Experiment FindingsPDF Available

Assessment of Environmental Problems in Nyala City-South Darfur-Sudan

Authors:
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 8, Issue 10, October 2018 484
ISSN 2250-3153
http://dx.doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.8.10.2018.p8263 www.ijsrp.org
Assessment of Environmental Problems in Nyala City-
South Darfur-Sudan
Someia Mohamed EL hafiz At Elmanan Hassan El bussary1, Abubaker Haroun M.Adam2 Prof. Mohamed Ali
Dawoud 3
1Al Zaeem Al Azhari University-Sudan .
2Department of Crop Science, College of Agriculture, University of Bahri- Sudan. Mobile: +249 0912892429, E: abubakerharoun@gmail.com
3Al Nelain University- Khartoum P.O.Box: 2702. Mobile:0912446284 -Khartoum –Sudan.
Correspondence Author: Abubaker Haroun Mohamed Adam: Mobile: +249 0912892429, E-mail: abubakerharoun@gmail.
DOI: 10.29322/IJSRP.8.10.2018.p8263
. 63org/10.29322/IJSRP.8.10.2018.p82http://dx.doi.
Abstract: This research aimed to detect the urban environmental problems and issues in Nyala city at southern Darfur State in the
Sudan. So this research was directed to know the status of the pollution in the said city. This research was mainly directed on how
to get rid of the various types of pollution and the different types of waste sources i.e. Agriculture and water, hospital wastes and
other types of solid waste in the study area. Data was collected from both secondary and primary sources. The secondary sources
consisted of various types of reports shown in the published literature, seminars, workshops, conferences and the worldwide webs
(the internet. The primary sources included a survey questionnaire. The survey questionnaire is directed through strata sampling
technique to the households of the forty two quarter of the study area. In this research both the descriptive and analytical
methodology of statistic was adopted. By the descriptive approach of statistics, the central tendency as well as the scatter
measurement were determined. Then chi-square analysis was carried. Then the outcomes of this research endeavor were reported
as the main results. The main results included that the different wastes not to be thrown in the streets. This result supported by
90.8% of the respondents. 67,7% assumed that bricks industry also contributing to air pollution. 72,2% of the respondents said
that the agricultural chemicals are the main reasons behind water pollution, and diseases which affect human and animal health
and causes environmental deterioration. Moreover, 88,9% of the respondents believe that clean drinking water is not available in
most parts of the city. However, respondents have different views on how to get rid of garbage and wastes. 31,3 said by using
plastic bags, 22,3% throwing garbage on the streets, 11,4% transporting by cars, 1,5 % by burning which causes air pollution,
and negatively influences the environment as well as human and animal health. Based on the above findings, the study concluded
that, the increasing number of the population in Nyala city is the main reason for increasing pollution and pollutants which is
reflected on human and animal health as well as on environmental balance. The paper recommended the redesigning and re-
planning the city to accommodate the displaced people. Appropriate method to get rid of the garbage. Maintenance of the
drainages and bridges. Establishing more schools and clinics and hospitals. Establishing safe sanitation system. Look for other
sources for clean drinking water. Alleviation of awareness of the local communities in regard to the pollution and good handling
and rationale used of agricultural chemicals.
Keyword: Waste, Sanitation, Garbage, Pollution
1. INTRODUCTION
The expansion and development of cities in the world are attributed to many factors. The most important one is known as
pull-push-factor, which may result as a change in climatic factors (scarcity of rainfall, drought), frequent crop failure, war and
conflicts, disputes over land and grazing. However, all these lead to rural-urban migration [1].
Today, the fast growing and expansion of cities and Slums is of great concern. In Dar Fur, the rural areas became a push
factor; while the urban centers became a pull factor due to ample security and accessibility to all services [2].
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In the last fifteen years, the greater Dar Fur witnessed a continual influx of migration from villages to the cities, which led to
health and environmental problems as a result of high population. Obviously, this situation held huge responsibilities in the
burden of the local authorities to treat the problems of environmental degradation which seems to be beyond their capabilities.
The Nyala city typically resembles the urban environment of developing countries, where the plastic bags, wastes and irons
are scattered along the streets, and railroad tracks. Dispersed huge heaps of garbage with nasty smells on the sidewalk, where
people excrete and urinate. Lines of women and children standing waiting their turn at the drinking water tap, and wells. The
beggars at the intersection. All these phenomena are the common scenes found in cities of the developing world and are a direct
consequence of poor urban environmental governance Bigio [3].
The war usually has great negative impacts on the community as well as the environment. Among these, the checks to the
social demography which causes tremendous transformations in social composition and structure, social culture, norms and values
of the communities in the villages as well as the cities [4]. Such changes are widely known in many cities in Sudan, particularly in
war affected areas.
Nevertheless, it is observed that the relations between the host communities in the cities and displaced people are complex.
When the displaced first arrive, they warmly welcomed due to the expression of solidarity and support till they get settled. But
such good will often short-lived. This may be due the competition on the limited resources and services. Therefore, the displaced
people will be treated with hostility by the host community [5] [6].
It is well known that the Internally Displaced People (IDPs) settle in camps, where services can be provided to them by
Humanitarian actors. Today, they are found not in camps or among host communities in rural areas, but in the towns and cities.
This situation created many problems to the resident community, the local authority as well as the environment. Therefore, the
longterm settlement of displaced populations in urban areas needs to be better anticipated, understood, and planned [7].
11. METHODOLOGY
Nyala is located in the middle of south Darfur state. It is the capital of south Darfur state-Sudan. It is about 900 kilometer
south west Khartoum, with total population accounts to 492, 84 person (about %5.3 of total south Darfur population).
In this study, about 800 questionnaires were distributed randomly in Nyala city, where stratified sampling method was
adopted. The questionnaire focused on the causes of environmental degradation and the consequences. The collected data were
statistically analyzed. The results of data analysis were presented in tables and figure.
111. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The city hosted more than 600,000 of internal displaced families. They settled in unplanned area which lacks facilities such as
sanitation, clean drinking water, drainage, health, education, electricity transportation services.
Pollutants
Table (1): Major sources of pollution in the study area-Nyala (2017)
S/No
Pollutant
1
Chemicals (pesticides and fertilizers)
2
Wastes
3
Stagnant water
4
Garbage: (households, restaurants etc.)
5
Lack of sanitation: excretion on open space led to the spread of many diseases
6
Drinking water
7
Vegetables.
From table (1), different sources of pollution and pollutants were identified, among these, the application of chemicals
(pesticides and fertilizers) on farms, particularly which is considered a source of pollution. The chemicals seep down to the
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 8, Issue 10, October 2018 486
ISSN 2250-3153
http://dx.doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.8.10.2018.p8263 www.ijsrp.org
ground and move to the wells, or washed by run off of rainfall to the sources of drinking water like valleys and seasonal streams
and pollute the water.
Waste from households, hospitals, markets are collected and damped on open space, valleys and seasonal streams around the
city (Plate 1). Thus, the mismanagement of the wastes cause many environmental and health problems to human and animals.
Moreover, People often bathe, wash their clothes and swim in disgusting water.
However, due to the lack of drainage system, the accumulation of stagnant water, particularly during the rainy season is of
great thread to the environmental health and quality.
Most of the population gets drinking water from polluted and contaminated sources like valleys, seasonal streams, and wells.
Furthermore, the residents consume vegetables produce near the city. Due to ignorance, farmers heavily spray the crops with
chemicals (Pesticides) which are hazardous to environment, human and animal health.
In this study, 84% of the respondents confirmed that they did not get clean drinking water, while 16 % confirmed that they
get clean drinking water.
The results of analysis of this study indicated that 77.9 % of respondents believe that the city lacks paved roads, sanitation,
and drainage system.
The study revealed that the poor residents frequently visit hospitals due to poor hygiene. Similar case was reported from
southern Ethiopia as a result of poor sanitation and health problems among the Poor people [8]. However, 35% of the respondents
get medication in big hospitals in the neighborhood, while 64% of the respondents do not see this.
In general, the majority of the population (60%) agreed on new setup, oriented plans to improve the study area based on
scientific ground, in such a way that to address the current environmental problems.
Plate (1): Accumulation of Wastes and Garbage -Nyal City (2017)
Plate (2): Waste burning causes Air pollution - Nyala City (2017
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Plate (3): waste thrown in the vicinity of the camp of displaced people- Nyala City (2017)
Burning of waste materials in open space near the residential area cause air pollution which harms the human (eye irritation and
respiratory disease) and the animals (Plate 2). People in camps do not care about the danger of the waste materials where are
thrown near to their homes (Plate 3).
1V. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Conclusion:
Due to the breakout of war in Dar fur, Nyala city hosted thousands of internal displaced people. This influx has exerted high
pressure on already available limited resources and services like drinking water, education, health, sanitation, electricity,
transportation etc. The study revealed that poverty became one of the phenomena which is reflected by increasing number of idle
people as well as crimes. Furthermore, the human activities such as misuse of chemicals in agriculture, bricks manufacturing,
mishandling of garbage and waste, all collectively have negatively influenced on human and animal health and upset quality.
Recommendations:
The paper recommended the redesigning and re-planning Nyala city to accommodate the displaced people. Appropriate method to
get rid of the garbage and waste to be sought out. Maintenance of the drainages and bridges. Establishing more schools, clinics
and hospitals. Establishing safe sanitation system. Look for other sources for clean drinking water. Alleviation of awareness of the
local communities in regard to the pollution and good handling of agricultural chemicals.
V. REFERENCES
1. Henderson, J. Vernon. (2010): “Cities and Development.” Journal of Regional Science, 50 (1): 515540.
2. Remi Jedwab, Luc Christiaensen and Marina Gindelsky (2014): Rural Push, Urban Pull and Urban Push? New Historical
Evidence from Developing Countries. Institute for International Economic Policy. Economic Policy E St. NW, Suite 502
3. Bigio, Anthony. 2002. “Urban Environment Portfolio Review: Outcomes and
Recommendations.” Unpublished paper. Urban Environment Thematic Group,
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 8, Issue 10, October 2018 488
ISSN 2250-3153
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World Bank, Washington DC.
4. Halul. M. (1980): Lecture notes on Rural and Urban Sociology. Faculty of Agriculture, University of AlExandria-Egypt.
5. Roberto Carlos Vidal López, Clara Inés Atehortúa Arredondo and Jorge Salcedo (2011): The Effects of Internal
Displacement on Host Communities. Brookings Institution-London School of Economics Project on Internal
Displacement Bogotá, October 2011).
6. https://www.enotes.com/homework-help/what-process-rural-urban-migration-especially-274972. Accessed 30 Sep. 2017
7. Jeff CrispTim Morris Hilde Refstie (2012): Displacement in urban areas: new challenges, new partnerships. Disaster,
Volume 36, Issues1Urban vulnerability and humanitarian response, July 2012-Pages S23-S42).
8. Tina Rosenberg (2010): Environmental Issues in the Developing World. National Geographic Magazine.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Presentation
Full-text available
Urban Environmental Goals: 1. Protecting and enhancing environmental health in urban areas 2. Protecting water, soil and air quality from contamination and pollution 3. Minimizing the urban impact on natural resources at the regional and global scales 4. Preventing and mitigating urban impacts of natural disasters and climate change
Cities and Development
  • J Henderson
  • Vernon
Henderson, J. Vernon. (2010): "Cities and Development." Journal of Regional Science, 50 (1): 515-540.
Rural Push, Urban Pull and Urban Push? New Historical Evidence from Developing Countries. Institute for International Economic Policy
  • Remi Jedwab
  • Luc Christiaensen
  • Marina Gindelsky
Remi Jedwab, Luc Christiaensen and Marina Gindelsky (2014): Rural Push, Urban Pull and Urban Push? New Historical Evidence from Developing Countries. Institute for International Economic Policy. Economic Policy E St. NW, Suite 502