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Islamic hospitality is a reflection of religious and cultural values and principles that aim to enhance unity, equity, and social relationships. Despite its increase in demand by Muslims and even non-Muslims, the main principles of Islamic hospitality has been neglected due to the emergence of contemporary forms of hospitality. Therefore, the aim of this review paper is to establish a modern approach which will promote the concept of Islamic hospitality in Makkah. The Islamic hospitality in Makkah city was selected due to its recent transformation towards the contemporary concept of hospitality. To achieve the research aim, systematic literature review was conducted to evaluate the historical development of Islamic hospitality, and the challenges it has encountered recently. Afterwards, it was identified that Islamic hospitality in Makkah has witnessed significant changes such as: Ibrahimic Hospitality, Arabic Hospitality, Islamic Hospitality, and Contemporary Hospitality. Based on the aforementioned, this paper recommends modern strategy to redefining the concept of Islamic Hospitality. This will enable the Islamic hospitality in Makkah to retain its religious and cultural values and principles, rather than becoming a way of acquiring money and reflecting the commercial hospitality principles.
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International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7 (3.30) (2018) 225-229
International Journal of Engineering & Technology
Research paper
The Historical Development of Hospitality in Makkah
Abdullah. S. Karban1,2, Mahmud. B.M. Jusan2*, Abdul Halim. Hussein2, Naif. S. Al-Aboud1
1Faculty of Islamic Architecture, College of Engineering and Islamic Architecture, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
2Department of Architecture, Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia
*Corresponding author E-mail:
Islamic hospitality is a reflection of religious and cultural values and principles that aim to enhance unity, equity, and social relationships.
Despite its increase in demand by Muslims and even non-Muslims, the main principles of Islamic hospitality has been neglected due to
the emergence of contemporary forms of hospitality. Therefore, the aim of this review paper is to establish a modern approach which will
promote the concept of Islamic hospitality in Makkah. The Islamic hospitality in Makkah city was selected due to its recent transfor-
mation towards the contemporary concept of hospitality. To achieve the research aim, systematic literature review was conducted to
evaluate the historical development of Islamic hospitality, and the challenges it has encountered recently. Afterwards, it was identified
that Islamic hospitality in Makkah has witnessed significant changes such as: Ibrahimic Hospitality, Arabic Hospitality, Islamic Hospital-
ity, and Contemporary Hospitality. Based on the aforementioned, this paper recommends modern strategy to redefining the concept of
Islamic Hospitality. This will enable the Islamic hospitality in Makkah to retain its religious and cultural values and principles, rather
than becoming a way of acquiring money and reflecting the commercial hospitality principles.
Keywords: Residents’ roles, Hospitality, Islam, Makkah, Hajj, Islamic Hospitality
1. Introduction
Generally, hospitality is an important component for promoting
religious, social, and economic aspects of human life. The real
concept of hospitality or (Dhiyafah) can be described as doing
good deeds to provide guests needs. According to Al-elaiwi, [1];
Shandy [2] , hospitality is one of the ethics or rituals that God
commands believers to implement in their daily life. In Muslim
believe, Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) was the first man who provided
hospitality to the guests [3]. Also, his wife (Hajar) (PBUH) was
the first woman who provided hospitality in Makkah [4, 5]. Since
then, hospitality became a great ethnic religious culture that Mus-
lims and Arab have been practicing over centuries.
In 19th century, hospitality in Makkah has been transformed to-
wards its contemporary meaning, focusing more on the economic
aspect rather than promoting the religious and social aspects. It
becomes the main engine of tourism industry that encompassed
even the religious cities due to the high demands of people to per-
form religious activities [6, 7, 8]. As such, the hospitality compa-
nies and investors monopolized the hospitality services especially
in religious cities such as Makkah [8, 9, 10]. The transformation of
hospitality to its contemporary meaning has negatively impacted
the religious and social aspects of practicing it.
The dramatic change from the previous to the current hospitality
concepts is attributed to change in human intensions and behavior.
The intentions in Islam known as (Neeyah), is incredibly similar to
motivation values [11]. According to Moghimi et al. [12];
Schwartz [13], peoples action, attitude, behavior, and relation-
ships, are motivated by personal; or community values [2, 14, 15].
The previous concepts of hospitality in Makkah were oriented
towards their Islamic and culture principles. Whereas, current
concept of hospitality in Makkah is oriented toward its economic
principles. Based on that, the hospitality in Makkah can be catego-
rized into four stages as shows in figure 1.
Fig: 1: Historical Development of Hospitality in Makkah
The figure above shows the development trend of hospitality in
Makkah. As highlighted in the figure above, the hospitality in
Makkah has deviated from its main purpose which is Islamic hos-
pitality, to Contemporary hospitality.
Hence, it is paramount to create a new model for Islamic hospitali-
ty that delivers the real concept of Islamic hospitality, through
enhancing the congruence between religious, social, economic,
and environmental aspects in a modern form. As opined by Saleh;
Belk & Sobh [16]; SPA [17]; Stephenson [15] , there is a need to
construct a hospitality model that provides stakeholders prefer-
ences and expatiations. The Therefore, the aim of this review pa-
per is to establish a modern approach which will promote the con-
cept of Islamic hospitality in Makkah. The city of Makkah was
selected as proper example for this study due to its religious stand-
ing for billions of Muslims. To achieve the research aim, an over-
view of historical development of hospitality practice in the sacred
city of Makkah was evaluated via systematic literature review. As
stated by Alsolami & Embi [18] , systematic literature review
offer an effective process of extracting and analyzing related liter-
ature. Thus, it is necessary, to understand deeply the historical
patterns of Islamic hospitality, in order to fill the gap that exits in
this regard [19, 20, 21, 22].
International Journal of Engineering & Technology
After systematic review of related literature, the study identified
the need to develop a hospitality model which will address the
needs of rapidly increasing number of pilgrims and visitor’s. The
hospitality model will be developed will promote the concept and
the principles of Islamic hospitality in Makkah. However, this
paper will significantly contribute to the development of
knowledge by highlighting the significant changes and their caus-
es as well as identifying the elements of hospitality components in
Makkah to consider them in the future model. Also, it will con-
tribute to correcting the misconception or limited understanding of
Islamic hospitality that were carried by other studies.
2. Literature Review
2.1. The Holy City of Makkah Al-Mukaramah
Makkah is the sacred capital city for Muslims. Makkah was re-
vised during the time of prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) in 4400 BEC,
when he left his wife (Hajar) and their child (Ismail) (PBUT) in an
uncultivated valley near the sacred House of God named the
Ka’aba [23, 24, 25]. According to Islamic studies, Makkah valley
was empty and there was no source of living, so Hagar was climb-
ing the two mountains of Safa and Marwah looking for any source
of water. Miraculously, the holy water of Zamzam appeared and
became a source of life in Makkah [4, 26, 27]. This was believed
to be Gods responds to prophet Ibrahim’s (PBUH) prayer as stated
in the holy Quran…
“Our Lord, I have settled some of my descendants in an unculti-
vated valley near Your sacred House, our Lord, that they may
establish prayer. So make hearts among the people incline toward
them and provide for them from the fruits that they might be grate-
ful” (Ibrahim verse, 37).
Afterwards, people started going to Makkah, which eventually led
to the establishment of the early community in Makkah. After that
Allah (SWT) (Almighty) asked prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) to re-
build the Ka’aba and purify it for prayers, pilgrims, and believers
[28, 29]. Then, Allah (SWT) (Almighty) commanded prophet
Ibrahim (PBUH) to rebuild, clean and purify the Ka’aba and an-
nounce to all mankind to perform Hajj ritual. Since then, the num-
ber of guests of Allah (SWT) (pilgrims and visitors) have been
rabidly increasing to gain the benefits of performing Islamic ritu-
als in the most holistic place on earth [30, 31, 32].
2.2. Hajj and Umrah Seasons
Muslims intend to perform Hajj and Umrah rituals in order to
relief their sins and gain redoubled rewards from Allah called (Ajr
or Thawab) due the privilege of the place and the time [30, 33].
Therefore, Makkah city witness the highest number of guests dur-
ing the three specific seasons namely: Hajj season, Ramadan, and
Al-Mawlid Al-Nabawi. According to Islamic tradition, Hajj (pil-
grimage) is the fifth pillar that which is practiced during well-
known days - Thul-Hijjah, the last month of Islamic calendar.
Moreover, it is an obligatory pillar for all eligible and capable
Muslims at least once in their life [15, 33]. While, Umrah consid-
ers as good deed that can be practiced any time. Muslims believe
that, preforming Umrah during the month of Ramadhan- the 9th
month of Islamic calendar has equal rewards as preforming Hajj
with prophet Mohammad (PBUH). However, many Muslims in-
tend to preform Umrah when they come to celebrate Al-Mawlid
Al-Nabawi -the birthday of prophet Mohammad (PBUH)- during
the third month of Islamic calendar. Nevertheless, Muslims prefers
to visit Makkah during the virtue event to gain the privilege of the
time and the place which led to increasing the numbers of visitors
and Makkah remains almost full through the year.
2.3. Guests of Allah (SWT)
Guests of Allah (SWT) or Dheuof Al-Rahman are pilgrims and
visitors who come to Makkah to perform Islamic rituals. Since the
construction of Ka’aba, the number of pilgrims and visitors has
increased greatly. [36] reported that the numbers of pilgrims and
visitors continues to increase especially during Hajj and Umrah -
during the month of Ramadhan seasons. According to General
Authority of Statistics 2017 report, the highest numbers of pil-
grims was recorded during the 2012 Hajj season, exceeding 3.16
million pilgrims with an average duration of stay of about three
weeks. Subsequently, the number reduced to less than 1.86 million
pilgrims in 2016, due to different major factors such as; important-
ly, global economic crisis, spread of epidemics and the construc-
tions works of the holy mosques. Nevertheless, recent statistics
indicates that the number of pilgrims have increased beyond 2.35
million pilgrims [34, 35, 36, 37]. While, in 2016, the Ministry of
Hajj and Umrah and The General Authority of Statistics projected
that the number of visitors and pilgrims will continue to increase
in coming years.
However, due to the high intentions of Muslims to preforms these
rituals, the Saudi government aims to increase the capacity and
quality of the hospitality services to serve more than 15 million
foreign visitors by 2020 and over 30 million pilgrims and visitors
by 2030 [38]. Thus, subsequent section investigates the historical
development of hospitality practice, especially in the Holy city of
Makkah. This is to enable us to actualize the aim of this study.
2.4. The Concepts of Hospitality
The concept of Hospitality is fairly vague due to differences of
encompassing relationships between guests and hosts which is
derived from their social, economic and environment aspects.
Indeed, there is no agreed definition of hospitality among scholars
and nations [39]. Generally, oxford dictionary defined hospitality
as “The friendly and generous reception and entertainment of
guests, visitors, or strangers”[40]. Despite the numerous existing
literature on hospitality, there is still a gap in conceptualizing hos-
pitality among the various aspects of culture and religion. Hospi-
tality is classified into two; social aspect and economic (industry)
aspect. The former includes the religion and culture perspectives
while the later focuses the tourism and commercial perspectives of
hospitality [1, 2, 15, 20, 41, 42].
In this regard, this paper concentrates more on the social aspects
of hospitality in Makkah, though it highlights some economic and
environmental issues. This is necessary, considering the fact that
there are only a few literatures documented with respect to the
environmental aspect of hospitality. Most of recent research dis-
cussed hospitality in limited context through some religious, cul-
tural events and activities and through the economic aspect of
tourism industry [15, 43]Despite of origin of the hospitality con-
cept rooted back to early ages, it is still a young field within re-
search discipline.
3. Development of Hospitality Practice in
3.1. Ibrahimic (Islamic) Hospitality
Hospitality is one of prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) ethics that reflects
the Islamic teachings (“KSU - Electronic Moshaf project,” 2018).
Eliciting from the historical studies, Hajar (PBUH)- prophet Ibra-
him’s (PBUH) wife, was the first women to provide hospitality in
Makkah about 3700 years ago [5, 24, 26]. She learned the hospi-
tality ethics from prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) when he hosted his
guests, providing them with water, food, and shelter. Therefore,
Hajar (PBUH) hosted an entire Yemenis tribe called Jorhom. At
that time, Jorhom tribe always traveled from Yemen to Al-Sham
looking for water sources and an appropriate place to live. On
International Journal of Engineering & Technology
their way to Al-Sham, they witnessed birds flying around Zamzam
well in Makkah as sign of availability of water and life. They
came to Makkah and Hajar (PBUH) welcomed and hospitalized
them by sharing the Zamzam water and allowed them to settle in
Makkah [4, 26, 44, 45, 46]. Afterwards, Allah (SWT) (Almighty)
commanded prophet Ibrahim and his son (PBUT) the residents of
Makkah at that time, to rebuild the Ka’aba, to prepare, purify, and
secure it for prayers and pilgrims, and to announce Hajj to all
human being. According to Islamic literature, the people have
been coming to Makkah because God’s responded to prophet Ib-
rahim’s (PBUH) prayers as motioned in the Holy Quran as stated
in the words of prophet Ibrahim (PBUH):
"Our Lord, I have settled some of my descendants in an unculti-
vated valley near Your sacred House, our Lord, that they may
establish prayer. So make hearts among the people incline toward
them and provide for them from the fruits that they might be grate-
Surah Ibrahim, verse 37. [27].
Since then, the hospitality has become a privilege and an obliga-
tion to Makkah’s residence, in compliance with Allah (SWT)’s
commands to follow prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) Islamic ethics of
hospitality. According to Al-sulamy [47]; Maddah [32]; Saboon
[3], prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) was the first Mutawif to provide
Dhiyafah (hospitality) to pilgrims. Dhiyafah was defined in Arabic
language as hosting guests by providing water, food and shelter [2,
16, 44].Through previous discussions, it is clear that prophet Ibra-
him and his family (PBUT) followed by Makkah residents played
a significant role in hosting the travelers by welcoming and
providing their needs such as food and drinks, shelter, and securi-
ty. This enhanced the brotherhoods and social relationships, and in
turn achieves the Islamic purposes of building the earth.
3.2 Arabic Hospitality
Historians refer Arabic Hospitality as the recoded history of resi-
dent’s roles in hosting guests during the 3rd century. Hospitality at
that time was limited. Where the elites were the only ones eligible
to provide it to the guests. During that time Qusai bin Kelab -the
ruler of Qurish tribe in Makkah- signed specific role to the elites
of each clan to serve pilgrims by providing Dhiyafah. For in-
stance, teaching and supervisory (Al-Tewaffah) was signed to the
elites of each clan, thirst-quenching and feeding (Al-Seqayah &
Al-Refadah) was signed to Bano Hashim clan, alongside leader-
ship (Al-Qeyadah), protection (Al-Hemayah) and many others [3,
4, 5, 6, 25, 47, 48, 49].
Although there are differences between their principles and val-
ues, The Arabic hospitality by its meaning is similar to Ibrahimic
(Islamic). Yet, the Qurish tribe practised Arabic hospitality in
order to gain pride among other tribes [2, 16, 25, 29] . Also, they
consider it as good deeds that idols and God would accept. More-
over, Qurish tribe had been proud of providing hospitality to the
pilgrims even after Islam arise. According to Holy Quran in sura
Al-Tawba verse 19.
“Have you made the provision of water for the pilgrim and the
maintenance of al-Masjid al-Haram equal to [the deeds of] one
who believes in Allah (SWT) and the Last Day and strives in the
cause of Allah (SWT)? They are not equal in the sight of Allah
(SWT). And Allah (SWT) does not guide the wrongdoing people.”
Surah Al-Tawba verse 19 [27].
In the previous verse, Allah (SWT) (Almighty) denied the arro-
gance and pride of Qurish tribe in providing hospitality to pilgrims
and made it equal deed to believe in Islam. This reflects that, hos-
pitality and doing good deeds should be driven from their Islamic
principles and intentions. Hospitality in its original concept aims
to enhance unity and social relationship, thus it requires ampleness
and sacrifice. This contradicts the Arabic hospitality practiced by
Qurish tribe because they did not apply the original concepts of
hospitality that was in Ibrahimic teachings. Alternatively, provid-
ing Arabic hospitality in order to gain pride and show off among
other people will weaken the social relationships and cause a lot of
discord which differ from teachings of Islam. Thus, Allah (SWT)
(Almighty) sent his prophet Mohammad (PBUH) to revive the
Islam and to enhance the good ethics and morals which hospitality
is one of them.
3.3 Islamic Hospitality
Hospitality in Makkah witnessed significant changes since the
Islam emerged during 7th century. Islam changed the roles of Ara-
bic hospitality that implement obscurity principles and concepts
that were practiced by Qurish tribe. On the other hand, Islam im-
proved the intentions and the motivations of people to provide
hospitality to implement honor, equity and high morals, which
enhance the Islamic principles and values. For instance, Islamic
teaching improved the principles of Arabic Dhiyafah by giving all
residents equal rights to participate in serving and hosting pilgrims
[5, 25]. Thus, the role of Arabic Dhiyafah was converted to the
role of Islamic Dhiyafah. According to Islamic traditions, Islamic
Dhiyafah is defined as an obligatory rite for and to all Muslims by
providing food, water and shelter for three days and nights for the
sake of Allah (SWT). Anything beyond hosting guests more than
one day and night is considered charity (Sadaqah) [2, 15, 16, 42].
Hence, most residents of Makkah were hosted guests of Allah
(SWT) to gain redoubled reward from Allah (SWT) due to the
great privilege of Makkah.
Moreover, during the early Islamic period and Islamic states, the
residents contributed in providing Islamic Dhiyafah. At that time,
the new concepts of Waqf and Rebat has emerged to support the
concept of Islamic hospitality. According to N. Hassan, Abdul-
rahman, & Yazid [50]; Mohammad & Mar Iman [51] , Waqf de-
fined is a religious endowment. Therefore, some of Makkah resi-
dents and other Muslims were Waqf (holding) their houses partly
or completely to accommodate pilgrims and visitors in Makkah [5,
45, 52]. Also, a lot of them were Waqf (holding) a signed amount
or percentage of their income to provide hospitality to the guests
of Allah (SWT). Also, Rebat which is another concept associated
with the hospitality in Makkah, started in early Islamic age. Rebat
in its origin was guardhouse located within the boundaries of the
city to provide protection during wars. After wars ended, due to
the strategic location of Rebat, Rebat became a place for ascetic
worshipers who hosted travellers of Allah (SWT). Over time Re-
bat became a place of shelter and subsistence and social care for
travellers, poor people, orphans, widows, divorced women, and
seniors [5, 45, 52]. Both Waqf and Rebat have great principles that
support the concept of Islamic hospitality. According to Stephen-
son [15] , Islamic teachings helps to shape and condition peoples’
Although Waqf and Rebat still exist in Makkah, critics have ar-
gued that the orientation has shifted towards commercial aspects,
whereby the benefits are transferred or hijacked by the stakehold-
ers. In the last few decades, previous study have revealed that
Islamic hospitality in Makkah has exceeded its religious and social
boundaries headed toward the economic aspect of hospitality
which can be called the contemporary hospitality.
3.4. Contemporary Hospitality
Over the past few decades, some of the Makkah’s resident have
used used the Islamic Dhiyafah as a source of income, due to the
increasing numbers of pilgrims and visitors to Makkah. Overtime,
specifically during early 19th century, due to several factors such
as weakness in political control and security, deterioration of so-
cio-economic conditions, some Makkah residents somehow don’t
treat the guests of Allah (SWT) as expected [4, 5, 48, 53, 54].
They manipulated their houses and places in Makkah as well as
food and drinks and asked for high prices [55]. Although Tewaf-
fah services were initiated to address the new concept of contem-
porary hospitality, the practces by the Makkah residents did not
the Islamic teaching. Tewaffah is a profession for religious schol-
ars named Mutawif who teach and guide non-Arabic speakers on
how to perform Hajj [26, 31, 48, 49, 56]. However the social
International Journal of Engineering & Technology
segregation lead to outflow of worshippers in Waqf and Rebat in
Makkah, due to inabulity to pay inflated prices for shelter, food,
During the 20th century, the commercial concept of hospitality was
developed to be a hospitality industry. Because of the increased
number of pilgrims and visitors and the exploitation of them by
hosts, the hospitality industry sectors found Makkah as proper
market for them. Therefore, current principles of hospitality ser-
vices were commercialized. Several studies stated indicated that
hospitality is considered as the engine of tourism industry where,
the contemporary meaning of hospitality refers to services, hotels,
restaurants and events sectors [15, 57]. Hence, several researchers
postulated that, Hajj and Umrah rituals are religious tourism and
economic source, which can be managed by hospitality and tour-
ism industries. Moreover, Al Amoudy, [6]; Alotaibi, [7]; Jafari &
Scott, [58] concluded that, Makkah’s hospitality market is one of
the fastest and high demand market in Middle East. Thus, foreign
companies and private sectors are strongly competing to invest in
hospitality market in Makkah, providing low quality services to
make high profits.
Thus, Saudi government attempted to regulate and institutionalise
a cooperative system between countries’ agencies, Tewaffah es-
tablishments, and tourism and hospitality sectors, to insure better
services [17, 31, 48]. Saudi government considers provision of
hospitality services as a fundamental religious obligation which
supports the principles of traditional Islamic hospitality estab-
lished by Allah (SWT). Therefore, Saudi government, been sup-
porting this sectors to provide better services with affordable cost.
Unfortunately, the system gives opportunity to tourism and hospi-
tality sectors to dominated hospitality services which differ from
the aim of Saudi government. As stated by prince Khaled Al-
Faisal -the ruler of Makkah region-, during the final press confer-
ence for Hajj in 2017, Hajj is a religious rite for all Muslim to
worship Allah (SWT) and Makkah is not a market for hospitality
industry by its commercial meaning [59,60,61,62]. Therefore, it is
important to correct concepts of providing hospitality services
among stakeholders. Whereas, the concept and principles of con-
temporary hospitality doesn’t achieve the religious and social
purposes of providing hospitality.
4. Conclusion
Through systematic literature review, this paper studied the histor-
ical development of hospitality in most important city for Mus-
lims. Hence, the concepts, principles, and goals of Islamic hospi-
tality were highlighted. Nevertheless, it was discovered that the
Islamic hospitality in Makkah has deviated from its original pur-
pose of providing shelter, food, etc., to worshippers. In fact, the
hospitality in Makkah has been practiced through several concepts
and principles including Ibrahimic (Islamic) Hospitality, Arabic
Hospitality, Islamic Hospitality and Contemporary Hospitality.
The changes in hospitality concepts overtime were due to social
and economic factors that influenced residents of Makkah to hosts
Therefore, the contemporary Hospitality or other forms that are
completely focused on financial benefits are not in line with Is-
lamic hospitality. Because, the Islamic hospitality was found to
enhance the structure of Muslim community by hosting travelers,
poor or other people who need it. Therefore, this review paper
established a modern approach which will promote the concept of
Islamic hospitality in Makkah. The modern form of Islamic hospi-
tality proposed in this study considers the Islamic teachings by
enhancing the structure of Muslim community towards hosting of
travellers, poor or other people in need. Also, there is no room for
monopoly by specific group..
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... Since then, hospitality became a great ethnic-religious culture that Muslims and Arab have been practicing over centuries." (Karban et al. 2018). According to Mathabh (2017), during Hajj time, there are over 100,000 policemen, 86,987 public servants, 35,938 workers in the transportation sector, 30,870 workers in the health sector, 3,743 workers in communication services, 18,000 firemen, 10,500 volunteers and many more in secondary services. ...
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The research looks at the impact of urban management on crowd movement and user experience during the Islamic pilgrimage of Hajj. This study investigates and develops an urban management framework for crowd movement and user experience at frequent temporary mega-events. The thesis uses a mixed-methods approach to address a complex urban context during the annual pilgrimage in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Hajj is a unique event that hosts millions of pilgrims; nevertheless, it has many constraints and rituals. The current management system of Hajj suffers from a significant overlap of stakeholders' roles and responsibilities and the absence of user-centricity during the planning and operation of the crowd movement. Thus, Hajj needs a new governance system to establish a framework that addresses the users' needs and expectations. This investigation aims to identify the main touchpoints of the crowd movement toward Al-Masjid Al-Haram from the Jamarat Bridge in Mina to address the following aspects: event management, crowd movement, and user experience.
... Visitors of historical and religious sites are also more likely to participate in passive recreation activities such as worshipping, welfare practicing, sightseeing, learning, wildlife watching, and relaxing (Ahmed, 1992;Chandler & Costello, 2002;Mujtaba, 2016;Karban et al., 2018) Juhanda, 2019. As Chandler & Costello (2002) reported, historic sites' visitors are mostly older people who tend to spend more money and are more likely to use different sources to gather information about trip planning and destination selection. ...
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... When global supply chains are disrupted and market operations are pressured to fold up, the resulting consequences are alarming . More than ten million pilgrims arrive at Makkah every year from 184 countries either for Umrah or Hajj (Karban, 2018). Around 2.4 million pilgrims were anticipated in Saudi Arabia for Hajj in July 2020, but had been kept informed that the rising COVID-19 pandemic could alter their arrangements . ...
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