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The study aimed to evaluate rooting of raspberry cultivars from leafy cuttings in two seasons, autumn and winter. The cultivars Schöenmann, Willamette, Heritage, Polana, Indian Summer, Fall Gold, Golden Bliss and Bababerry were evaluated. Assessments were done 90 days after the installation for both seasons, evaluating the following traits: percentage of cuttings with callus; rooted and live cuttings; the longest root length; and dry mass of roots and sprouting. The results showed that is possible to obtain good rooting rates from leafy cuttings of raspberry cultivars in autumn, and regular in winter. The cultivars Bababerry, Schoenmann and Golden Bliss had higher rooting percentage, followed by Heritage, Polana, Willamette and Fallgold. The cultivar Indian Summer had the lower rooting percentage in autumn and winter.
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1
Propagation
ISSN 0100-2945 DOI: http://dx.doi.org /10.1590/0100-29452018378
Corresponding author:
priscilammarchi@yahoo.com.br
Received: November 27, 2017.
Accepted: February 22, 2018.
Copyright: All the contents of this
journal, except where otherwise
noted, is licensed under a Creative
Commons Attribution License.
Vegetative propagation of raspberry
from leafy cuttings
Priscila Monalisa Marchi1, Luis Eduardo Corrêa Antunes2, Ivan dos Santos Pereira3,
Daniela Höhn4, Ricardo Alexandre Valgas5
1Agronomist, PhD Student in Agronomy, Plant Breeding, PPGA - UFPel. Pelotas-RS, Brazil. E-mail: priscilammarchi@yahoo.com.br
2Agronomist, Dr. in Agronomy, Researcher, Embrapa Temperate Agriculture.Pelotas-RS, Brazil. E-mail: luis.antunes@embrapa.br
3Agronomist, Dr. in Agronomy, Postdoc in Embrapa Temperate Agriculture.Pelotas-RS, Brazil. E-mal: ivanspereira@gmail.com
4Agronomist, PhD student in Agronomy – UFPel. Pelotas-RS, Brazil. E-mail: dani.hohn.sc@gmail.com
5Agronomist, MSc., Researcher, Embrapa Temperate Agriculture.Pelotas-RS, Brazil. E-mail: ricardo.valgas@embrapa.br
Abstract - The study aimed to evaluate rooting of raspberry cultivars from leafy cuttings in two
seasons, autumn and winter. The cultivars Schöenmann, Willamette, Heritage, Polana, Indian
Summer, Fall Gold, Golden Bliss and Bababerry were evaluated. Assessments were done 90
days after the installation for both seasons, evaluating the following traits: percentage of cuttings
with callus; rooted and live cuttings; the longest root length; and dry mass of roots and sprouting.
The results showed that is possible to obtain good rooting rates from leafy cuttings of raspberry
cultivars in autumn, and regular in winter. The cultivars Bababerry, Schoenmann and Golden
Bliss had higher rooting percentage, followed by Heritage, Polana, Willamette and Fallgold. The
cultivar Indian Summer had the lower rooting percentage in autumn and winter.
Index terms: Rubus idaeus L., rooting, berries, seedlings production.
Propagação vegetativa de brotações caulinares
de framboeseira
Resumo-Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a propagação vegetativa de brotações caulinares
de cultivares de framboeseira, no outono e no inverno. Foram avaliadas as cultivares Schöenmann,
Willamette, Heritage, Polana, Indian Summer, Fall Gold, Golden Bliss e Bababerry. As avaliações,
realizadas 90 dias após a instalação, em ambas estações, foram: porcentagem de estacas com calos,
estacas enraizadas e sobreviventes; comprimento da maior raiz; massa seca de raízes e massa seca
da parte aérea. É possível obter boas taxas de enraizamento de brotações caulinares de cultivares
de framboeseiras no outono. As cultivares Bababerry, Schoenmann e Golden Bliss apresentaram
maior percentual de enraizamento, seguidas por Heritage, Polana, Willamette e Fallgold. A cultivar
Indian Summer teve o menor percentual e enraizamento no outono e no inverno.
Termos para indexação: Rubus idaeus L., enraizamento, pequenas frutas, produção de mudas.
2P. M. Marchi et al.
Rev. Bras. Frutic., Jaboticabal, 2018, v. 40, n. 5: (e-378)
Introduction
Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) is an economically
important crop included in the small fruits group. This
importance is due to the fruit’s attractiveness as well as its
appreciable amount of polyphenol and antioxidant activity,
suggesting metabolic benets for people’s health (XIAO et
al. 2017). Considering the production of temperate climate
fruits in Brazil, small fruits are not yet very signicant,
except for strawberry. Raspberry, however, has gained
great interest among growers and, consequently, has been
expanding across temperate and subtropical Brazilian
regions (CURI et al., 2015; CAPRONI et al., 2016).
The increasing demand for fruits and the expansion
of raspberries requires obtaining plants with higher quality
to implementing and renovating orchards (MARO et al.,
2014). In this regard, the knowledge of propagation and
seedlings production may be the rst step to expand the
species in Brazil (AFFONSO et al., 2015). Raspberry is
notably almost exclusively propagated via cloning, an
asexual method, in which individual plants produced are
homogeneous and genetically identical to the mother plant
(PACURAR et al., 2014). In this propagative method,
for a plant segment to be able to live independently
once detached from the mother plant, the regeneration
and development of new roots is indispensable. The
roots formed from post-embryonic organs are called
adventitious roots (GUAN et al., 2015; PACURAR et
al., 2014).
Therefore, the main ways to propagate this species
is through rooting of softwood and hardwood cuttings,
stem and root cuttings, beyond in vitro culture. The rst
one is not an efcient procedure, because from it, very
low rooting rates are obtained (TIBERTI et al., 2015).
Furthermore, stem rooting and root cuttings carry risks,
such as soil pathogens contamination, low number of
propagated plants and irregular plants. The in vitro tissues
culture is the most efcient method to avoid contamination
from pathogens (FAGUNDES et al., 2017), but the
process is more expensive as it entails higher operational
costs. The propagation of cuttings is considered the most
efcient and cost-effective method to procedure large
quantities of homogeneous plants (GUAN et al., 2015).
In this way, the present research proposes to analyze
rooting of leafy cuttings taken from axillary shoots from
young cane, as an efcient and low cost method that also
minimizes phytosanitary problems.
The aim of this research was to evaluate rooting of
raspberry from leafy cuttings in two seasons.
Material and methods
The experiment was carried out in Pelotas-RS,
Brazil. The latitude is 31° 46’ S, longitude 52° 20’ O,
and altitude of 60 meters. The experimental design was
completely randomized, arranged in an 8 x 2 factorial
scheme with four replications of 12 leafy cuttings each,
being eight raspberry cultivars, Schöenmann, Willamette,
Heritage, Polana, Indian Summer, Fall Gold, Golden Bliss
and Bababerry; and two seasons - autumn and winter.
One-year-old plants used in this study were grown in a
greenhouse, in 8L plastic pots, lled with commercial
peat substrate (Germinaplant®) and 5g L-1 of slow release
fertilizer (Osmocote Plus®, 15-09-12).
The rst study was implement on March 11th, 2014
(autumn), and the second on June 20th, 2014 (winter),
both 15 days after pruning and the removal of leaves.
Leafy cuttings of 1-3cm in length, each containing about
4-7 leaves, were taken from axillary shoots of the current
year’s new cane. They were vertically stablished at 1cm
depth, in expanded polystyrene trays with 120 cells, lled
with vermiculite of ne particle size. The trays were
maintained under intermittent misting for 6 seconds every
15 minutes.
Assessments were done 90 days after the installation
of both experiments (autumn and winter). The cuttings
were evaluated by the number of cuttings with callus
appearing in relation to the total percentage of rooted
cuttings, which were considered to be cuttings with at
least one root; and the percentage of live cuttings, which
were considered to be those with at least one pair of leaves.
The quality of rooted cuttings was evaluated by
the parameters root length, which was measured by the
average length of each of the cuttings´ longest root. This
measurement was taken with a graduated scale and were
expressed in cm; dry mass of roots and sprouting, in which
roots and sprouts from all cuttings were separated and
dried, in a forced ventilation oven at 65 °C until constant
mass, followed by weighing in an analytical balance. The
results were expressed in g cutting-1.
Results data were used to perform variance
analysis. After nding signicant variation for the studied
traits among cultivars, means were compared using the
Scott-Knott test (p<0.05). The measured traits were
submitted to Pearson correlation, based on t-test at 5%
of probability.
Results and discussion
Differences were found (p<0.05) among cultivars
regarding the percentage of live and rooted cuttings, in
the longest root length and dry mass of sprouting for both
climatic seasons (autumn and winter).
Percentage of cuttings with callus only differed in
autumn (Table 1). In this season, more than 90.00% of
the cuttings from cultivars Bababerry and Schöenmann
produced callus, differing from all the others cultivars.
However, ‘Indian Summer’ presented only 2.08% of
cuttings with callus. These results are similar to those
3
Vegetative propagation of raspberry from leafy cuttings
Rev. Bras. Frutic., Jaboticabal, 2018, v. 40, n. 5: (e-378)
obtained by Campagnolo and Pio (2012) which evaluated
propagation of stem and roots from ten blackberry
cultivars, which belong to the same genus of Raspberries
(Rubus). The authors found differences on the percentage
of callus formation, ranging from 100% to 35%. Based
on these results, it was noticed that callus formation in
raspberry leafy cuttings varies between cultivars. During
the winter, very low callus percentages were observed
(0.00% to 14.58%).
Rooted cuttings in autumn ranged from 93.75%
to 16.67%, and from 50.00% to 8.33% in winter. During
autumn, the cultivars Bababerry, Shoenmann and Golden
Bliss presented highest root potential, followed by
‘Heritage’, ‘Polana’, ‘Willamette’ and ‘Fallgold’. The
cultivar Indian Summer presented a value of rooted
cuttings lower than the other ones in autumn and winter,
16.67% and 8.33%, respectively. These results are
greater than those found in a study about raspberry root
potential using stem cuttings, which showed only 3.12%
as the maximum rate of rooted cuttings (TIBERTI et al.,
2015). A hypothesis that may explain this discrepancy is
that younger tissues, which contain stem cells, are more
efcient at develop roots.
There are many factors that may explain this
hypothesis, such as the distribution and the hormonal
balance in the propagative material used, especially
because auxin is the main hormone associated with
rooting in plants (GUAN et al., 2015; PACURAR et
al., 2014). This phytohormone is mainly synthesized in
young leaves and meristems. In addition, the stem apex,
which contains meristem, is a dynamic structure with high
cellular activity, and the leaves make photosynthesis and
produce metabolites. On the other hand, softwood stems
present slower metabolic activity, reduced auxin rates,
less cell differentiation and division, and lower levels
of photo-assimilated compounds (TAIZ and ZEIGER,
2013). It is important to highlight that leaves probably
favor raspberry rooting, because they are an important
source of auxins, like 3-indol acetic acid (IAA) and an
energy source. Vignolo et al. (2014) also observed that the
presence of leaves provides more rooting of blackberry
hardwood cuttings.
The presence of callus in cuttings propagated in
autumn apparently favors the rooting process in raspberry
cultivars. A high correlation between cuttings callus and
rooted cuttings during this season (r=0.78, p<0.001) was
found. A study with Arabidopsis revealed that these calli
are not a mass of unorganized cells; they have organized
structures resembling the primordial of lateral roots (ATTA
et al., 2009). Callus formation reproduces the initial
development of lateral roots, but it does not continue after
lateral root emergence. This is evidence that the process
involved in pericycle cell division during the formation of
lateral roots also occurs in callus formation. Thus, lateral
roots and callus formation are under the same genetic
control at the initiation step (SUGIMOTO et al., 2010).
The cultivars Bababerry, Schoenmann and Golden
Bliss differ from the others because they have higher
percentage of live cuttings in autumn, followed by
‘Heritage’, ‘Polana’, ‘Willamette’ an ‘Fallgold’. In both
seasons (autumn and winter), the cultivar Indian Summer
differed from all others due to its lower percentage of
live cuttings (Table 1). The Indian Summer cultivar
is originated from the North East of the United States
of America (USA), New York; while ‘Bababerry’, for
example, which one had high percentage of live and rooted
cuttings (Table 1), is originated from California, in West of
USA. The results showed that climate conditions where the
cultivars were created might inuence in their adaptability
to a different condition, even during propagation. The
State of California has average of temperatures and
rainfalls more similar to Southern of Brazil than the
State of New York, where winter temperature average is
below freezing. This inuence is possibly related to the
mother plant condition, its vigour and hormonal balance,
which is dependent on adaptation, and certain amount
of chilling hours might be necessary to develop roots.
Although ‘Indian Summer’ plants are considered vigorous,
mild winter conditions may not be favorable to plant
adaptability and vegetative development of this cultivar.
The percentage of live cuttings was higher than
the percentage of rooted cuttings for seven of all eight
cultivars studied in autumn, and for six cultivars in
winter. These results may indicate that some cultivars, in
certain conditions, may need more time to develop roots.
The presence of leaves in the cuttings does not inuence
on the percentage of live cuttings, but the reserves
previously accumulated by them in the rooting process
do (VIGNOLO et al., 2014).
For the longest root length trait, it was observed
superiority for the cultivars Bababerry, Golden Bliss,
Heritage and Willamette in autumn, and for the cultivars
Bababerry, Schoenmann, Golden Bliss, Heritage,
Polana, Willamette and Fallgold in winter (Table 1).
Vignolo et al. (2014) reported differences for this trait
in Blackberry cultivars. However, the dry mass of
roots did not present differences in none of the seasons.
According to Moubayidin et al. (2010), the root growth
process is regulated by hormonal factors, where auxins
are responsible for cell division, while cytokines act
in cell differentiation. After root establishment, new
hormonal controls take place, with requirement of lower
concentrations of auxins for root meristem maintenance
and cytokinins needed for root tissue differentiation
(COSTA et al., 2013). It is clear that, in the conditions of
this research, the cultivars had different auxin levels and
similar cytokines levels.
Dry mass of sprouting was different in autumn and
winter (Table 1). The cultivars Polana, Willamette and
Indian Summer produced more dry mass of sprouting
4P. M. Marchi et al.
Rev. Bras. Frutic., Jaboticabal, 2018, v. 40, n. 5: (e-378)
in autumn, and are superior from the other cultivars. In
winter, ‘Heritage’ and ‘Polana’ stand out from the rest.
Sprouts formation in cuttings works like a power drain,
and if they predate rooting, it may lead to energy reserves
exhaustion, prejudicing the rooting process or causing the
death of cuttings.
The formation of adventitious roots is a
complex genetic trait regulated by interactions between
environmental and endogenous factors (PACURAR
et al., 2014). This research shows that genetic factors
have inuence on raspberries root potential parameters.
As it has been observed in other species of berries, like
blackberry (CAMPAGNOLO and PIO, 2012; VIGNOLO
et al., 2014) and Blueberry (MARANGON and BIASI,
2013). Nevertheless, other important factors play an
important role in raspberries vegetative propagation, such
as environmental and phytohormones variables (GUAN
et al., 2015). In this respect, a large number of starch
grains are present in cells that initiate root primordial;
then, the mother plant condition is another determining
factor, because these starch grains are associated with
accumulation of carbohydrates and auxin at the basal
part of the cuttings (GUAN et al., 2015). The events that
lead to adventitious roots formation strongly depend on
mother plant nutritional status, both in terms of mineral
and carbohydrates, as well as on sink establishment at
cuttings bases (COSTA et al., 2013).
The results presented in this paper may indicate
that the propagation of raspberry leafy cuttings is a
very promising alternative, but many factors inuence
in different ways the success of propagation. It was
showed that better results are obtained in autumn,
probably because environmental factors have inuenced
the vegetative propagation process, either through the
nutritional condition of mother plant, or through climate
conditions, that changes metabolic processes and rates
in cuttings. Also, genetic factors play an important role
due to the differences in vigour and hormonal balances
of each raspberry cultivar. The technique is easy and has
a low cost, and the type of propagating material is an
important advantage, because the material used is very
young, it means high hormonal rates, and besides there
is no contact with soil, reducing signicantly pathogens
contamination risks.
Table 1 Percentage of cuttings with calls, rooted and live cuttings, longest root length, dry mass of roots and dry
mass of sprouting from leafy cuttings of raspberry cultivars in autumn and winter. Pelotas-RS, Brazil, 2017.
Cultivar
Cuttings
with calls
Rooted
cuttings
Live
cuttings
Longest root
length
Dry mass
of roots Dry mass of sprouting
(%) (%) (%) (cm) (g cutting-1) (g cutting-1)
-------------------------------------------------------Autumn-------------------------------------------------------
Bababerry 95.84 a 93.75 a 97.92 a 5.55 a 0.06 ns 0.14 b
Schoenmann 93.75 a 79.17 a 93.75 a 4.37 b 0.07 0.13 b
Golden Bliss 64.59 b 81.25 a 81.25 a 5.75 a 0.07 0.17 b
Heritage 60.42 b 56.25 b 60.42 b 5.35 a 0.09 0.16 b
Polana 56.25 b 45.84 b 58.33 b 4.72 b 0.23 0.21 a
Willamette 52.09 b 62.50 b 70.84 b 5.77 a 0.16 0.19 a
Fallgold 43.75 b 54.17 b 70.83 b 4.76 b 0.11 0.16 b
Indian Summer 2.08 c 16.67 c 18.75 c 3.81 b 0.16 0.25 a
-------------------------------------------------------Winter---------------------------------------------------------
Bababerry 14.58 ns 41.67 a 43.75 a 5.41 a 0.04 ns 0.07 b
Schoenmann 2.08 49.67 a 50.00 a 5.14 a 0.06 0.12 b
Golden Bliss 0.00 30.00 a 40.00 a 4.91 a 0.18 0.03 b
Heritage 2.09 31.25 a 31.25 a 5.30 a 0.05 0.11 a
Polana 2.00 33.33 a 35.42 a 5.21 a 0.04 0.11 a
Willamette 6.25 50.00 a 54.17 a 5.49 a 0.04 0.06 b
Fallgold 6.20 43.75 a 48.85 a 4.63 a 0.06 0.04 b
Indian Summer 0.00 8.33 b 26.67 b 2.14 b 0.04 0.06 b
*Lower case letters in the column differ signicantly at the 5% signicance level by Scott-Knott test; ns means not signicant at the 5%
signicance level by Scott-Knott test.
5
Vegetative propagation of raspberry from leafy cuttings
Rev. Bras. Frutic., Jaboticabal, 2018, v. 40, n. 5: (e-378)
Conclusions
It is possible to obtain good rooting rates from leafy
cuttings of raspberry cultivars in autumn and regular in
winter. In autumn, the cultivars Bababerry, Schoenmann
and Golden Bliss have higher rooting percentage, followed
by Heritage, Polana, Willamette and Fallgold. The cultivar
Indian Summer have the lower rooting percentage in
autumn and winter.
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