are constantly working with
English and this makes the children happy. Nevertheless, the existence of
too great a number of subjects in English can affect their attitude negatively.
Thirdly, when students are asked about the importance of learning English,
the answer is positive as they view learning English as significant. They
value English as a useful tool for the future. However, students do not feel
IJEP International Journal of Educational Psychology, 7(3)
339
entirely confident when they are not able to understand some concepts in the
second language. They sometimes need the teacher to repeat the concepts in
Spanish. The results show that students “agree completely” or “agree” with
the questions.
Similarly, Dörnyey (1998) argued that motivation affects the success of
learners. In order to maintain positive attitudes and motivation among
students, the support of the mentor is important. Another suitable
pedagogical support is scaffolding. According to David Wood (1988)
scaffolding is behaviour intended to tutor, which is contingent, collaborative
and interactive. In addition, it is important to consider the different pace of
learning and diversity of students (p.96). In light of these considerations, we
should be aware of the fact that students’ progress might be improved by
promoting cooperative or group work and by using ICT (Information and
Communications Technology). Some researchers (Gere, 1987; Lawrence &
Sommers, 1996; Nystrand, Gamoran, & Heck, 1993) support the assumption
that relying on peers and only receiving feedback from teachers creates
autonomy in students and independence from teachers, as well as facilitating
the deep cognitive processing of the contents they are dealing with.
On the basis of the results, students demonstrate a positive attitude and
motivation towards science subjects within the bilingual program. The
findings also show that paying attention to diversity is an essential factor
that requires more attention. Further research is needed in order to take
account of diversity in non-linguistic programmes in order to improve the
understanding of language attainment in bilingual programs.
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Beatriz Calderón Jurado is graduated in the Master's Degree in
Advanced English Studies (Cognitive Linguistics/Literature) and
Bilingual Education. University of Córdoba, Spain.
Cristina Morilla García is Lecturer in the Department of English and
German Philology, University of Cordoba, Spain.
Contact Address: Department of English and German Philology,
University of Cordoba, Plaza Cardenal Salazar, 3 Facultad de Filosofía y
Letras, Córdoba, Spain. Email: cristmogar@hotmail.com
... Studies focusing on students' beliefs and perceptions have mostly shown that students tend to believe in the usefulness of CLIL (Barrios & Milla Lara, 2020;Dalton-Puffer et al., 2021;Massler, 2012) and often have high expectations concerning their future use of English (Broca, 2016;Calderón-Jurado & Garcia, 2018;Oxbrow, 2018). In subjects where a future benefit is not as obvious, e.g., in history, learners often found CLIL less purposeful (Somers & Llinares, 2018). ...
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Thesis
Full-text available
Being an educational approach that was primarily introduced to innovate language instruction, it is not surprising that Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has mostly been researched from the perspective of applied linguistics. Concerns relating to subject learning, in contrast, have only recently started to gain attention. With subject learning taking on a greater role in CLIL research, the content-and-language-integrative nature of this educational approach has become one of the central themes in the field. Conceptually, several propositions have been made concerning the integration of content and language learning, many of which aligning with systemic functional linguistics and/ or sociocultural theory. While these theoretical approaches have yielded interesting insights into the integration of subject and language learning, they do not translate into classroom practice easily. One notion allowing conceptual integration while appearing to be tangible for practitioners is the construct of cognitive discourse functions (CDFs; Dalton-Puffer, 2013). Being both anchored in linguistics and education, CDFs are assumed to be the generic linguistic manifestation of cognitive processes essential to learning and teaching. In the field of history education, too, CDFs have been shown to be tightly linked to history skills, both conceptually and empirically. Thus far, however, this construct has not been operationalized for pedagogical use, and generally more research is needed concerning the nexus of content-and-language-integrative learning, pedagogical practice, and didactic materials, also considering that CLIL teachers urgently lack integrative material as well as conceptual understanding in this respect. To address this gap, this PhD project is set in a framework of design-based research (DBR), which has been heralded as a transdisciplinary methodological approach able to reconcile theory- and practice-related concerns by being dual-focused. As such, this thesis aims to (1) further illuminate the theoretical underpinnings of the integration of content and language learning and (2) to develop practice-oriented tools and materials for upper secondary CLIL history education. With these aims in mind, I closely collaborated with teachers in order to systematically develop CDF-based history materials. First, the needs of participants were determined using individual interviews with teachers, focus group interviews with students, and written competency-based task for the learners, which informed the intervention we designed. Then, the teacher implemented these materials in their own class. Finally, the process and the products were evaluated from the learners’ and the teacher’s perspective as well as via written learner tasks once again. Based on these findings, our approach and the materials were advanced and fine-tuned over three such research cycles in two contexts. The findings of this study have shown that CDFs present an ecologically valid and effective approach to integrate content and language learning in upper secondary CLIL history education. Yet, for these materials to be accepted and to take effect, several conditions need to be met: First of all, competency-based tasks need to be engaging, interactive, and scaffolded in small steps, and the links between the linguistic support and the subject discipline need to be made explicit. Moreover, such scaffolding should not only consider linguistic forms and functions but also vi subject-specific concepts and notions important in the discipline. Additionally, in the course of the project, the importance of differentiated instruction crystallized. These aspects were crucial for the participants’ acceptance of the new approach, which also seemed to be reflected in the learners’ performance. Initially, both groups involved in the main study struggled with demonstrating subject-specific skills in English in various domains, such as appropriately justifying claims, signalling communicative intentions, or linking ideas. In the case of group A, who received two treatments, ratings improved significantly both in terms of academic language skills and history competences, with the bigger leap in performance in their second round. In contrast, the scores in group B, who received one treatment, increased only moderately (but statistically significantly) in the linguistic domain, while content results remained steady. Finally, this thesis has also demonstrated that the CDF construct is a useful and manageable tool for research. Yet, to ensure reliable coding, further specifications for different subjects may be needed, which this thesis intends to provide for the subject history.
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Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
Article
In recent years, learner training has been undertaken in many programmes aiming to achieve learners' autonomy. Quite often, however, this training has only focused on the teaching of tactics and strategies, overlooking other important factors such as students' attitude towards autonomy, beliefs and expectations about language learning and teaching, personal needs and objectives, learning styles and self-evaluation. One of the premises of any self-directed programme, we believe, should be that of enhancing students' metacognition to prepare them for approaching their own learning autonomy. Such a programme should involve cyclic diagnosis of learners' beliefs about language learning, preferred styles, learning needs and objectives in order to endow the learners with criteria for choosing optimum strategies, resources and activities for their individualized programmes. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to highlight the unifying role of metacognition in all levels of learner training. This paper describes an application of this principle including two examples in which the counsellors have made extensive use of this principle. Finally, we suggest some resulting pedagogical implications and several areas for future directions.