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Hope as Mediator Between Teacher–Student Relationships and Life Satisfaction Among Chinese Adolescents: A Between- and Within-Person Effects Analysis

  • Southwest University; University of California, Berkeley
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Life satisfaction is a critical indicator of student development. Although several longitudinal studies have examined the predictors of life satisfaction, this study has several unique strengths. First, it examines hope (i.e., a positive motivation and power for success and happiness) as a possible mediator variable. Second, it separates between-person effects (i.e., people with hope perceive higher life satisfaction than those who are less hope) and within-person effects (i.e., a hope person perceived higher life satisfaction over time). Participants were 836 Chinese adolescents aged 13–18 years (M = 15.89, SD = 0.68, 59.2% boys). Multilevel statistical models were used to disaggregate between- and within-person effects. Results showed that teacher-student relationships were positively associated with hope and life satisfaction and that hope was positively associated with life satisfaction. These associations were significant both at one point in time (between-person effect) and over time (within-person effect). Moreover, at both the between- and within-person levels hope was found to be a significant mediator of the association between teacher-student relationships and life satisfaction. That is, within a given individual, a more favorable perceived teacher-student relationship at a given time point was a significant positive predictor of hope for that individual, and in turn, hope was associated with significantly greater life satisfaction at that particular time point. Identification of hope as an explanatory mechanism in the association between teacher-student relationships and life satisfaction in Chinese adolescents provides a potential target for interventions to improve students’ well-being.
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Journal of Happiness Studies (2019) 20:2367–2383
1 3
Hope asMediator Between Teacher–Student Relationships
andLife Satisfaction Among Chinese Adolescents:
ABetween‑ andWithin‑Person Eects Analysis
QianNie1· ZhaojunTeng1 · GeorgeG.Bear2· ChengGuo1· YanlingLiu1·
Published online: 29 October 2018
© Springer Nature B.V. 2018
Life satisfaction is a critical indicator of student development. Although several longitudi-
nal studies have examined the predictors of life satisfaction, this study has several unique
strengths. First, it examines hope (i.e., a positive motivation and power for success and
happiness) as a possible mediator variable. Second, it separates between-person effects
(i.e., people with hope perceive higher life satisfaction than those who are less hope) and
within-person effects (i.e., a person with hope perceives higher life satisfaction over time).
Participants were 1108 Chinese adolescents aged 14–18 years (M = 15.89, SD = 0.68,
57.7% boys). Multilevel statistical models were used to disaggregate between- and within-
person effects. Results showed that teacher–student relationships were positively associated
with hope and life satisfaction and that hope was positively associated with life satisfaction.
These associations were significant both at one point in time (between-person effect) and
over time (within-person effect). Moreover, at both the between- and within-person levels
hope was found to be a significant mediator of the association between teacher–student
relationships and life satisfaction. That is, within a given individual, a more favorable per-
ceived teacher–student relationship at a given time point was a significant positive predic-
tor of hope for that individual, and in turn, hope was associated with significantly greater
life satisfaction at that particular time point. Identification of hope as an explanatory
mechanism in the association between teacher–student relationships and life satisfaction
in Chinese adolescents provides a potential target for interventions to improve students’
Keywords Teacher–student relationship· Hope· Life satisfaction· Between-person
effects· Within-person effects
* Zhaojun Teng
* Dajun Zhang
1 Research Center ofMental Health Education, Faculty ofPsychology, Southwest University, No 2,
Tiansheng Road, Beibei District, Chongqing, China
2 School ofEducation, University ofDelaware, Willard Hall Education Building, Newark,
DE19716, USA
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... In sum, the teacher can provide a positive relational model to their students, thereby helping them develop positive beliefs about themselves and others, develop adaptive social and emotional skills and self-confidence, and deal with problematic situations Pianta, 1999). In this direction, recent research conducted among Chinese teenagers (Nie et al., 2018) found that the perception of a closer relationship with one's teacher increases one's score concerning hope. Hope is a central construct in positive psychology and is recognized as a factor that promotes psychological well-being in adults and children alike (Liu et al., 2020;Snyder, Cheavens, & Sympson, 1997;Valle et al., 2004). ...
... According to hope theory, hope's central feature involves planning and achieving one's goals through means associated with cognitive and motivational factors (Snyder, Cheavens & Sympson, 1997). Hope is linked to an increase in psychological well-being not only because it encourages individuals to achieve their goals but also because it encourages positive emotions, contrasts negative emotions, and correlates with mental health effects (Ling et al., 2016;Liu et al., 2020;Nie et al., 2018). ...
... These data replicate the study of Nie et al. (2018) conducted on a sample of Chinese teenagers. In line with these authors, our study additionally identifies hope's role in mediating the relationship between closeness in studentteacher relationships and measures of psychological wellbeing. ...
A close student–teacher relationship is a protective factor for students’ psychological well-being, and it is associated with students’ internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but the mechanism underlying this association is unclear. To address this issue, this study investigated the role of children’s hope in the relationship between teachers’ perceived closeness in the student–teacher relationship and children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Participants included 562 Italian students aged from 4 to 9 years and 48 Italian teachers aged from 26 to 60 years. Results indicated that the children’s hope played the mediating role between closeness and children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Findings, limitations, and suggestions for future research were discussed.
... Well-being is a critical indicator of student mental health, which is associated with a number of positive outcomes among students, with research showing it to be associated with their high quality interpersonal relationship and better academic achievement (Diener and Chan 2011;Nie et al. 2019;Park 2004). Subjective well-being focuses on the hedonic aspect of well-being, which is generally considered to include two related but distinct components: Emotional and cognitive well-being (Diener 1994;Kong et al. 2015). ...
... Marques et al. 2013;Nie et al. 2019;Valle et al. 2004). The response options were on a six-point Likert scale (from 1 = none of the time to 6 = all of the time). ...
... Higher scores indicated higher levels of hope. The Chinese version of the Children's Hope Scale(Nie et al. 2019; Zhao and Sun 2011) has a good reliability and validity. The measurement model showed an acceptable data fit: χ 2 / df = 18.74, ...
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This study examined the associations among family cohesion (i.e., the extent to which family members are concerned and committed to the family), self-concept clarity (i.e., having a clear, confident and coherent sense of one's own identity), hope (as a general disposition to engage in conscious efforts to obtain goals), and subjective well-being (containing emotional and cognitive well-being). 2792 adolescents and early adults with an age range of 11-24 years (M age = 16.45, SD = 2.62, 43.2% boys) in China completed the Family Environment Scale, the Self-Concept Clarity Scale, the Children's Hope Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Two serial mediation models revealed that self-concept clarity and hope independently mediated the effect of family cohesion on subjective well-being. More importantly, family cohesion could influence subjective well-being through the chain mediating effect of "self-concept clarity-hope". These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the links between these factors and suggest that high level of family cohesion may promote subjective well-being through the high level of self-concept clarity and hope.
... One was conducted by Wang and Zhang (2012), and a decrease pattern in life satisfaction from Grade 7 to Grade 9 was reported. The other was performed by Nie et al. (2019) and they found life satisfaction displayed a stable pattern across 2 years among high school students. ...
... Such decreasing trends may be due to the high expectations (Shoshani and Slone, 2013) and schoolwork pressure (Cosma et al., 2020) during the middle school years in this highly formative era. The inconsistent findings with the stable pattern shown in mainland Chinese high school students (Nie et al., 2019) may indicate that the developmental trajectories in life satisfaction during early adolescence and late adolescence are different (e.g., Chen, 2020). ...
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The present three-wave longitudinal study examined the contributions of indigenous personality traits and parenting style to life satisfaction in Chinese adolescents. Seven hundred and ten junior high school students ( M age = 11.39, SD age = 0.53; 53.2% girls) were administered self-report measures of personality, parenting styles, and life satisfaction in Grade 6. Data on life satisfaction were collected again in Grades 7 and 8, respectively. Latent growth model analyses indicated that life satisfaction decreased over time. Regression analyses showed that the initial level of global life satisfaction was positively predicted by personality factors of dependability and interpersonal relatedness; the slope of global life satisfaction was positively predicted by personality factors of emotional stability whereas negatively predicted by interpersonal relatedness. The initial levels and slopes of different domains of life satisfaction were predicted by personality factors and parenting styles to different extents. Meanwhile, paternal and maternal parenting styles had different effects on adolescents’ life satisfaction. The study provided valuable information about the contributions of indigenous personality and both paternal and maternal parenting styles to psychological adjustment in the Chinese context. The implications of the findings concerning the associations among personality, parenting styles, and life satisfaction were discussed.
... Research that looked into how teacher-student relationships work to affect students is primarily based on social cognitive theories, and the results typically have supported the idea that teacher-student relationships undergird students' school functioning, especially learning outcomes, through cognitive factors, and motivation, such as mastery goals, academic efficacy, and self-regulated learning (Skinner et al., 2009;Wu et al., 2010;You & Sharkey, 2009). When using subjective well-being as the outcome, researchers have reported the mediational capacity of self-esteem (Fang et al., 2016) and hope (Hui & Sun, 2010;Nie et al., 2019) in explaining the relationship between school contextual factors (e.g., teacher support, teacher-student relationship) and satisfaction with school or life. Despite the interesting findings, these mediators are primarily intrapsychic processes and had less readily ramifications for intervention. ...
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Background: Teacher-student relationships have been linked to various aspects of students' school functioning, including social-emotional well-being in school, but the underlying mechanisms need more investigation. Aims: In this study, we analysed longitudinal data to test if students' classroom behavioural engagement was a potential mechanism of change that explained how teacher-student relationships affect student school satisfaction. Sample: We used an archival dataset with a sample of seventh graders (ages 11-14, Mage = 12.7 year) in a middle school in the Southeastern United States. Methods: Adolescents completed self-report surveys across three waves over the course of 18 months. Results: Longitudinal structural equation modelling analyses revealed that teacher-student relationships were positively associated with positive classroom engagement behaviours and school satisfaction, respectively, at each time, and positive classroom behaviours at Time 2 fully mediated the longitudinal association between teacher-student relationships (Time 1) and school satisfaction (Time 3). Conclusions: Taken together, results suggested that fostering positive teacher-student relationships to increase students' positive classroom behaviours could be an effective pathway to promote students' satisfaction with school. The applications of the results in educators' and psychologists' work, such as consultation and trainings with teachers, are discussed.
... Better student-teacher relationships were positively associated with self-esteem/efficacy [131], while negatively associated with the risks of adolescents' externalizing behaviors [132] among secondary school students. Longitudinal studies demonstrated that high intimacy levels between students and teachers were correlated with reduced emotional symptoms [133] and increased life-satisfaction among students [134]. In addition, more respect to teachers in 10th grade students was associated with higher self-efficacy and lower stress levels 1 year later [135]. ...
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Background The promotion of mental health among children and adolescents is a public health imperative worldwide, and schools have been proposed as the primary and targeted settings for mental health promotion for students in grades K-12. This review sought to provide a comprehensive understanding of key factors involved in models of school education contributing to student mental health development, interrelationships among these factors and the cross-cultural differences across nations and societies. Methods This scoping review followed the framework of Arksey and O’Malley and holistically reviewed the current evidence on the potential impacts of school-related factors or school-based interventions on student mental health in recent 5 years based on the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and PsycExtra databases. Results/findings After screening 558 full-texts, this review contained a total of 197 original articles on school education and student mental health. Based on the five key factors (including curriculum, homework and tests, physical activities, interpersonal relationships and after-school activities) identified in student mental development according to thematic analyses, a multi-component school educational model integrating academic, social and physical factors was proposed so as to conceptualize the five school-based dimensions for K-12 students to promote student mental health development. Conclusions The lessons learned from previous studies indicate that developing multi-component school strategies to promote student mental health remains a major challenge. This review may help establish appropriate school educational models and call for a greater emphasis on advancement of student mental health in the K-12 school context among different nations or societies.
... For example, one study reported that subjective social status was related to resilience in a positive direction (Cundiff et al., 2013), which in turn may contribute to higher life satisfaction among adolescents (Arslan, 2019;Wang & Kong, 2020). Furthermore, the mediating role of hope was proved by the research that adolescents with higher subjective social status experienced relatively high levels of hope in South African (Guse & Vermaak, 2011), and then enhanced life satisfaction (Nie et al., 2019;Zhou et al., 2019). Taken together, the results extend previous research by uncovering that different psychological resources (i.e., resilience, self-esteem and hope) could make independent contributions to the link of SFSS with life satisfaction in a large sample of adolescents. ...
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This paper aimed at examining the mediators of resilience, self-esteem and hope in the link of subjective family socioeconomic status (SFSS) with life satisfaction in two independent samples of Chinese adolescents. In Study 1, 845 adolescents completed a multi-section questionnaire including the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status, Brief Resilience Scale, Rosenberg Self–esteem Scale, Children’s Hope Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale. The multiple mediation analysis suggested that SFSS could positively predict life satisfaction through three pathways. First, resilience mediated the link of SFSS with life satisfaction. Second, self-esteem mediated the link of SFSS with life satisfaction. Third, hope mediated the link of SFSS with life satisfaction. Moreover, after controlling for age, gender and objective FSS, these findings remained significant. To test whether the above results are stable and replicable, we further conducted a validation study in sample 2 (N = 483) and found all the results remained significant. Together, these findings may provide theoretical evidence for how to enhance life satisfaction with adolescents who have lower SFSS.
... Hope was assessed with Children's Hope Scale developed by Snyder et al. (1997) and revised by Zhao and Sun (2011). It has been confirmed to have good reliability and validity among Chinese adolescents (Nie et al., 2019). The six items captured two dimensions of hope, namely, " hope pathways " (e.g., " I can think of many ways to get the things in life that are most important to me" ) and " hope agency " (e.g., " I think I' m doing pretty well" ). ...
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Using a three-wave longitudinal design, we examined the relationship between early parent-child relationship and subsequent smartphone addiction (SA) and explored mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relation. A total of 527 Chinese adolescents (271 boys and 256 girls, mean age = 11.23 years) completed questionnaires regarding parent-child relationship, smartphone addiction, hope and life satisfaction. The results showed that: (1) parent-child relationship (T1) was positively associated with life satisfaction (T1) and hope (T2); parent-child relationship (T1), life satisfaction (T1), and hope (T2) were significantly negatively associated with SA (T3); (2) After controlling for age, gender, and SA (T1), hope (T2) completely mediated the relationship between parental-child relationship (T1) and adolescents’ SA (T3); (3) life satisfaction (T1) moderated the association between parent-child relationship (T1) and hope (T2). Specifically, as life satisfaction (T1) increased, parent-child relationship (T1) was more likely to promote hope (T2). Moreover, the indirect negative links between parent-child relationship (T1) and SA (T3) via hope (T2) were stronger for adolescents with high level of life satisfaction (T1) than for adolescents with low level of life satisfaction (T1). The results reveal the mechanism of hope and life satisfaction in the effect of parent-child relationship on SA in adolescents, indicating that SA among adolescents can be weakened through the improvement of parent-child relationship, the rise in hope and the increase in life satisfaction.
... For example, previous variable-centered studies have revealed that peer victimization exerts a negative impact on students' SWB (Oriol et al., 2020). Similarly, some studies have demonstrated a significant link between teacher-student relationships and students' SWB (e.g., Nie et al., 2019). Some studies also showed that relationship stress appears to be a stronger predictor than insufficient relationship support (Hamre & Pianta, 2001;Spilt et al., 2012). ...
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This study aimed to identify multiple co-developmental trajectories of the three components (i.e., school satisfaction, positive affect in school and negative affect in school) of subjective well-being (SWB) in school and their relations to predictors and outcomes among Chinese elementary school students. A total of 2756 students (Mage = 9.91 years, SD = 0.72; 47% girls) completed a packet of measures on four occasions at 6-month intervals. Latent class growth analyses identified four co-developmental groups (i.e., flourishing, at-risk, congruently moderate-stable, and congruently high-stable). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that group membership was predicted by peer victimization, maltreatment by teachers, and academic achievement. Students in the at-risk group reported the most internalizing and externalizing problems while students in the flourishing group reported the fewest internalizing and externalizing problems. The findings highlighted the importance of subgroup differences in understanding the progression of SWB in school and the need for universal screening, dynamic monitoring, and interventions tailored to the unique characteristics of the subgroups.
... Scores for these five items were averaged to yield a composite score, with higher scores indicating higher life satisfaction levels. Prior research has exhibited good internal consistency of the SWLS in Chinese adolescents (e.g., Nie et al. 2019). In the present study, Cronbach's alpha was 0.74. ...
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To gain a comprehensive understanding of adolescent psychological, social, and academic functioning, we employ a variety of positive and negative indicators (indexed by subjective well-being, problem behavior, prosocial behavior, and academic achievement) to explore adolescent adjustment profiles. Furthermore, we investigate the direct and interactive associations of peer attachment and Zhong-Yong thinking (i.e., Doctrine of the Mean) with these emerging adjustment profiles. A sample of 1759 Chinese adolescents (Mage = 12.61, SD = 1.50; 51.1% girls) was involved in the present research. Adolescents were uniformly instructed to complete a battery of self-report questionnaires during public school hours, and their academic achievement was measured by self-report grades in mathematics, Chinese, and English. The results of a latent profile analysis showed four adjustment profiles: adaptive, irresponsive, maladaptive, and ambivalent. Moreover, the results of a multiple multinomial analysis showed that adolescents with secure peer attachment and high levels of Zhong-Yong thinking were likely to be the memberships of the adaptive profile. In addition, interaction analysis revealed that in the context of peer attachment security, adolescents with low (instead of high) levels of Zhong-Yong thinking were more likely to be the memberships of the adaptive profile than the ambivalent profile; by contrast, in the context of peer attachment insecurity, adolescents with high levels of Zhong-Yong thinking were more likely to be the memberships of the adaptive profile than the ambivalent profile. The current study expands prior research by presenting a comprehensive and person-centered view of adolescent adjustment patterns. Moreover, the study is pioneering in examining the direct and interactive associations of peer attachment and Zhong-Yong thinking with adolescent adjustment profiles, highlighting the compensatory interplay of these variables on adolescent adaptive functioning.
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Araştırmanın amacı, bir dindarlık ölçümü girişimi olarak Allah merkezlilik, olumsuz bir kişilik özelliği olarak değerlendirilen başkası merkezli dışsallık ve kişinin benlik, gelecek ve dünya hakkındaki olumlu algılarını ifade eden olumlu bilişsel üçlü arasındaki ilişkileri incelemektir. Çalışmanın bir diğer amacı ise bu ana değişkenlerin başka alt değişkenler (demografik ve psiko-sosyal) ile arasındaki ilişkileri araştırmaktır. İlişkisel tarama yönteminin kullanıldığı araştırmanın örneklemi İstanbul Üniversitesi ve İstanbul Üniversitesi Cerrahpaşa’da lisans öğrenimi gören 599 öğrenciden oluşturulmuştur. Araştırmada veriler, Kişisel Bilgi Formu, Allah Merkezlilik Ölçeği (AMÖ), Başkası Merkezli Dışsallık Ölçeği (BMDÖ), Bilişsel Üçlü Envanteri (BÜE) kullanılarak toplanmıştır. Araştırmanın sonucunda Allah merkezlilik ile başkası merkezli dışsallık arasında olumsuz yönde anlamlı, Allah merkezlilik ile olumlu bilişsel üçlü arasında olumlu yönde anlamlı, başkası merkezli dışsallık ile olumlu bilişsel üçlü arasında olumsuz yönde anlamlı ilişkiler olduğu saptanmıştır. Hem Allah merkezlilik hem başkası merkezli dışsallık hem de olumlu bilişsel üçlü ile çeşitli demografik ve psiko-sosyal değişkenler arasında anlamlı ilişkiler bulgulanmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Allah Merkezlilik, Başkası Merkezli Dışsallık, Olumlu Bilişsel Üçlü, Dindarlık. The aim of this research is to investigate relationships between Allah centeredness as an attempt to measure religiousness, others centered externality which is regarded as a negative personality trait and positive cognitive triads expressing positive cognitions about the self, future and world. Another aim of the study is examine relationships between these main variables and other sub-variables (demographic & psycho-social). Relational screening model was used in the study. The sample consisted of 599 undergraduate students at Istanbul University and Istanbul University Cerrahpasa. The research data were collected by questionnaire which included Personal Information Form, Scale of Allah Centeredness, Others Centered Externatiliy Scale and Cognitive Triad Inventory. According to the research results, significant positive co-relation between Allah centeredness and positive cognitive triad, significant negative co-relation between Allah centeredness and others centered extarnality, significant negative co-relation between others centered extarnality and positive cognitive triad has been found. On the other hand, significant relationships were found between variables of demographic & psycho-social and Allah centeredness, others centered extarnality, positive cognitive triad. Key Words: Allah Centeredness, Others Centered Extarnality, Positive Cognitive Triad, Religiosity.
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Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine differences between American and Chinese students in their perceptions of school climate and engagement in school, and in the relation between school climate and engagement. Method: Confirmatory factor analyses were used to support the factor structure and measurement invariance of the two measures administered: The Delaware School Climate Survey-Student and the Delaware Student Engagement Scale. Differences in latent means were tested, and differences in relations between variables were examined using multilevel hierarchical linear modeling. Participants consisted of 3,176 Chinese and 4,085 American students, grades 3 - 5, 7 - 8, and 10 - 12. Results: Chinese students perceived school climate more favorably than American students, particularly beyond elementary school. Findings were more complex for student engagement. In elementary school, American students reported greater cognitive-behavioral and emotional engagement, and especially the former. In middle school and high school, Chinese students reported greater emotional engagement; however, no significant differences were found for cognitive-behavioral engagement. Most intriguing was results of multilevel hierarchical modeling that examined associations between school climate and student engagement: They were significant in American schools, but not Chinese schools. Conclusion: Chinese students, compared to American students, perceived the climate of their school more favorably, especially after elementary school. However, among Chinese students, their perceptions of school climate were unrelated to their self-reported engagement in school—school climate does not seem to matter as much.
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In this paper, we investigate the gender gap in education in rural northwest China. We first discuss parental perceptions of abilities and appropriate roles for girls and boys; parental concerns about old-age support; and parental perceptions of different labor market outcomes for girls' and boys' education. We then investigate gender disparities in investments in children, children's performance at school, and children's subsequent attainment. We analyze a survey of nine to twelve year-old children and their families conducted in rural Gansu Province in the year 2000, along with follow-up information about subsequent educational attainment collected seven years later. We complement our main analysis with two illustrative case studies of rural families drawn from 11 months of fieldwork conducted in rural Gansu between 2003 and 2005 by the second author. In 2000, most mothers expressed egalitarian views about girls' and boys' rights and abilities, in the abstract. However, the vast majority of mothers still expected to rely on sons for old-age support, and nearly one in five mothers interviewed agreed with the traditional saying, "Sending girls to school is useless since they will get married and leave home." Compared to boys, girls faced somewhat lower (though still very high) maternal educational expectations and a greater likelihood of being called on for household chores than boys. However, there was little evidence of a gender gap in economic investments in education. Girls rivaled or outperformed boys in academic performance and engagement. Seven years later, boys had attained just about a third of a year more schooling than girls — a quite modest advantage that could not be fully explained by early parental attitudes and investments, or student performance or engagement. Fieldwork confirmed that parents of sons and daughters tended to have high aspirations for their children. Parents sometimes viewed boys as having greater aptitude, but tended to view girls as having more dedication — an attribute parents perceived as being critical for educational success. Findings suggest that at least in Gansu, rural parental educational attitudes and practices toward boys and girls are more complicated and less uniformly negative for girls than commonly portrayed.
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The paper focuses on the question whether hope mediates the effect of personality traits on life satisfaction. It is based on the assumption that the cognitive ability to perceive the possibility of reaching one's own personal goals is an important outcome of personality traits as well as a strong predictor of life satisfaction The research sample consisted of 451 secondary school and university students in Slovakia with mean age 20.02 years. Hope Scale (Snyder, 1995), Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., 1985), and NEO Five Factor Inventory (Costa, McCrae, 1992, Slovak version Ruisel, Halama, 2007) were used to measure the defined characteristics. The results showed that hope acts as a partial mediator between neuroticism, conscientiousness and life satisfaction, and a full mediator between extraversion and life satisfaction.
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Two studies addressed the psychometric properties of the Children's Hope Scale (CHS; Snyder et al., 1997). A sample of 460 high school students was administered the CHS along with measures of life satisfaction, extraversion, neuroticism, social support, and externalizing and internalizing behaviors. The results revealed adequate internal consistency for the CHS for research purpos es. Furthermore, confirmatory factor analysis procedures supported the correlated, two-factor conceptual model underlying the CHS. Finally, evidence of criterion-related validity was provided. The findings were replicated with a sample of 531 middle school students. Taken together, the studies extend support for the reliability and validity of the CHS with adolescents.
Using latent class analysis, we explored the within-person configurations of hope in a sample of Chinese adolescents. A total of 1688 adolescents (801 boys and 887 girls) from Mainland China completed measures of hope, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and depression. Obvious grouping features appeared, and a model of the three latent classes was supported. The three classes of ‘high hope’, ‘average hope’, and ‘low hope’ accounted for 32%, 47.5%, and 20.5% of the variance respectively. Compared to the average- and low-hope classes, the high-hope class reported significantly higher levels of life satisfaction, self-esteem and optimism and lower levels of depression, suggesting that higher levels of hope are adaptive in non-Western cultures as well as Western ones.
Life satisfaction (LS) is closely linked to romantic relationships. However, we lack knowledge on the nature of the longitudinal associations between LS and relationship quality, as well as on the longitudinal associations between two partners’ LS—especially for persons in long-term relationships. Better understanding of such associations could possibly add to the existing knowledge on how to increase LS. The current study used data from 239 heterosexual couples to examine longitudinal associations between relationship quality and LS over a 3-year period. Associations between one partner’s baseline LS and change in the other partner’s LS from baseline to 3-year follow-up were also examined. Relationship quality predicted change in LS, and LS predicted change in relationship quality. The results also showed that one partner’s LS predicted change in the other partner’s LS over a 3-year period, even when controlling for both partners’ baseline evaluation of relationship quality. The results suggest that a partner’s general LS can increase both the couple’s relationship quality and the other partner’s LS over time. Further, the results also suggest that relationship quality can contribute to positive change of both partners’ LS.