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An Exploratory Assessment of Codependency in Student-Athletes

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A short paper and pencil measure of codependency was developed based on a definition of codependency as a dysfunctional pattern of relating to others with an extreme focus outside of oneself, lack of expression of feelings, and personal meaning derived from relationships with others. The scale demonstrated various forms of reliability and validity. Scores on the codependency scale distinguished known groups; furthermore, scores correlated as expected with intrapersonal measures as well as interpersonal perceptions of parenting in the family of origin.
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Full-text of this article is not available in this e-prints service. This article was originally published following peer-review in Journal of Sport Behavior, published by and copyright University of South Alabama, Department of Psychology. This study investigated differences in sexually aggressive attitudes and behavior among contact sport athletes, non-contact sport athletes and non-athletes. Two hundred and eighty-two male undergraduate students completed a questionnaire comprising the following: Questions requesting demographic information, the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (Gill & Deeter, 1988), the Rape-supportive Attitude Scale (Lottes, 1988), an eight-item short form of the Hostility Toward Women scale (Koss & Gaines, 1993) and the Sexual Experiences Survey (Koss & Gaines, 1993). Significant (p < .004) relationships were found among all three subscales of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, the Hostility Toward Women scale and the Sexual Experiences Survey. A MANOVA with Tukey follow-up tests revealed that the contact and non-contact athletes scored significantly (p < .05) higher on all three subscales of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire than the non-athletes. However, there were no significant differences between contact and non-contact sport athletes on these subscales (p > .05), and there were no significant between-group differences on the Rape-supportive Attitude Scale, the Hostility Toward Women scale and the Sexual Experiences Survey (p > .05 in all cases). These results indicate that, despite suggestions to the contrary from the media and some academics, athletes do not have a greater propensity than non-athletes to commit sexual assault.
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Codependency has been defined as an extreme focus on relationships, caused by a stressful family background (J. L. Fischer, L. Spann, & D. W. Crawford, 1991). In this study the authors assessed the relationship of the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (J. L. Fischer et al., 1991) and the Potter-Efron Codependency Assessment (L. A. Potter-Efron & P. S. Potter-Efron, 1989) with self-reported chronic family stress and family background. Students (N = 257) completed 2 existing self-report codependency measures and provided family background information. Results indicated that women had higher codependency scores than men on the Spann-Fischer scale. Students with a history of chronic family stress (with an alcoholic, mentally ill, or physically ill parent) had significantly higher codependency scores on both scales. The findings suggest that other types of family stressors, not solely alcoholism, may be predictors of codependency.
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This chapter applies economic theory to the analysis of the business operations of a professional sports league. Special emphasis is given to the implications of the player reservation system-the rules structure for the distribution of playing strengths among the teams in a league-since partisans of professional sports claim that this system is essential to the goal of "equalizing competitive playing strengths" among teams.
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This article reviews international literature on the demand for professional sport. The first part presents a conceptual framework for understanding the sources and determinants of the demand for professional sporting contests. The second part reviews empirical evidence on key determinants of attendance at sporting events, and on other sources of demand, such as broadcasting, sponsorship, and merchandising. The review concludes that there is still much to be learned about demand for professional sport, and that there are no simple lessons to be drawn from existing literature. But important messages do emerge from studies of demand for attendance with regard to effects of uncertainty of outcome, quality of contest, and quality of viewing. © 2003 Oxford University Press and the Oxford Review of Economic Policy Limited.
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This article uses economic theory to examine the variables that affect the competitive balance in a professional sports league and the impact of revenue sharing. The generally accepted proposition that revenue sharing does not affect the competitive balance in a profit-maximizing league has been challenged by many. It is shown that the competitive balance and the impact of revenue sharing not only depend on the relative size of the market of the clubs, but that they are also affected by the objectives of the club owners and the importance to spectators of absolute team quality and uncertainty of outcome. Furthermore, the clubs' hiring strategies, including the talent supply conditions, turn out to be important elements affecting competitive balance and the impact of revenue sharing.
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Research has indicated that there is a relationship between stress and participation in leisure (Caltabiano, 1995; Chalip, Thomas, & Voyle, 1992; Reich & Zautra, 1981; Strauss-Blasche, Ekmekcioglu, & Marktl, 2002; Warner-Smith & Brown, 2002; Wheeler & Frank, 1988). It has been suggested that leisure buffers or mediates stress, thereby enhancing individual health and well-being, because of the self-determination and social support that are experienced in leisure (Coleman & Iso-Ahola, 1993). However, a number of issues have been raised by the recent research, including whether or not the leisure, stress, and health relationship varies by type of leisure activity (Iwasaki & Mannell, 2000), exactly why and how leisure (or any given leisure activity) interacts with stress (Iwasaki & Mannell, 1999-2000; Kleiber, Hutchinson, & Williams, 2002), and the possibility that leisure itself could be a stressor (Iwasaki & Mannell, 2000; Iwasaki & Smale, 1998). The interpretive study reported here examined a particular leisure activity--collegiate sport--and individuals' experiences of stress because of their participation in this type of leisure. Results indicate that collegiate sport is perceived to be both a buffer and experience of stress. Results also reveal that race and gender are important in shaping collegiate athletes' experiences of stress. Support was found for the ideas that (a) stress is a transactional process (Lazarus, 1998) and (b) research approaches that allow the dynamic experience and contextualization of the personal meanings of stress and leisure to emerge are needed (Iwasaki & Smale, 1998; Kleiber et al., 2002).
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After decades of domination on campus, college sports' supremacy has begun to weaken. "Enough, already!" detractors cry. College is about learning, not chasing a ball around to the whir of TV cameras. In Intercollegiate Athletics and the American University James Duderstadt agrees, taking the view that the increased commercialization of intercollegiate athletics endangers our universities and their primary goal, academics. Calling it a "corrosive example of entertainment culture" during an interview with ESPN's Bob Ley, Duderstadt suggested that college basketball, for example, "imposes on the university an alien set of values, a culture that really is not conducive to the educational mission of university." Duderstadt is part of a growing controversy. Recently, as reported in The New York Times, an alliance between university professors and college boards of trustees formed in reaction to the growth of college sports; it's the first organization with enough clout to challenge the culture of big-time university athletics. This book is certainly part of that challenge, and is sure to influence this debate today and in the years to come. James J. Duderstadt is President Emeritus and University Professor of Science and Engineering, University of Michigan.
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This article addresses problems associated with conceptualizing interpersonal behaviors as addictions or diseases and pathologizing characteristics associated with women. The failure of the codependency model to focus on the unequal distribution of power and resources and the blurring of responsibility between the actor and audience are also discussed. Individual identity can be lost in the label, and the codependency model encourages separation from rather than connection with the family of origin.
Article
This study examined the relationships between codependency and age, gender, self-confidence, autonomy, and succorance, which is the quality of soliciting emotional support from others. The study also tested the validity of the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (Fischer, Spann, & Crawford, 1991). Ninety-five undergraduates completed a demographic sheet, the Adjective Check List (Gough & Heilbrun, 1983), the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale, the Co-Dependents Anonymous Checklist (Whitfield, 1991), and a questionnaire developed for this study based on the work of Hemfelt, Minirth, and Meier (1989). As predicted, codependency was negatively related to self-confidence and positively related to succorance. However, contrary to expectation, a negative relationship between codependency and autonomy was not found. In addition, low self-confidence was the strongest predictor of codependency. Finally, all three measures of codependency were strongly related, attesting to the convergent validity of the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale. Future studies should further investigate the role of emotional autonomy and codependency and should begin to utilize an experimental approach, making predictions regarding the behavior of codependent and noncodependent persons in experimental situations.
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