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Abstract

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) are among the most common human viral infections worldwide and associated with increased risk for other sexually transmitted infections, such as HPV. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of population data on the joint epidemiology of HPV-HSV infections in Ghana. In order to determine the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 co-infection with HPV and associated risk factors, 317 asymptomatic women attending the Cervicare Centers in Ghana were invited to participate in cross-sectional study. Serum HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgG were determined by ELISA method. Genomic DNA from cervical swabs was extracted using QIAamp Mini kit. HPV-DNA detection was carried out by nested multiplex PCR as was described by Sotlar et al., (2004). The mean age of study participants was 40.7 years (SD ± 11.2). Our result showed the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection among HPV positive women as 98.6% and 80.4% respectively. Among unscreened women participating in the study the co-infection of HSV-1/HPV and HSV-2/HPV was 42.9% and 35.0%, respectively. Age of coitache was associated with sero-prevalence of HSV-1 (p=0.010), HPV infection (p=0.016), and with co-infection HPV and HSV-1 (p=0.025), HPV and HSV-2 (p=0.011) and weakly with single HSV-2 infection (p=0.054). In conclusion, the high prevalence of co-infection was due to the endemicity and inadequate intervention in the study population. A woman’s age of sexual debut was a strong risk factor for co-infection of HPV and HSV-1 or HSV-2. The outcome of this novel observation stresses the urgent need to develop appropriate interventional strategies to manage and cancel patients presenting with asymptomatic genital herpes.

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... Two of such centers is situated at the Greater Accra Regional Hospital in Accra, the capital of Ghana and Kumasi South Hospital in Kumasi in the middle-belt of Ghana. Between October 2013 and March 2014, we undertook a cross-sectional study on the distribution of genital human papillomaviruses and seroprevalence of herpes infection among Ghanaian women presenting to this facility [10,15]. In all, three hundred and eighty (380) women attending routine Cervicare Centers at two Regional Hospitals (Greater Accra Regional Hospital, Accra and Kumasi South Regional Hospital, Kumasi) were enrolled in the parent study. ...
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Herpes simplex virus infections account for a large burden of disease worldwide. HSV-1 is traditionally considered to cause orofacial infections, whereas HSV-2 is known for genital infections. A number of studies have suggested an increase of genital herpes infections caused by HSV-1. As reporting of diseases caused by herpes simplex virus is not mandatory in Ghana, reliable statistics on the epidemiology of infections are not available. We took advantage of the Cervicare program in Ghana to screen for the presence of HSV variants 1 and 2 among a convenient subset of asymptomatic women presenting for cervical screening in Accra, Ghana (n = 94). Genetic markers for both HSV 1 and 2 were detected in cervical swabs. There was a preponderance of HSV-1 (12.8%) genital infections in our study sample: compared to HSV-2 (4.8%). HSV-1 and 2 co-infection was detected in 4.3% of study population. Among positive cases for HSV-1 DNA, 92% had con rmed seropositive HSV-1 status and 8% were borderline result. All positive HSV-2 DNA were con rmed seropositive HSV-2 status. We have successfully demonstrated the presence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 gene variants in genital swabs. Owing to the lack of epidemiological data on genital HSV-1 infection in Ghana, the role of sexual transmission for HSV-1 is unclear: the ndings of our pilot study have important public health implications. A bigger surveillance study is recommended in Ghana to identify the etiology of genital herpes and estimate the true burden of asymptomatic herpes infection in the population.
... HSV infection can also function as a co-factor for the acquisition and transmission of other sexually contagious infections, including human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, hepatitis C virus, and human papillomavirus [9]. HSV-1 and HSV-2 also cause blindness and severe infectious diseases in immunocompromised patients [10]. ...
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Objective: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections have been reported in 60% to 95% of the adult population worldwide, making them one of the most common infectious conditions globally. HSV-1 and HSV-2 cause severe disease in immunocompromised patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide information that could be used to reduce the incidence of genital herpes caused by HSV-1 and HSV-2. Methods: From September 2018 to December 2020, 59,381 specimens were collected from outpatients across primary and secondary hospitals in Korea who requested U2Bio (Korea) to conduct molecular biological testing of their samples for sexually transmitted infections. In this study, the positivity rates of HSV-1 and HSV-2 were analyzed according to age, sex, and specimen type. Results: In the age-specific analysis of HSV-1, the highest positivity rate (0.58%) was observed in patients under 19 years of age, whereas the lowest positivity rate (0.08%) was observed in patients aged over 70 years. In the age-specific analysis of HSV-2, the highest positivity rate (2.53%) was likewise observed in patients under 19 years of age. Conclusion: Our study identified differences in the infection rates of HSV-1 and HSV-2 depending on patients' sex and age. These differences will be useful for improving disease prevention and control measures for HSV-1 and HSV-2.
... Coinfection rates of HSV in syphilis and HIV positives were 40.6% and 42.9% respectively[20]. Agyemang-Yeboah et al. reported that the prevalence of HSV1 and HSV2 infection among HPV positive women were 98.6% and 80.4%, respectively[21].Within this study, none of the patients with genital warts had syphilis, active hepatitis B, active hepatitis C or HIV infection. Moreover, the frequency of positive serum HSV1IgG levels were similar in patients with genital warts and healthy individuals. ...
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Background: Genital warts are manifestations of a disease caused by human papillomavirus. Genital warts usually present as multiple, asymmetric, polymorphic papular lesions on the anogenital skin and mucous membranes. Patients with genital warts may have coexisting sexually transmitted diseases. Appropriate screening is crucial to prevent the spread of these infections for public health. Materials and Methods: The study included 20 patients with anogenital warts and 20 healthy individuals within the control group. Laboratory tests including serum levels of hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C antibody, anti human immunodeficiency virus antibody, herpes simplex virus type-1 IgG and herpes simplex virus type-2 IgG were evaluated in each participant. Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test was also evaluated in the patient group. Results: Serum levels of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C antibody and anti human immunodeficiency virus antibody were negative in all patients and healthy individuals. Serum levels of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen were positive in 15(75%) patients and in 14(70%) healthy individuals (p=1). Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test was non-reactive in all patients with anogenital warts. Serum herpes simplex virus type-1 IgG levels were positive in 14(70%) patients and in 11(55%) healthy individuals (p=0.51). Serum herpes simplex virus type-2 IgG levels were positive in 4(20%) patients while all the healthy individuals had negative serum herpes simplex virus type-2 IgG levels (p=0.03). Conclusions: Positive serum herpes simplex virus type-2 IgG levels were significantly more frequent in patients with anogenital warts compared to healthy individuals. Therefore, we suggest that all the patients with anogenital warts should be tested for genital herpes. Hereby, the preliminary results of laboratory tests for the evaluation of patients with anogenital warts have been reported. Key words: Condylomata Acuminata, Genital, Herpes Simplex, Human Papillomavirus, Warts
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There was epidemiological correlation in time and in space between gonorrhea and genital chlamydia and between condyloma and genital herpes. There was, however, no correlation in other combinations, such as, gonorrhea and condyloma, genital herpes and chlamydia, etc. The annual incidence of gonorrhea and that of genital chlamydia were mono-phasic with a peak in 2005-2006. The annual incidence of condyloma and that of genital herpes were biphasic with the first distinct peak in 2004-2006 borne by younger generation and the second broad peak borne by the older generation that experienced the first wave.The epidemiology of syphilis was entirely different from gonorrhea, genital chlamydia, condyloma and genital herpes: the incidence of early, late and asymptomatic syphilis all started increasing around 2010 attaining total 1,576 notifications in 2017. The increase was associated with shift of patients’ peak age to younger generation. Preceding this increase, however, between 2005 and 2006, the annual number of congenital syphilis that had been ≥200 dropped to 12, and asymptomatic syphilis that had been annually <10 jumped up to 195 and increased continuously thereafter.
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Background: Cryosurgery is the well-aimed and controlled destruction of diseased tissue by application of cold. It has been shown to be effective and efficient in various skin diseases. We studied the indications and outcome of this modality of treatment in our set up. Materials and Method: All patients who were subjected to cryosurgery for different clinical indications were included in the study. Results: There were total of 133 patients. Commonest age group presentation (between 16 to 25 years) constituted about 42%. 52% of patients were students. There were total of 91% who were from Kathmandu remaining 9% were from outside of Kathmandu Valley. Cryosurgery was indicated commonly in warts for 82% patients followed by 12% for keloid & hypertrophic scar, benign conditions in 4% and in premalignant conditions for 2% patients. Number to treatment (or sessions) for indicated disease with resolution of disease was single in 81% patients followed by between 2 to 5 treatment session in 14% and more than 5 treatments was necessary in 5%. Side effects like pain was seen in 64% patients, erythema in 8% and blistering 4%. 24% patients did not have any side effect. Conclusion: Cryotherapy is considered as one of the effective modality of treatment for various skin conditions with various limitations. Further prospective clinical trial with large population group should be carried out.
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The circumscribed palmoplantar hypokeratosis (CPH) is a dermatosis that is unfrequently reported around the world. It predominantly affects middle to advanced aged women, involving acral skin, asymptomatic lesions, and of unknown cause. However, its´ clinical, histopathologic and dermoscopic characteristics are distinctive. We report two cases of female patients, who come for a medical consultation presenting a long-term lesion of several years, located on the palm, asymptomatic and with no apparent cause.
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Background: Herpes simplex virus infection is a global health concern with disproportionately high burden in low and middle-income countries. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of HSV infection in Ghana, which necessitated the present study. The aim of the study was to provide up-to-date data on sero-prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection among women attending Cervicare clinics in Ghana. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which 380 women attending routine Cervicare clinics at Regional Hospitals in Kumasi and Accra, Ghana were enrolled into the study. Serum HSV-1 IgG and HSV-2 IgG were determined by ELISA method. The Chi-square test was used to investigate the association between sero-prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 and socio-demographic and behavioral factors using the Statistical Package for the Social Scientists (SPSS) version 22. Statistical significance was accepted at p < 0.05. Results: The overall HSV-1 and HSV-2 sero-prevalence estimates were 99.2% (95% CI: 98.0-100%) and 78.4% (95% CI: 74.5-81.8%) respectively. The study observed 78.2% cross-positive prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 among the studied participants. There was no association between the presence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection and age (χ2 = 2.351, p = 0.799 and χ2 = 1.655, p = 0.895 respectively). Our findings however, revealed association between the prevalence of HSV-2 and the age at coitarche (p = 0.021) as well as with number of sexual partners (p = 0.022). Conclusions: The sero-prevalence estimates of HSV-1 and HSV-2 among the study population of women in Ghana were found to be high. This high prevalence could be attributed to high endemicity and inadequate intervention in this population. There is the need to raise awareness through organized public health screening and education to ensure control.
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Background: Carcinoma of the cervix is the most common female genital tract malignancy in Nigeria. Immunosuppression has been linked with acquisition and persistence of human papilloma virus infection, which is known to trigger changes in the cervical epithelium resulting in cancer of the cervix. Objectives: The objective was to determine the prevalence of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive women receiving care at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki in Nigeria, as well as the pattern of abnormal cervical smear in HIV-positive women. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross-sectional study of 206 HIV-positive women attending the HIV clinic at the Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki. Papanicolaou smear was collected. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using the SPSS version 16 software package. Results: The prevalence of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) was 6.3% in HIV-positive patient. Of those with abnormal cervical cytology, 35/206 (17%) had inflammatory smear, 16/206 (6.3%) had low-grade SIL, and 4/206 (1.9%) women had Trichomonas vaginalis . Conclusion: The prevalence of low-grade SIL among women infected with HIV in this study was high. The abnormal cervical smear were inflammatory smears, low-grade cervical SILs, and Trichomonas vaginalis infection.
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Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The first time infection of the mother may lead to severe illness in pregnancy and may be associated with virus transmission from mother to foetus/newborn. Since the incidence of this sexually transmitted infection continues to rise and because the greatest incidence of herpes simplex virus infections occur in women of reproductive age, the risk of maternal transmission of the virus to the foetus or neonate has become a major health concern. On these purposes the Authors of this review looked for the medical literature and pertinent publications to define the status of art regarding the epidemiology, the diagnosis, the therapy and the prevention of HSV in pregnant women and neonate. Special emphasis is placed upon the importance of genital herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and on the its prevention to avoid neonatal HSV infections.
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This cross-sectional analysis of the 1991 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey explored factors associated with an early age at first sexual intercourse. Almost 18% of White males, 49% of Black males, 5% of White females and 12% of Black females were sexually active before age 13. Carrying a weapon to school, fighting, and early (< age 13) experimentation with cigarettes and alcohol were associated with early initiation of sexual activity for all four race and gender groupings. Those initiating sexual activity early had greater numbers of partners but were 50% less likely to use condoms regularly and were two-seven times more likely to have been pregnant or caused a pregnancy. Females who initiated sexual activity early were more likely to have had a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Interventions to postpone sexual activity need to be tailored to the ethnic and gender differences observed in these analyses. Interventions must begin before age 13 and should be comprehensive school-based efforts.
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Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of human fibroblasts rapidly renders the cells resistant to lysis by HSV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), which normally recognize cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins presenting viral peptides. Within 3 hr of infection with HSV, MHC class I protein complexes are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/cis Golgi and show properties of complexes lacking antigenic peptide. The HSV immediate-early protein ICP47 is both necessary and sufficient to block transport of class I proteins and to inhibit lysis by CD8+ CTLs. The target for ICP47 is not known, but since ICP47 does not associate with membranes, it appears that ICP47 inhibits the production or stabilization of antigenic peptides or their translocation into the ER/cis Golgi. Thus, by expressing ICP47, HSV can evade detection by CD8+ T lymphocytes, perhaps explaining the predominance of CD4+ rather than CD8+ HSV-specific CTLs in vivo.
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To compare life-style and reproductive health care factors in girls with a coitus debut < 15 years of age and girls with a later debut. Girls resident in the municipality of Karlstad, Sweden, starting their upper secondary school education were invited to attend the teenage clinic during two years (five visits). Gynecological examinations were performed and questions were asked about possible symptoms, sexual activity, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. Ninety-eight girls accepted the invitation to participate and 88 girls completed all visits (mean age on admission 16 years). Median age for coitarche was 16 years. A sexual debut < 15 years was reported by 17 girls (19.3%), 54 (61.4%) had their debut > or = 15 years and 17 girls (19.3%) had not had their sexual debut on completion of this study. Girls with an early sexual debut had a greater number of sexually transmitted diseases (p < 0.05) and more cervical atypias (p < 0.05), and more often had a menarcheal age < 13 years (p < 0.05), > two brothers and/or sisters (p < 0.01), were more often not living with their parents (p < 0.01) and reported a greater number of life-time partners (p < 0.06) than the remainder, Girls with a sexual debut < 15 years started drinking alcohol earlier than others (p < 0.01). There was a greater proportion of smokers among girls with an early sex debut compared to the remainder (p < 0.05). Early sexual debut is associated with an earlier menarche and a more premature adult life-style and is an important indicator for continued risk behavior regarding reproductive health.
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Some types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) appear to be associated with carcinoma of the cervix or other tissues, but patients infected with HPV do not necessarily develop carcinoma. Some epidemiological studies of risk factors for cervical carcinoma have indicated the involvement of herpes simplex virus (HSV). To study the effect of HSV on the genome of HPV, total DNAs were extracted and analyzed after HeLa cells, or A431 cells, transiently transfected with HPV18 DNA, were infected with HSV-1 or -2 for 24 hours. In HeLa cells, integrated HPV18 DNA was amplified almost threefold. In A431 cells, HPV 18 DNA fragments, sensitive to the restriction enzyme Mbo I, indicated newly replicated DNA. Replication intermediates were detected when the DNA was resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. This study showed that HSV caused some amplification of HPV and indicated the possibility of HSV involved in the integration and amplification of HPV in host cells.
Article
Recently a few new herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-specific serological diagnostic tests have been introduced to the commercial market, but these tests have some limitations. Moreover, it is not yet clear which commercial test can be regarded as a "gold standard" for the serodiagnosis of HSV infections. In order to improve the clinical diagnostic value of serological tests for the detection of HSV infections, we developed novel, competition-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the specific determination of HSV type 2 antibodies (SeroHSV2) and HSV type 1 antibodies (SeroHSV1) and two complementary tests for the detection of HSV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies (SeroHSV IgM and SeroHSV IgG). These four new kits were evaluated in comparison with some commercial kits for the detection of HSV antibodies that are commonly used at present in Israeli clinical laboratories. The results indicate that SeroHSV2 is highly sensitive (>92%) and highly specific (>94%). SeroHSV2 does not cross-react with other alphaherpesvirus antibodies. SeroHSV1 is highly sensitive (>94%) and specific (>91%) compared to four commercial available kits. SeroHSV IgM is highly specific (>92%) in comparison with other commercial HSV IgM tests. The sensitivity of SeroHSV IgM ranges between 50 and 70% compared to these tests. Further investigation of the discrepant results obtained by using in-house competition tests indicated that SeroHSV IgM is more sensitive. SeroHSV IgG was also found to be highly sensitive (>94%) and highly specific (>92%) compared to the other commercial HSV IgG tests.
Article
To quantify the association between prevalent or incident Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV2) infection and the incidence of HIV seroconversion among adults in the general population in rural Tanzania. Adults aged 15-54 years sampled randomly from 12 rural communities in Mwanza Region, Tanzania and recruited to a randomized trial of improved treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Unmatched case-control study nested within trial cohort. Participants included 127 cases who seroconverted to HIV during the 2-year follow-up period and 636 randomly selected controls who remained HIV negative. Subjects were tested for HSV2 serology at baseline and follow-up, and associations between HIV and HSV2 were analysed with adjustment for socio-demographic and behavioural factors. After adjusting for confounding factors, a strong association between HSV2 infection and HIV seroconversion was observed in men (test for trend: P < 0.001), with adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 6.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.52-14.9] in those HSV2 positive at baseline, and 16.8 (95% CI, 6.06-46.3) in those acquiring HSV2 infection during follow-up. A weaker association was observed in women (tests for trend: P = 0.14), with adjusted OR of 1.32 (95% CI, 0.62-2.78) and 2.36 (95% CI, 0.81-6.84), respectively. Population attributable fractions of incident HIV infection due to HSV2 were estimated as 74% in men and 22% in women. The results suggest that HSV2 plays an important role in the transmission of HIV infection in this population. There is an urgent need to identify effective HSV2 control measures in order to reduce HIV incidence in Africa.
Article
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been associated with orofacial infections and HSV type 2 (HSV-2) with genital infections. This tropism of the virus seems to have changed and in clinical reports an increasing number of genital herpes infections caused by HSV-1 have been recognized. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively, among isolates from different anatomical sites typed in our laboratory during the years 1994-1998. Out of a total of 3,085 anogenital isolates, 29% were typed as HSV-1 and 71% as HSV-2. The highest prevalence of HSV-1 was registered among isolates from young women. Of 631 orofacial isolates, 4% were typed as HSV-2 and 96% as HSV-1. Of 69 finger/hand isolates, 54% were typed as HSV-1 and 46% as HSV-2, and of 95 isolates from other regions (abdomen, foot, etc.), 60% were typed as HSV-1 and 40% as HSV-2. It was found that HSV-2 was as common as HSV-1 in the extra-genital regions with the exception of the orofacial area, in which HSV-2 was seldom detected. Furthermore, the study showed an increasing proportion of HSV-1 among anogenital isolates during the study period. Taken together, these results suggest that a clear HSV type-related tropism might be limited to the permissiveness of the orofacial region for HSV-1, and that both serotypes may readily establish infections below the neck.
Article
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 are ubiquitous organisms that cause infections in human populations throughout the world. The clinical manifestations of HSV infections are varied, ranging from asymptomatic disease to life-threatening illness in neonates and immunocompromised hosts. This article will review the common presentations for HSV disease and the current recommendations for the treatment of these infections. A detailed summary of the antiviral drugs used to treat HSV infections is also presented.
Article
The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 in patients attending 2 Canadian sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Stored sera were tested for the presence of IgG class antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2 and results linked to that obtained from a risk behavior questionnaire. Overall prevalences for HSV-1 and -2 were 56% and 19%, respectively. HSV-1 and -2 seropositivity was associated with increasing age, female gender, nonwhite ethnicity, and a history of STD. HSV-2 seropositivity was also associated with a history of genital herpes, presence of genital sores, and coinfection with either human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis C (HCV). Herpes simplex infection is common in this high-risk Canadian population. Our finding that HCV seropositivity was a significant predictor for HSV-2 seropositivity emphasizes the overlap between pathogens that are primarily thought to be bloodborne pathogens and sexually transmitted infections and the need to target prevention in these areas concurrently.
Article
Genital ulcer disease including that caused by Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and syphilis facilitates sexual transmission of HIV-1. The effect of these infections on intra-partum mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 is unknown. A case-control study was conducted using archived sera from HIV-1 positive women enrolled in ZVITAMBO, an MTCT trial. Cases were 509 women who transmitted HIV-1 to their infants intra-partum; controls were 1018 women whose infants remained uninfected at 12 months. Maternal serum collected at delivery, were tested for HSV-2 antibody. The 6-week post-partum sample was also tested for syphilis by RPR and TPHA to identify women with incubating or active syphilis at delivery. Rates of prevalent and incident HSV-2 and recently acquired syphilis were compared between cases and controls. Overall prevalence of maternal HSV-2 and active syphilis at delivery were 82.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 80.6-84.5] and 4.0% (95% CI, 3.0-5.1), respectively. Prevalent HSV-2 was associated with increased intra-partum MTCT [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.50; 95% CI, 1.09-2.08]. The proportion of intra-partum transmissions potentially attributable to prevalent HSV-2 infection was 28.4% (95% CI, 7.3-44.7). Maternal infection with active syphilis at delivery was not associated with intra-partum MTCT (unadjusted OR, 0.89; 95%CI, 0.49-1.59; adjusted OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.34-1.20). HSV-2 infection is common among HIV-1-positive women and is associated with an increased risk of intra-partum MTCT. More than 25% of intra-partum MTCT may be attributable to maternal HSV-2 co-infection. Active maternal syphilis at the time of delivery is not associated with intra-partum MTCT risk.
Sero-prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 among women attending routine Cervicare clinics in Ghana
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  • F Agyemang-Yeboah
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Debrah O., Agyemang-Yeboah F., Asmah R. H., TimmyDonkoh, E. Seini M. M., Fondjo L. A., Sight N., Owusu-Dabo E. (2018). Sero-prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 among women attending routine Cervicare clinics in Ghana. BMC Infect Dis, 18:378. doi:10.1186/s12879-018-3288-1.
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Risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection in herpes simplex virus type 2-seropositive persons: a meta-analysis
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Entry of human papillomavirus type 16 by actin-dependent, clathrin-and lipid raft-independent endocytosis
  • M Schelhass
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Schelhass M., Shah M., Holzer M., Blattmann P., Kuhling L., Day P. M, Schiller J. T., Helenius A. (2012). Entry of human papillomavirus type 16 by actin-dependent, clathrin-and lipid raft-independent endocytosis. PLos Pathogenesis, 8:e1002657.