Economic Impact of Hexanal-based Nanotechnology on Mango Value Chain in Tamil Nadu State, India

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Mango is one of the delicious seasonal fruits grown in the tropics. Mango has many nutritional qualities, as it is rich in minerals, fiber, vitamins and provitamins. The major mango‐growing states in India are Maharastra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Bihar, Gujarat, and Tamil Nadu. The major mango‐producing domains of Tamil Nadu are Krishnagiri, Dharmapuri, Theni, and Dindigul districts. Different soils are found in the mango‐growing domains of Tamil Nadu. Major soils found in the study area include red soil, black soil, sandy soil, and the combination of red and sandy loam, and red and black soils. Estimation of postharvest losses is important as it helps to identify the causal factors and provides ways to reduce the losses. Postharvest management practices, such as dipping of fruits in EFF and using stickers and sachets in boxes meant for long‐distance transport, led to a reduction of 10 percent in postharvest losses of mango.

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Technical Report
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Ensuring availability of food to the Indian population will be a major challenge in future with decreasing agriculture land and ever increasing population. One way of achieving this target is efficient use of food materials produced and saving them as much as possible. Thus, it becomes necessary to know about the route/ channels through which crop and livestock produce reaches to the consumers. Each operation and channel causes some losses of food materials in one or other form. Knowledge of extent of losses and their reasons will help in making strategies for reducing the losses. Therefore, the present study on assessing the harvest and post-harvest losses of 45 crops and livestock produce was taken-up. Data for estimating their losses were collected from 120 districts of India covering 14 agro-climatic zones. Stratified multistage random sampling method was used to select the respondents. The data were collected though inquiry and by observations visiting the fields by staff of AICRP centers. Data were cross-checked, scrutinized and randomly validated as described. Data which were found unfit for further analysis were discarded and finally data of 107 districts covering harvesting, collection, sorting/grading, threshing, winnowing, drying, packaging and transportation as well as storage loss at household, warehouse/cold stores, wholesaler, retailer and processing unit level were analyzed using statistical analysis software (SAS) for estimation of loss of each crop at National level. The salient findings of the study are summarized below. • The losses in cereals were estimated to be in the range of 4.65% (Maize) to 5.99% (Sorghum). Harvesting, threshing and storage at farm and wholesaler level contributed more towards losses. • The total losses in pulses ranged from 6.36% (Pigeon pea) to 8.41% (Chick pea). Harvesting, threshing, storage at farm and processing units were identified as major contributors in total losses. Use of improper threshers, delayed harvesting and improper storage practices were probably the reasons of losses in pulses. • Estimated losses of oilseeds ranged from 3.08% (Cottonseed) to 9.96% (Soybean). In some instances highest loss of 12.3% of groundnut at storage level was also seen. Harvesting, collection, threshing and storage at wholesale level were the major contributors towards total loss. Delayed harvesting and improper method of harvesting, improper thresher, and storage practices were identified as main reasons for losses. • For fruits, the losses ranged from 6.70% (Papaya) to 15.88% (Guava). Harvesting, sorting/grading, transportation, storage at wholesaler and retailer levels were the main operations and channels where losses were found to be high. Considerable losses during storage in market showed the need of multi-crop cold storages. Cold chain is essential to reduce the losses of fruits. • The losses in vegetables varied from 4.58% (Tapioca) to 12.44% (Tomato) owing to harvesting, sorting/grading, transportation, storage at wholesaler and retailers levels. At retailer level tomato loss in one instance was even found to be 18.20%. Glut in the market during the harvesting season led to higher loss in farm operations. Contribution of storage losses in total loss was considerable. Cold chain, multi-commodity cold storages and low cost short duration structures such as ICAR-CIPHET evaporative cooled storage structures are essential in checking the loss of vegetables. • In plantation crops and spices, the losses ranged from 1.18% (Black pepper) to 7.89% (Sugarcane). In general harvesting, threshing, and storage at wholesaler and processing units level contributed more towards losses. Staling loss of sugarcane due to longer period of holding before crushing caused considerable loss and affected juice recovery. Problem of each crops needs to be addressed separately. • The loss of egg was 7.19% owing to less use of cold storage in market. Organized poultry farming showed positive impact in reducing the loss in egg. • The loss of inland fish was 5.23% whereas loss of marine fish was 10.52%. Throwing uneconomical fish was the major contributor to the loss. Considerable loss during storage at wholesaler and retailer levels advocates the need of cold chain for fish. • The loss of sheep and goat meat was 2.71% whereas the loss in poultry meat was 6.74%. Considerable loss at wholesaler and retailer levels indicates the need of proper and hygienic meat shops with cold chain/carcass handling system. • The loss of milk was observed to be 0.92%. Increase in loss during storage at processing unit needs attention. • In comparison to losses during 2005-07, the losses during 2013-14 have been reduced significantly for wheat, mustard, groundnut, mango, guava, mushroom, tapioca, arecanut, black pepper and coriander. The estimated losses however significantly increased in comparison to 2005-07 for maize, sorghum, chickpea, soybean, sunflower, citrus, sapota, cauliflower, cashew, marine fish, meat and poultry meat. For remaining commodities, the changes in loss were statistically non-significant at 5% level of significance. • Average range of losses altogether for food grains, oilseeds and fruits and vegetables were found to be 4.65% to 15.88%, which indicate that overall losses have gone down by about 2% as compared to previous study in 2005-07 despite tremendous increase of production in past 10 years. • The economic value of harvest and post-harvest losses of major agricultural and livestock produce was also calculated using production data of 2012-13 and wholesale prices of 2014 and results of this study. The estimated annual value of the losses is about Rs. 92651 crore. • Improvements in infrastructural and transport facilities were found to be helpful in reducing the post-harvest losses. Effects of increased number of cold storages in reducing storage losses were clearly visible but such storage facilities are still inadequate in number. Development of cold chain and construction of cold store with the pace of production are essential for majority of perishables. • The losses were found to be higher in eastern plateau and hills region (Tribal belt of India comprising Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisa, eastern part of Maharashtra) and east coast (coasts of Odisa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu). Proper training to the farmers and other stakeholders and infrastructure is therefore essential for these regions of India. • Improvements in farm operations are essential and needs to be addressed immediately. R&D interventions are needed for controlling losses during harvesting, threshing, sorting/grading and retailer level storages. Problem of insect-pests particularly in pulses and oilseeds storage need to be dealt with integrated pest management strategies. Infrastructural improvement is required at market level. Location of markets, marketing practices, handling methods and polices needs to be looked into for changed scenario of demand and supply pattern. This study provides the estimates of losses in various operations and storages in different channels. It also presents the changes in scenario of harvest and post-harvest losses in India over the past 10 years. Harvesting and threshing practices should be standardized and refinements in machines are needed to reduce the loss further. Appropriate techniques and infrastructure for short-term storages needs to be popularized and made available. Proper processing, value addition, storage of marketable surplus and excess produce during glut period in production catchment have potential to reduce the losses and stabilize the prices as well. Training, demonstrations, incubation and entrepreneurship development, skill development and appropriate publicity of proven post-harvest technologies coupled with favourable policies may help in this regard. Investment in post-harvest infrastructure and mega Food Park is the need of hour for further reduction of losses.
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Agriculture sector as a whole has developed and emerged immensely with the infusion of science and technology. But this latest emergence is not capable of plummeting the ignorance of women labour as an integral part of this industry. In developing countries like India, agriculture continues to absorb and employ female work force but fails to give them recognition of employed/hired labour. Women constituted 38% of the agricultural labour force in developing countries. It is also estimated that 45.3% of the agricultural labour force consists of women. But a large number of women have remained as "invisible workers". Since there has been concern expressed regarding the gap between women's actual economic participation and public perception of it several researchers have attempted to overcome this invisibility through gendered empirical research studies for using on gender analysis and gender roles. This piece of research is highlighting the trend of female participation in agriculture across various Indian states. The secondary data collated for the research is used to study the growth trend of the agricultural worker from 1961-2001. Analysis is done to categorize the states on their identical behaviour of participation in agriculture by hierarchical clustering of economically active female in agriculture based on measurements like coefficient of variation, compound growth rate and work participation rate.
Survey to assess post-harvest losses of 'Totapuri' ('Bangalora') and 'Alphonso' ('Badami') mangoes in Karnataka showed a total post-harvest loss of 17.9% (3.5% orchard/field, 4.9% transportation, 4.1% storage and 5.4% retail level) and 14.4% (1.9% orchard/field, 3.7% transportation 3.5% storage and 5.3% retail level) and 14.4% (1.9% orchard/ field, 3.7% transportation 3.5% storage and 5.3% retail level), respectively. The major causes of losses in the order of their occurrence were mechanical injuries, spoilage, either over mature/shrivelling, or immature/unmarketable sizes, pilferage, damage by birds/hailstorm.
Mangoes account for approximately half of all tropical fruits produced worldwide. India is the largest mango producer accounting for about half of the global mango production. This research attempts to study about the production, area, productivity, disease associated with mango, management and factor which are responsible for the low production of Mango. Mango, a tropical fruit of great economic importance is generally harvested green and then commercialised after a period of storage. Unfortunately, the final quality of mango batches is highly heterogeneous in fruit size as well as in gustatory quality and postharvest behaviour. A large amount of knowledge has been gathered on the effects of the maturity stage at harvest and postharvest conditions on the final quality of mango. Considerably, less attention has been paid to the influence of environmental factors on mango growth, quality traits and postharvest behaviour. The preharvest factors presented here are light, temperature, carbon and water availabilities which can be controlled by various cultural practices such as tree pruning, fruit thinning and irrigation management. Recent advances are also discussed in modelling mango function on the tree according to environmental conditions that combined with experimental studies, can improve our understanding of how these preharvest conditions affect mango growth and quality.
The paper is based on "Commodity Specific Study on Mango" undertaken by NABARD in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and West Bengal. For the study, A total sample of 186 respondents was selected from three states, of which Andhra Pradesh had 75 respondents (40.33%) per cent followed by Maharashtra covering 59 respondents (31.72%) and West Bengal 52 respondents (27.95%). Category wise the study covered 92 mango growers (49.47%), 33 mango processors (17.75%), 29 Traders/ Exporters (15.59%), 7 banks (3.76%), 10 Nursery owners (5.37%) and 15 others (8.06%). [NABARD Occasional Paper No. 58]. URL:[].
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