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The study aimed to evaluate rooting of raspberry cultivars from leafy cuttings in two seasons, autumn and winter. The cultivars Schöenmann, Willamette, Heritage, Polana, Indian Summer, Fall Gold, Golden Bliss and Bababerry were evaluated. Assessments were done 90 days after the installation for both seasons, evaluating the following traits: percentage of cuttings with callus; rooted and live cuttings; the longest root length; and dry mass of roots and sprouting. The results showed that is possible to obtain good rooting rates from leafy cuttings of raspberry cultivars in autumn, and regular in winter. The cultivars Bababerry, Schoenmann and Golden Bliss had higher rooting percentage, followed by Heritage, Polana, Willamette and Fallgold. The cultivar Indian Summer had the lower rooting percentage in autumn and winter.
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ISSN 0100-2945 DOI: /10.1590/0100-29452018378
Corresponding author:
Received: November 27, 2017.
Accepted: February 22, 2018.
Copyright: All the contents of this
journal, except where otherwise
noted, is licensed under a Creative
Commons Attribution License.
Vegetative propagation of raspberry
from leafy cuttings
Priscila Monalisa Marchi1, Luis Eduardo Corrêa Antunes2, Ivan dos Santos Pereira3,
Daniela Höhn4, Ricardo Alexandre Valgas5
1Agronomist, PhD Student in Agronomy, Plant Breeding, PPGA - UFPel. Pelotas-RS, Brazil. E-mail:
2Agronomist, Dr. in Agronomy, Researcher, Embrapa Temperate Agriculture.Pelotas-RS, Brazil. E-mail:
3Agronomist, Dr. in Agronomy, Postdoc in Embrapa Temperate Agriculture.Pelotas-RS, Brazil. E-mal:
4Agronomist, PhD student in Agronomy – UFPel. Pelotas-RS, Brazil. E-mail:
5Agronomist, MSc., Researcher, Embrapa Temperate Agriculture.Pelotas-RS, Brazil. E-mail:
Abstract - The study aimed to evaluate rooting of raspberry cultivars from leafy cuttings in two
seasons, autumn and winter. The cultivars Schöenmann, Willamette, Heritage, Polana, Indian
Summer, Fall Gold, Golden Bliss and Bababerry were evaluated. Assessments were done 90
days after the installation for both seasons, evaluating the following traits: percentage of cuttings
with callus; rooted and live cuttings; the longest root length; and dry mass of roots and sprouting.
The results showed that is possible to obtain good rooting rates from leafy cuttings of raspberry
cultivars in autumn, and regular in winter. The cultivars Bababerry, Schoenmann and Golden
Bliss had higher rooting percentage, followed by Heritage, Polana, Willamette and Fallgold. The
cultivar Indian Summer had the lower rooting percentage in autumn and winter.
Index terms: Rubus idaeus L., rooting, berries, seedlings production.
Propagação vegetativa de brotações caulinares
de framboeseira
Resumo-Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a propagação vegetativa de brotações caulinares
de cultivares de framboeseira, no outono e no inverno. Foram avaliadas as cultivares Schöenmann,
Willamette, Heritage, Polana, Indian Summer, Fall Gold, Golden Bliss e Bababerry. As avaliações,
realizadas 90 dias após a instalação, em ambas estações, foram: porcentagem de estacas com calos,
estacas enraizadas e sobreviventes; comprimento da maior raiz; massa seca de raízes e massa seca
da parte aérea. É possível obter boas taxas de enraizamento de brotações caulinares de cultivares
de framboeseiras no outono. As cultivares Bababerry, Schoenmann e Golden Bliss apresentaram
maior percentual de enraizamento, seguidas por Heritage, Polana, Willamette e Fallgold. A cultivar
Indian Summer teve o menor percentual e enraizamento no outono e no inverno.
Termos para indexação: Rubus idaeus L., enraizamento, pequenas frutas, produção de mudas.
2P. M. Marchi et al.
Rev. Bras. Frutic., Jaboticabal, 2018, v. 40, n. 5: (e-378)
Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) is an economically
important crop included in the small fruits group. This
importance is due to the fruit’s attractiveness as well as its
appreciable amount of polyphenol and antioxidant activity,
suggesting metabolic benets for people’s health (XIAO et
al. 2017). Considering the production of temperate climate
fruits in Brazil, small fruits are not yet very signicant,
except for strawberry. Raspberry, however, has gained
great interest among growers and, consequently, has been
expanding across temperate and subtropical Brazilian
regions (CURI et al., 2015; CAPRONI et al., 2016).
The increasing demand for fruits and the expansion
of raspberries requires obtaining plants with higher quality
to implementing and renovating orchards (MARO et al.,
2014). In this regard, the knowledge of propagation and
seedlings production may be the rst step to expand the
species in Brazil (AFFONSO et al., 2015). Raspberry is
notably almost exclusively propagated via cloning, an
asexual method, in which individual plants produced are
homogeneous and genetically identical to the mother plant
(PACURAR et al., 2014). In this propagative method,
for a plant segment to be able to live independently
once detached from the mother plant, the regeneration
and development of new roots is indispensable. The
roots formed from post-embryonic organs are called
adventitious roots (GUAN et al., 2015; PACURAR et
al., 2014).
Therefore, the main ways to propagate this species
is through rooting of softwood and hardwood cuttings,
stem and root cuttings, beyond in vitro culture. The rst
one is not an efcient procedure, because from it, very
low rooting rates are obtained (TIBERTI et al., 2015).
Furthermore, stem rooting and root cuttings carry risks,
such as soil pathogens contamination, low number of
propagated plants and irregular plants. The in vitro tissues
culture is the most efcient method to avoid contamination
from pathogens (FAGUNDES et al., 2017), but the
process is more expensive as it entails higher operational
costs. The propagation of cuttings is considered the most
efcient and cost-effective method to procedure large
quantities of homogeneous plants (GUAN et al., 2015).
In this way, the present research proposes to analyze
rooting of leafy cuttings taken from axillary shoots from
young cane, as an efcient and low cost method that also
minimizes phytosanitary problems.
The aim of this research was to evaluate rooting of
raspberry from leafy cuttings in two seasons.
Material and methods
The experiment was carried out in Pelotas-RS,
Brazil. The latitude is 31° 46’ S, longitude 52° 20’ O,
and altitude of 60 meters. The experimental design was
completely randomized, arranged in an 8 x 2 factorial
scheme with four replications of 12 leafy cuttings each,
being eight raspberry cultivars, Schöenmann, Willamette,
Heritage, Polana, Indian Summer, Fall Gold, Golden Bliss
and Bababerry; and two seasons - autumn and winter.
One-year-old plants used in this study were grown in a
greenhouse, in 8L plastic pots, lled with commercial
peat substrate (Germinaplant®) and 5g L-1 of slow release
fertilizer (Osmocote Plus®, 15-09-12).
The rst study was implement on March 11th, 2014
(autumn), and the second on June 20th, 2014 (winter),
both 15 days after pruning and the removal of leaves.
Leafy cuttings of 1-3cm in length, each containing about
4-7 leaves, were taken from axillary shoots of the current
year’s new cane. They were vertically stablished at 1cm
depth, in expanded polystyrene trays with 120 cells, lled
with vermiculite of ne particle size. The trays were
maintained under intermittent misting for 6 seconds every
15 minutes.
Assessments were done 90 days after the installation
of both experiments (autumn and winter). The cuttings
were evaluated by the number of cuttings with callus
appearing in relation to the total percentage of rooted
cuttings, which were considered to be cuttings with at
least one root; and the percentage of live cuttings, which
were considered to be those with at least one pair of leaves.
The quality of rooted cuttings was evaluated by
the parameters root length, which was measured by the
average length of each of the cuttings´ longest root. This
measurement was taken with a graduated scale and were
expressed in cm; dry mass of roots and sprouting, in which
roots and sprouts from all cuttings were separated and
dried, in a forced ventilation oven at 65 °C until constant
mass, followed by weighing in an analytical balance. The
results were expressed in g cutting-1.
Results data were used to perform variance
analysis. After nding signicant variation for the studied
traits among cultivars, means were compared using the
Scott-Knott test (p<0.05). The measured traits were
submitted to Pearson correlation, based on t-test at 5%
of probability.
Results and discussion
Differences were found (p<0.05) among cultivars
regarding the percentage of live and rooted cuttings, in
the longest root length and dry mass of sprouting for both
climatic seasons (autumn and winter).
Percentage of cuttings with callus only differed in
autumn (Table 1). In this season, more than 90.00% of
the cuttings from cultivars Bababerry and Schöenmann
produced callus, differing from all the others cultivars.
However, ‘Indian Summer’ presented only 2.08% of
cuttings with callus. These results are similar to those
Vegetative propagation of raspberry from leafy cuttings
Rev. Bras. Frutic., Jaboticabal, 2018, v. 40, n. 5: (e-378)
obtained by Campagnolo and Pio (2012) which evaluated
propagation of stem and roots from ten blackberry
cultivars, which belong to the same genus of Raspberries
(Rubus). The authors found differences on the percentage
of callus formation, ranging from 100% to 35%. Based
on these results, it was noticed that callus formation in
raspberry leafy cuttings varies between cultivars. During
the winter, very low callus percentages were observed
(0.00% to 14.58%).
Rooted cuttings in autumn ranged from 93.75%
to 16.67%, and from 50.00% to 8.33% in winter. During
autumn, the cultivars Bababerry, Shoenmann and Golden
Bliss presented highest root potential, followed by
‘Heritage’, ‘Polana’, ‘Willamette’ and ‘Fallgold’. The
cultivar Indian Summer presented a value of rooted
cuttings lower than the other ones in autumn and winter,
16.67% and 8.33%, respectively. These results are
greater than those found in a study about raspberry root
potential using stem cuttings, which showed only 3.12%
as the maximum rate of rooted cuttings (TIBERTI et al.,
2015). A hypothesis that may explain this discrepancy is
that younger tissues, which contain stem cells, are more
efcient at develop roots.
There are many factors that may explain this
hypothesis, such as the distribution and the hormonal
balance in the propagative material used, especially
because auxin is the main hormone associated with
rooting in plants (GUAN et al., 2015; PACURAR et
al., 2014). This phytohormone is mainly synthesized in
young leaves and meristems. In addition, the stem apex,
which contains meristem, is a dynamic structure with high
cellular activity, and the leaves make photosynthesis and
produce metabolites. On the other hand, softwood stems
present slower metabolic activity, reduced auxin rates,
less cell differentiation and division, and lower levels
of photo-assimilated compounds (TAIZ and ZEIGER,
2013). It is important to highlight that leaves probably
favor raspberry rooting, because they are an important
source of auxins, like 3-indol acetic acid (IAA) and an
energy source. Vignolo et al. (2014) also observed that the
presence of leaves provides more rooting of blackberry
hardwood cuttings.
The presence of callus in cuttings propagated in
autumn apparently favors the rooting process in raspberry
cultivars. A high correlation between cuttings callus and
rooted cuttings during this season (r=0.78, p<0.001) was
found. A study with Arabidopsis revealed that these calli
are not a mass of unorganized cells; they have organized
structures resembling the primordial of lateral roots (ATTA
et al., 2009). Callus formation reproduces the initial
development of lateral roots, but it does not continue after
lateral root emergence. This is evidence that the process
involved in pericycle cell division during the formation of
lateral roots also occurs in callus formation. Thus, lateral
roots and callus formation are under the same genetic
control at the initiation step (SUGIMOTO et al., 2010).
The cultivars Bababerry, Schoenmann and Golden
Bliss differ from the others because they have higher
percentage of live cuttings in autumn, followed by
‘Heritage’, ‘Polana’, ‘Willamette’ an ‘Fallgold’. In both
seasons (autumn and winter), the cultivar Indian Summer
differed from all others due to its lower percentage of
live cuttings (Table 1). The Indian Summer cultivar
is originated from the North East of the United States
of America (USA), New York; while ‘Bababerry’, for
example, which one had high percentage of live and rooted
cuttings (Table 1), is originated from California, in West of
USA. The results showed that climate conditions where the
cultivars were created might inuence in their adaptability
to a different condition, even during propagation. The
State of California has average of temperatures and
rainfalls more similar to Southern of Brazil than the
State of New York, where winter temperature average is
below freezing. This inuence is possibly related to the
mother plant condition, its vigour and hormonal balance,
which is dependent on adaptation, and certain amount
of chilling hours might be necessary to develop roots.
Although ‘Indian Summer’ plants are considered vigorous,
mild winter conditions may not be favorable to plant
adaptability and vegetative development of this cultivar.
The percentage of live cuttings was higher than
the percentage of rooted cuttings for seven of all eight
cultivars studied in autumn, and for six cultivars in
winter. These results may indicate that some cultivars, in
certain conditions, may need more time to develop roots.
The presence of leaves in the cuttings does not inuence
on the percentage of live cuttings, but the reserves
previously accumulated by them in the rooting process
do (VIGNOLO et al., 2014).
For the longest root length trait, it was observed
superiority for the cultivars Bababerry, Golden Bliss,
Heritage and Willamette in autumn, and for the cultivars
Bababerry, Schoenmann, Golden Bliss, Heritage,
Polana, Willamette and Fallgold in winter (Table 1).
Vignolo et al. (2014) reported differences for this trait
in Blackberry cultivars. However, the dry mass of
roots did not present differences in none of the seasons.
According to Moubayidin et al. (2010), the root growth
process is regulated by hormonal factors, where auxins
are responsible for cell division, while cytokines act
in cell differentiation. After root establishment, new
hormonal controls take place, with requirement of lower
concentrations of auxins for root meristem maintenance
and cytokinins needed for root tissue differentiation
(COSTA et al., 2013). It is clear that, in the conditions of
this research, the cultivars had different auxin levels and
similar cytokines levels.
Dry mass of sprouting was different in autumn and
winter (Table 1). The cultivars Polana, Willamette and
Indian Summer produced more dry mass of sprouting
4P. M. Marchi et al.
Rev. Bras. Frutic., Jaboticabal, 2018, v. 40, n. 5: (e-378)
in autumn, and are superior from the other cultivars. In
winter, ‘Heritage’ and ‘Polana’ stand out from the rest.
Sprouts formation in cuttings works like a power drain,
and if they predate rooting, it may lead to energy reserves
exhaustion, prejudicing the rooting process or causing the
death of cuttings.
The formation of adventitious roots is a
complex genetic trait regulated by interactions between
environmental and endogenous factors (PACURAR
et al., 2014). This research shows that genetic factors
have inuence on raspberries root potential parameters.
As it has been observed in other species of berries, like
blackberry (CAMPAGNOLO and PIO, 2012; VIGNOLO
et al., 2014) and Blueberry (MARANGON and BIASI,
2013). Nevertheless, other important factors play an
important role in raspberries vegetative propagation, such
as environmental and phytohormones variables (GUAN
et al., 2015). In this respect, a large number of starch
grains are present in cells that initiate root primordial;
then, the mother plant condition is another determining
factor, because these starch grains are associated with
accumulation of carbohydrates and auxin at the basal
part of the cuttings (GUAN et al., 2015). The events that
lead to adventitious roots formation strongly depend on
mother plant nutritional status, both in terms of mineral
and carbohydrates, as well as on sink establishment at
cuttings bases (COSTA et al., 2013).
The results presented in this paper may indicate
that the propagation of raspberry leafy cuttings is a
very promising alternative, but many factors inuence
in different ways the success of propagation. It was
showed that better results are obtained in autumn,
probably because environmental factors have inuenced
the vegetative propagation process, either through the
nutritional condition of mother plant, or through climate
conditions, that changes metabolic processes and rates
in cuttings. Also, genetic factors play an important role
due to the differences in vigour and hormonal balances
of each raspberry cultivar. The technique is easy and has
a low cost, and the type of propagating material is an
important advantage, because the material used is very
young, it means high hormonal rates, and besides there
is no contact with soil, reducing signicantly pathogens
contamination risks.
Table 1 Percentage of cuttings with calls, rooted and live cuttings, longest root length, dry mass of roots and dry
mass of sprouting from leafy cuttings of raspberry cultivars in autumn and winter. Pelotas-RS, Brazil, 2017.
with calls
Longest root
Dry mass
of roots Dry mass of sprouting
(%) (%) (%) (cm) (g cutting-1) (g cutting-1)
Bababerry 95.84 a 93.75 a 97.92 a 5.55 a 0.06 ns 0.14 b
Schoenmann 93.75 a 79.17 a 93.75 a 4.37 b 0.07 0.13 b
Golden Bliss 64.59 b 81.25 a 81.25 a 5.75 a 0.07 0.17 b
Heritage 60.42 b 56.25 b 60.42 b 5.35 a 0.09 0.16 b
Polana 56.25 b 45.84 b 58.33 b 4.72 b 0.23 0.21 a
Willamette 52.09 b 62.50 b 70.84 b 5.77 a 0.16 0.19 a
Fallgold 43.75 b 54.17 b 70.83 b 4.76 b 0.11 0.16 b
Indian Summer 2.08 c 16.67 c 18.75 c 3.81 b 0.16 0.25 a
Bababerry 14.58 ns 41.67 a 43.75 a 5.41 a 0.04 ns 0.07 b
Schoenmann 2.08 49.67 a 50.00 a 5.14 a 0.06 0.12 b
Golden Bliss 0.00 30.00 a 40.00 a 4.91 a 0.18 0.03 b
Heritage 2.09 31.25 a 31.25 a 5.30 a 0.05 0.11 a
Polana 2.00 33.33 a 35.42 a 5.21 a 0.04 0.11 a
Willamette 6.25 50.00 a 54.17 a 5.49 a 0.04 0.06 b
Fallgold 6.20 43.75 a 48.85 a 4.63 a 0.06 0.04 b
Indian Summer 0.00 8.33 b 26.67 b 2.14 b 0.04 0.06 b
*Lower case letters in the column differ signicantly at the 5% signicance level by Scott-Knott test; ns means not signicant at the 5%
signicance level by Scott-Knott test.
Vegetative propagation of raspberry from leafy cuttings
Rev. Bras. Frutic., Jaboticabal, 2018, v. 40, n. 5: (e-378)
It is possible to obtain good rooting rates from leafy
cuttings of raspberry cultivars in autumn and regular in
winter. In autumn, the cultivars Bababerry, Schoenmann
and Golden Bliss have higher rooting percentage, followed
by Heritage, Polana, Willamette and Fallgold. The cultivar
Indian Summer have the lower rooting percentage in
autumn and winter.
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... Among the most used vegetative propagation methods in the production of seedlings of plants, including aroeira, cuttings are mostly used [6]. The success of this technique depends on the roots of the cuttings, which can be affected by endogenous (hormonal and nutritional balance of the mother plant, and endogenous auxin concentration) and exogenous substrate used, (environmental conditions) [8,9,10]. ...
... One hypothesis is IBA low water solubility [14] resulting in less homogeneous mixtures. That is why , an organic solvent (acetone) was used in this study to increase the solubility, therefore, the dilution of the hormone in (5): [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]2021 variables to plant development (TDM, H, D, SDM and RDM). One hypothesis is IBA low water solubility [14] resulting in less homogeneous mixtures. ...
... Spalenza et al.; JEAI, 43(5):[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] 2021 ...
Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi, popularly known in Brazil as pink pepper or aroeira, has become a new source of agricultural exploitation for some farmers, notably located in the north of the state of Espírito Santo, the largest producing region in the world. Once it was a species that has been historically exploited in an extractive manner, where only what nature offers is explored, the need for the generation of scientific knowledge to understand its genetic potential in all agronomic areas is evident, starting with the large spread in scale of this species. Therefore, the objective of the work was to study the effects of indolebutyric acid (IBA) on the physiology and quality of seedlings produced by cuttings of the species Schinus terebentifolia Raddi under different concentrations of this hormone and different ways of application. The experiment design was a factorial in randomized blocks, in the 2x7 arrangement, the first being composed of two forms of preparation of the hormone (dilution in acetone or in water) and the second composed by 7 concentrations of IBA (0 mg/L; 625 mg/L; 1250 mg/L; 2500 mg/L; 3000 mg/L; 3750 mg/L and 5000 mg/L) with 5 blocks and 5 plants in each treatment. The addition of IBA favored the development and physiological aspects of the seedlings, produced from the hormone prepared with both, water and acetone. The quality of seedlings induced with IBA diluted in water was compromised with the addition of the hormone, whereas in seedlings treated with IBA diluted in acetone, the estimated dose of 1750 mg/L of IBA, promoted the better quality index (IQD) of the seedlings.
... Intrinsic factors include the genetic constitution of the plant, the endogenous level of inhibitors, cutting techniques, plant age and nutritional and water conditions of the parent plant (Cavalcante et al., 2019;Guimarães et al., 2019). Among the relevant extrinsic factors are the time of year of collection, use of growth regulators, substrate quality, and the environmental conditions (temperature, light and humidity) (Hartmann et al., 2011;Peralta et al., 2017;Freitas et al., 2017b;Marchi et al., 2018). ...
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The objective of this work was to evaluate the vegetative propagation of Hymenaea courbaril (jatobá) and Apuleia leiocarpa (garapa) using the mini-cutting technique with the use of indolebutyric acid (IBA) growth regulator in different types of mini-cuttings. Two experiments were set up: the first involving the two species and three mini-cutting techniques (basal, intermediate and apical) in the presence and absence of IBA (4000 mg kg-1). In the second experiment, only the garapa species was evaluated by testing the same three mini-cutting techniques at four IBA concentrations: 0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg kg-1. The mini-cuttings were obtained from 6-month-old seedlings produced from seeds in a nursery. A randomized block design was used in a 3 x 2 x 3 factorial scheme (three mini-cutting techniques, two IBA concentration levels and three evaluation dates) in the first experiment, and a 3 x 4 x 3 factorial scheme (three mini-cutting techniques, four IBA concentrations and three evaluation dates) in the second experiment. At 90 days, jatobá had an average survival of 54%, with less than 5% of total rooting, without significant influence of the mini-cutting technique or IBA use. Garapa presented higher survival for the basal mini-cuttings in both experiments, which were the only ones that took root. IBA did not influence survival or rooting percentage of garapa mini-cuttings, but negatively influenced the root number, length and dry mass. We concluded that the basal mini-cutting is a viable technique for vegetative propagation of garapa, presenting 40% of rooting, but the propagation by mini-cutting for jatobá was not successful under the conditions of this study.
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The cultivation of mulberry ( Rubus sp.) is highly disseminated in cold climates, but some cultivars adapt to warm weather environments. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the production of blackberry and redberry in season and off season in Pouso Alegre, south of Minas Gerais. The experimental design was a randomized block, with twelve cultivars ('Arapaho', 'Xavante', 'Brazos', 'Tupy' 'Comanche', 'Choctaw', 'Guarani', 'Caingangue', 'Cherokee', 'Chicasaw' and 'Clone' and a redberry, three blocks and an experimental unit of four plants with a spacing of 0.5x3.0m and a total density of 6,666 plants per hectare. Conventional pruning was performed to produce the crop (October-December) and for off-season production (April-July). In 'Brazos' there was increased production in the two seasons evaluated against other mulberry trees, conversely, in the off season, there was a positive effect of pruning carried out in January only in 'Tupy', 'Choctaw', 'Comanche' and 'Clone', with 'Tupy' presenting the highest productivity off season. In 'Brazos' and 'Tupy' there was the best balance between soluble solids and acidity in the crop and red berry in season. 'Brazos' and 'Cherokee' had the highest average content of total sugars. Due to the lack of supply of fruit, pruning mulberry trees in January is an alternative to increase the income of family-based farms.
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O uso de microjardins clonais em sistemas de cultivo sem solo para fornecimento de material propagativo na cultura do mirtileiro (Vaccinium spp.) pode trazer grandes avanços na produção de mudas dessa cultura. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a produção de microestacas e a sobrevivência de plantas matrizes de mirtileiro micropropagadas das cultivares Woodard e Aliceblue, em dois sistemas de cultivo. Os sistemas de cultivo utilizados foram o semi-hidropônico (floreiras com substrato de areia e fornecimento diário de solução nutritiva) e o com substrato organomineral (sacos plásticos com substrato comercial e fornecimento de solução nutritiva a cada 15 dias). Após o período de 90 dias do plantio das plantas matrizes, foram iniciadas as coletas de microestacas, as quais foram realizadas a cada 60 dias, com exceção do período de inverno, em que as coletas foram realizadas a cada 90 dias, totalizando ao final do experimento onze coletas. O experimento foi constituído como um fatorial 2 x 2 x 11 (sistemas x cultivares x coletas), em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições de 12 plantas cada. Foram avaliadas a produção total de microestacas ao final das onze coletas, o número de microestacas produzidas por planta matriz a cada coleta, a sobrevivência das plantas matrizes ao final das onze coletas e a sobrevivência das plantas matrizes a cada coleta. Os resultados indicaram que o sistema semi-hidropônico foi superior ao substrato organomineral para a produção de microestacas de ambas as cultivares. A maior produtividade total de microestacas ocorreu no sistema semi-hidropônico combinado com a cultivar Aliceblue, com produção total média de 237,67 microestacas. Porém, nesta condição, houve menor sobrevivência das plantas matrizes. A produção de microestacas apresentou alternância ao longo das coletas. A sobrevivência das plantas matrizes diminuiu após sucessivas coletas. Após as coletas de verão, ocorreu maior mortalidade de plantas matrizes.
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Propagation of vegetative cuttings is the most efficient and cost-effective method for producing homogeneous horticultural plants and forest trees when apomictic seed is unavailable. This method depends on the formation of adventitious roots (ARs) in stem or leaf cuttings. Improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate AR development could enhance the application of this technique. In this article, we review the physiological and developmental processes that regulate AR formation. We map gene function in lateral root development to transcriptomic analyses of the stages of AR formation to reveal potential gene function controlling this important process. We then synthesize a model of the regulatory network controlling AR formation that includes the unique aspects of AR formation in woody plants. Finally, we provide a perspective and suggest future directions for elucidation of molecular processes that regulate AR development.
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Raspberry is an economically important berry crop that contains numerous phenolic compounds with potential health benefits. It is known that the chemistry content is affected by processing factors, but limited information is available on the influence of cultural factors or genotype. To clarify this issue, this work aimed to characterize the following raspberry cultivars Polana, Autumn Bliss, Heritage, Batum, Golden Bliss, hybrid Boysenberry and black raspberry from Mantiqueira Mountains (Campos do Jordao city, Sao Paulo State, Cwa climate, mesothermal with dry winter, commonly named tropical de altitude, according to Koppen classification) and Alto do Rio Grande (Lavras city, Minas Gerais State, Cwb climate, with dry winter and summer temperate), two areas subtropical in Brazil, and quality attributes. The fruits were used for the following analysis: mass, size, number of drupelets, color, total acidity, soluble solids, total soluble solids / titratable acidity (TSS / TA), moisture and ash. The results revealed strong influence of growing site on fruit quality as well as the existence of variation among cultivars. Fruits produced in Mantiqueira Mountains had larger and higher TSS / TA. On the other hand, the growing raspberries in Alto do Rio Grande provided greater color tone, increased acidity, and low ratio of total soluble solids and total acidity.
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A propagação da amoreira-preta pode ser feita de forma sexuada ou assexuada, sendo esta última empregada na produção comercial. A utilização de estacas da parte aérea tem como vantagem o aproveitamento de materiais retirados da planta no momento da poda, porém apresenta variabilidade no enraizamento e na brotação. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da presença de folhas no enraizamento de três cultivares de amoreira-preta. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 3x2, sendo o fator cultivar representado por três níveis ('Guarani', 'Tupy' e 'Xavante') e o fator presença de folha, por dois níveis (estaca com e sem folha). As avaliações, realizadas 115 dias após a instalação do experimento, foram: porcentagem de estacas sobreviventes, enraizadas e com calo; comprimento da maior raiz e número de raízes por estaca; comprimento das brotações e número de brotações por estaca; massa seca das brotações e das raízes. As cultivares 'Tupy' e 'Xavante' apresentam maior porcentagem de enraizamento do que 'Guarani', além de sistema radicular de melhor qualidade. A presença de folhas proporciona maior porcentagem de enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de amoreira-preta, sendo indispensáveis para a propagação das cultivares 'Guarani', 'Tupy' e 'Xavante' através desse método.
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Vegetative propagation of economically important woody, horticultural and agricultural species rely on an efficient adventitious root (AR) formation. The formation of adventitious roots is a complex genetic trait regulated by the interaction of environmental and endogenous factors among which the phytohormone auxin plays an essential role. This review summarizes the current knowledge related to the intricate network through which auxin controls adventitious rooting. How auxin and recently identified auxin-related compounds affect AR formation in different plant species is discussed. Particular attention is addressed to illustrate how auxin has a central role in the hormone cross-talk leading to AR development. In parallel, we describe the molecular players involved in the control of auxin homeostasis, transport and signaling, for a better understanding of the auxin action during adventitious rooting.
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Adventitious rooting (AR) is a multifactorial response leading to new roots at the base of stem cuttings, and the establishment of a complete and autonomous plant. AR has two main phases: a) induction, with a requirement for higher auxin concentration; b) formation, inhibited by high auxin and in which anatomical changes take place. The first stages of this process in severed organs necessarily include wounding and water stress responses which may trigger hormonal changes that contribute to reprogram target cells that are competent to respond to rooting stimuli. At severance, the roles of jasmonate and abscisic acid are critical for wound response and perhaps sink strength establishment, although their negative roles on the cell cycle may inhibit root induction. Strigolactones may also inhibit AR. A reduced cytokinin concentration in cuttings results from the separation of the root system, whose tips are a relevant source of these root induction inhibitors. The combined increased accumulation of basipetally transported auxins from the shoot apex at the cutting base is often sufficient for AR in easy-to-root species. The role of peroxidases and phenolic compounds in auxin catabolism may be critical at these early stages right after wounding. The events leading to AR strongly depend on mother plant nutritional status, both in terms of minerals and carbohydrates, as well as on sink establishment at cutting bases. Auxins play a central role in AR. Auxin transporters control auxin canalization to target cells. There, auxins act primarily through selective proteolysis and cell wall loosening, via their receptor proteins TIR1 and ABP1. A complex microRNA circuitry is involved in the control of auxin response factors essential for gene expression in AR. After root establishment, new hormonal controls take place, with auxins being required at lower concentrations for root meristem maintenance and cytokinins needed for root tissue differentiation.
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Unlike most animal cells, plant cells can easily regenerate new tissues from a wide variety of organs when properly cultured. The common elements that provide varied plant cells with their remarkable regeneration ability are still largely unknown. Here we describe the initial process of Arabidopsis in vitro regeneration, where a pluripotent cell mass termed callus is induced. We demonstrate that callus resembles the tip of a root meristem, even if it is derived from aerial organs such as petals, which clearly shows that callus formation is not a simple reprogramming process backward to an undifferentiated state as widely believed. Furthermore, callus formation in roots, cotyledons, and petals is blocked in mutant plants incapable of lateral root initiation. It thus appears that the ectopic activation of a lateral root development program is a common mechanism in callus formation from multiple organs.
A propagação da framboeseira (Rubus idaeus L.) é comumente realizada a partir da estacas de raízes. Embora, os frutos possuam sementes viáveis, a reprodução sexuada não é desejada, em razão, de algumas desvantagens, tais como: dormência, elevada variabilidade genética período de juvenilidade. Dessa forma, a micropropagação in vitro é uma técnica viável para o processo de formação de mudas, pois, preserva características genéticas desejáveis das plantas-matrizes, servindo como uma alternativa para os produtores. Objetivou-se então avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de carvão ativado, suplementado ao meio de cultura para as diferentes cultivares de framboeseira. Utilizaram-se o carvão ativado (0; 2 e 4 g L-1), e as cultivares de framboeseira (Indian Summer, Heritage, Willamette, Golden Bliss, Polana, Fallgold, Schönemann e Bababerry). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado arranjado em esquema bifatorial, com quatro repetições. Cada repetição composta por 25 tubos e um explante por tubo. Melhor controle de oxidação foi observado para as cultivares Golden Bliss, Polana, Fallgold, Schönemann e Bababerry, cultivados em meio de cultura acrescido de 4 g L-1 de carvão ativado, devido a absorção de compostos fenólicos liberados no meio de cultura.
Upon seed germination, apical meristems grow as cell division prevails over differentiation and reach their final size when division and differentiation reach a balance. In the Arabidopsis root meristem, this balance results from the interaction between cytokinin (promoting differentiation) and auxin (promoting division) through a regulatory circuit whereby the ARR1 cytokinin-responsive transcription factor activates the gene SHY2, which negatively regulates the PIN genes encoding auxin transport facilitators. However, it remains unknown how the final meristem size is set, i.e., how a change in the relative rates of cell division and differentiation is brought about to cause meristem growth to stop. Here, we show that during meristem growth, expression of SHY2 is driven by another cytokinin-response factor, ARR12, and that completion of growth is brought about by the upregulation of SHY2 caused by both ARR12 and ARR1: this leads to an increase in cell differentiation rate that balances it with division, thus setting root meristem size. We also show that gibberellins selectively repress expression of ARR1 at early stages of meristem development, and that the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF GA 1-3 (RGA) mediates this negative control.