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Ceramic Morphologies: Precision and Control in Paste-Based Additive Manufacturing

Authors:

Abstract

Additive manufacturing technologies (AMTs), commonly referred to as 3D printing, are an emerging area of study for the production of architectural ceramic elements. AMTs allow architectural designers to break from established methods for designing with ceramic elements—a process where elements are typically confined to building components produced repetitively in automated settings by machine, die, or fixture. In this paper, we report a method for the design and additive manufacture of customized ceramic elements via paste-based extrusion. A novel digital workflow offered precise control of part design and generated manufacturing parameters such as toolpath geometry and machine code. The analysis of 3D scans of select elements provides an initial understanding of print fidelity. We discuss the current constraints of this process and identify several ongoing research trajectories generated because of this research.
350
Ceramic
Morphologies
1 Photograph of pavilion interior.
Zach Seibold
Material Processes + Systems
Group, Harvard GSD
Kevin Hinz
Material Processes + Systems
Group, Harvard GSD
Jose Luis García del Castillo
y López
Material Processes + Systems
Group, Harvard GSD
Nono Martínez Alonso
Material Processes + Systems
Group, Harvard GSD
Saurabh Mhatre
Material Processes + Systems
Group, Harvard GSD
Martin Bechthold
Material Processes + Systems
Group, Harvard GSD
Precision and Control in Paste-Based
Additive Manufacturing
1
ABSTRACT
Additive manufacturing technologies (AMTs), commonly referred to as 3D printing, are an
emerging area of study for the production of architectural ceramic elements. AMTs allow
architectural designers to break from established methods for designing with ceramic
elements—a process where elements are typically conned to building components
produced repetitively in automated settings by machine, die, or xture. In this paper, we
report a method for the design and additive manufacture of customized ceramic elements
via paste-based extrusion. A novel digital workow offered precise control of part design
and generated manufacturing parameters such as toolpath geometry and machine code.
The analysis of 3D scans of select elements provides an initial understanding of print
delity. We discuss the current constraints of this process and identify several ongoing
research trajectories generated because of this research.
351
INTRODUCTION
The contemporary interest in form customization of
construction elements (Piroozfar and Piller 2013) has two
primary motivations: a qualitative, design-driven desire for
novel forms, or an aspiration for the quantitative improve-
ment of building performance metrics (e.g., structural,
thermal, or acoustic). However, producing customized
construction elements, even within a digital (e.g., CNC
technology–based) fabrication paradigm, remains tech-
nically challenging and is often cost-prohibitive. Additive
manufacturing technologies (AMTs) are thought to be
the all-disruptive technology to remove our current bias
towards economies of scale and repetitive use of identical
construction elements (Bechthold 2016).
However, signicant obstacles remain. This research
addresses three current shortcomings in paste-based AMT
via the design and construction of a 3D-printed ceramic
pavilion: the lack of integrated computational workows
that combine modularization and robot-ready tooling, the
need for better data on material composition, and the quan-
titative assessment of production tolerances that currently
limit the deployment of paste-based AMT in practice. A
digital workow for accuracy analysis was devised and
tested on 19 construction modules, and the as-printed
geometries were compared with FEA simulations to under-
stand to what degree printing tolerances can be predicted.
BACKGROUND
AMTs have been explored at the architectural scale for
nearly two decades. The process can produce unique
elements with complex geometric features relatively
quickly, without major xed tooling costs. Multiple AMTs
have been developed for clay-based ceramics at the scale
of the architectural component, including powder (Sabin
2010) and paste-based methods (Friedman 2014).
This research focuses on paste-based extrusion, a tech-
nique mimicking a centuries-old coil-based technique
utilized by potters. Research directed by Khoshnevis
developed an early version called contour crafting. Here,
a viscous bead of clay is deposited onto a at surface
and then smoothed by a trowel-like mechanism mounted
behind the nozzle (Kwon 2002; Khoshnevis 2004). Several
artists and architects have explored the formal possibilities
afforded by paste-based ceramic AMT, yet little research
exists for construction-scale applications that accom-
modate larger, modularized ceramic shapes (HKU 2017;
IAAC 2017). No work has been published about integrated
workows for code production in a modularized 3D-printed
system. Studies on computational workows generally
suggest that software is still the main barrier to digital
fabrication (Mitchell and McCullough 1991; Landay 2009;
Bechthold 2010; Braumann and Brell-Cokcan 2011).
Documentation on material composition is equally sporadic.
No studies were found that assess the accuracy of design
geometry relative to nal 3D printed forms. Given the clear
mandate of tight construction tolerances, this is a barrier
for future implementation of paste-based 3D printed
elements.
METHODS
3D-Printed Pavilion as Research Microcosm
We developed a prototypical pavilion, constructed at
CEVISAMA 2017 in Valencia, Spain, designed to allow for
the development of generalizable solutions to the short-
comings stated earlier (Figure 1).
Measuring 3 m tall, with a footprint of 3.2 x 3.6 m, the
design consists of 552 unique elements measuring
260–545 mm in length and 70–150 mm in height. Elements
were dry stacked and mechanically fastened to a steel
frame, with a construction tolerance of 5 mm between
pieces (Figure 2). The bumpy ceramic module form was
derived to optimize heat exchange in naturally venti-
lated spaces. Using 19.84 km of extruded clay bead, 184
elements were produced in 358 hours of printing time, with
an average bead cross-section of 1.8 x 8 mm (Figure 3).
Two platforms were used to 3D print prototype elements: a
6-axis robot (ABB IRB-4400) and a 3-axis 3D PotterBot with
a build volume of 508(x) x 432(y) x 559(z) mm (3D PotterBot
7XL). Both systems use a commercially available, electro-
mechanically actuated linear extruder, with a cartridge
capacity of 2000 ml, resulting in a maximum toolpath length
of 125,000 mm. The nal elements were produced using
the 3-axis machine. Porous, unglazed tiles used as the print
bed facilitated component release (printed parts shrink
signicantly during drying) and provided a semi-rough
printing surface to encourage bead adhesion. Early tests
established approximate limits for surface slopes and iden-
tied process parameters (Table 1).
Elements were produced using a commercially available
atomized clay mixture containing 42% quartz, 32% kaolinite,
13% calcite, 6% potassium feldspar, 3% sodium feldspar, and
1% dolomite, hydrated to 27% (±0.5%) using a deairing pug
mill. Clay hardness was measured at 1.8-2.0 kg/cm2 with a
pocket-style penetrometer equipped with a 25 mm diameter
plunger.
IMPRECISION IN MATERIALS + PRODUCTION
352
2
3
4 5
6
Ceramic module size, and ultimately the spacing of the
pavilion’s support frame, were determined by print-bed
dimensions and the maximum toolpath length achievable by
a single cartridge of clay. During design development, these
variables were digitally related such that a given pavilion
modularization could be automatically evaluated in terms of
printing platform or cartridge size requirements.
While components printed as single-layer shells without
support geometry achieved the greatest material economy,
the long unsupported spans generated with this method
were highly unstable and prone to failure (Figure 4).
Several studies tested methods for incorporating shell
geometry and interior reinforcement strategy into a single
continuous toolpath, culminating with a zigzag interior rein-
forcement strategy (Figures 5 and 6).
RESULTS
Digital Design Strategy and Workflow
A comprehensive parametric model was developed to
control key aspects of the pavilion’s design and fabrica-
tion (Figure 7). The model not only generated the geometry
of the ceramic elements and metal support frame, it also
provided direct control of toolpath geometry and machine
code generation. This functionality supported design
adjustments until late in the development process and
integrated all material and fabrication-specic parameters,
including clay shrinkage rates after drying and ring and
toolpath parameters for individual elements. Incorporating
these controls into the digital workow closely integrates
global design geometry and element-specic toolpath
characteristics. As a result, large-scale design shapes can
be systematically discretized into construction elements
for 3D printing, and design modications can immediately
be evaluated according to production limits (Figure 7, far
right image). Though this integrated design and production
approach is generalizable to many AMTs, an integrated
means of breaking down a surface into construction
modules is particularly useful in the case of ceramics,
where production constraints such as kiln size often limit
the size of construction elements.
2 Photograph showing overview of prototype pavilion.
3 Photograph showing typical printed element.
4 Long unsupported spans were unpredictable.
5 Perpendicular supports provided balanced support, but created seams
in an otherwise smooth surface and were subject to cracking due to the
variable part thickness.
6 Zigzag supports provide an efcient means of creating a continuous
path, and alternating layers run in opposite directions. To increase part
stability during printing, the frequency of the supports could be adjusted
when generating the toolpath.
Table 1: Printing Parameters
Parameter Amount Unit Notes
Print Speed 15–30 mm/s 1
Nozzle Diameter 6 mm
Layer Height 1.8 mm
Bead Width 8 mm 2
Ceramic Morphologies Seibold, Hinz, García del Castillo, Martínez Alonso,
Mhatre, Bechthold
353
7
8
We developed custom path-planning algorithms to generate
the toolpath geometry described previously. Our algo-
rithm contains features typically available from popular
commercially available or open-source software, such as
layer height and surface offsets, but is adapted for mate-
rial-specic behavior, namely the need for a continuous
spiraling toolpath that forms a single-layer shell with
internal support walls for bracing. Incorporating toolpath
and machine code generation directly into the parametric
model provides the following: exible control of commonly
used parameters such as layer height, bead diameter, or
brim offset; a rapid feedback loop for evaluation during
the prototyping phase; reliable exchange data between the
design and manufacturing teams; and a means of tracking
printing progress during production.
3D Scanning and Analysis
The elements produced for the pavilion provide a dataset
for evaluating the precision of the production process—an
area critical to industrial production scenarios. Nineteen
printed elements were 3D scanned using a structured light
scanner (HP 3D Scan) (Figure 8). Elements were selected
to provide a representative sample of the formal variations
between the printed parts—such as slope, global curva-
ture, and overall size. Deviations between design geometry
and 3D scan data were then analyzed using the metrology
software Geomagic Control X; a selection of deformation
trends can be identied in Figures 9–11. Scan data reveals
that 18.77% of design geometry was printed within a 1 mm
tolerance, and that the maximum deviation per element
averaged 15.75 mm. In addition to part-specic geometric
characteristics, complex physical forces such as material
plasticity, toolpath direction, layer compaction, extrusion
pressure, and material composition dictate the behavior of
elements while printing, as well as during the drying and
ring process.
Simulation of Deformation During Printing
A linear nite element analysis model was created to
predict deformation based on material self-weight and to
provide data for comparison with the scanned elements.
The comparison indicates that analysis based on gravity
7 The form generation process controlled by the parametric model. The toolpath length–based subdivision at far right indicates the number of elements per
structural bay by color, and overall toolpath length by luminance.
8 The pavilion’s ceramic elements. Colors indicate average element slopes, from 11º (green) to 28º (red). Printed elements are highlighted, while those that
were 3D scanned are outlined in red.
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354
9
10
11
9 Geometric deviation on the interior face of printed elements. Bump recesses and projections are less pronounced in printed elements than in design geom-
etry. Thin, sloping anges (see left edge of elements) exhibit the largest deformations, particularly on highly sloped elements. In this gure, elements are
oriented as they were placed in the structure, though they were printed upside down to increase stability during printing.
10 The exterior, smooth faces of elements show consistent deformation behaviors: areas of high precision (green) are located near internal supports, while
areas with the greatest bowing and deformation are located mid-span. Elements with higher slopes show larger deviations between areas of interior
support geometry. In this gure, elements are oriented as they were placed in the structure, though they were printed upside down to increase stability
during printing.
11 Element cross sections taken 5 mm below the top of each print show deformations along the smooth face of elements and diminished projections on the
bumpy faces.
Ceramic Morphologies Seibold, Hinz, García del Castillo, Martínez Alonso,
Mhatre, Bechthold
355
13
alone is insufcient to predict deformation during printing
(Figure 12). A range of external forces (gravity, force of
the printhead, adhesion to the printing bed) and internal
tensions during drying and ring contribute to the nal
printed form.
DISCUSSION
Future Work
The design and realization of the pavilion revealed
constraints and technical challenges related to extru-
sion-based ceramic 3D-printing technologies. Prints must
be formed by a continuous toolpath, the length of which
is limited by the capacity of the extrusion mechanism.
Discrepancies between design geometry and printed
components are caused by a variety of forces, both during
the printing process and while the clay is drying or being
red. With these constraints in mind, we are investigating
several areas of research:
Material Delivery: We are currently developing an
auger-based continuous extrusion system for a faster
printing process. This system will reduce process time
and increase the achievable size of printable elements.
Geometric Fidelity: We are investigating processes
including machine learning to compensate for deforma-
tions during printing. Three-dimensional scan data can
be used as a training set with the printed toolpath as an
input and the obtained deformation as an output. This
model can be used for later prediction of printing tool-
paths that automatically accommodate deformations.
Functionally Graded Materials: We have developed
custom tools and workows for multi-material ceramic
printing (Figure 13) and continue to research material
additives that can be selectively introduced into a print
to tune element performance.
CONCLUSION
Though ceramic elements have a long and varied history
in architecture, certain forms remain difcult to produce.
We demonstrate an integrated workow for the customi-
zation of ceramic construction elements at the level of the
individual unit using paste-based ceramic AMT. Material-
specic design parameters and toolpath strategies can
improve design outcomes, though current process-specic
challenges have limited print size, geometry, and accuracy.
Investigation into the design of the print material, material
delivery system, and digital workow could lessen some of
these constraints, provide opportunities for geometric and
material variation, and expand the application space of this
process.
12
12 Image showing deection values of a nite element analysis based on
self-weight in comparison to the deformations exhibited by the corre-
sponding 3D-scanned element. In this gure, elements are oriented as
they were printed.
13 Early multi-material ceramic prints show promising results.
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356
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors thank ASCER Tile of Spain for their continuing
support. Cevisama 2017 provided additional support for
the exhibition. Javier Mira, Carmen Segarra Ferrando, Pilar
Gómez Tena and Aroa Garcia Cobos from the Instituto de
Tecnología Cerámica as well as Groupo on Market helped
realize the design. We would also like to thank Fernando
García del Castillo y López for his contribution in the 3D
scanning of the printed ceramic elements.
NOTES
1. Print speed varied with extrusion rate.
2. Adjacent, coplanar toolpath geometries (e.g., zig-zag supports
and exterior surface geometry) were separated by a 4mm gap.
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IMAGE CREDITS
Figures 3 and 6: © Fernando García del Castillo y López
All other drawings and images by the authors.
Zach Seibold is an architectural designer and Research Associate
with the Material Processes and Systems Group at the Harvard
Graduate School of Design. His research focuses on the impact that
emerging fabrication techniques and material technologies can
have on the production of architectural form. He holds a Bachelor
of Architecture degree from Syracuse University and a Master of
Design Studies with concentration in Technology from the Harvard
University Graduate School of Design. Zach is also an adjunct
faculty member at the Wentworth Institute of Technology, where he
teaches courses in digital design and fabrication in the Department
of Architecture.
Kevin Hinz was an independent contractor before earning a Master
of Architecture from the Harvard GSD. His academic research
explored applications for digital technology culminating in a
Master's thesis proposal for 3D-printed ceramics relating theoret-
ical and conceptual ideas to the process of design and engineering.
This research continued at the Université de Montréal in the
Department of Computer Science and Operations Research (LIGUM),
where Kevin’s expertise supported a new fablab built to research
computational design, numerical simulation and model optimization
for 3D-printed ceramics. Kevin now works as an architectural intern
contributing to built work at the Swiss architecture rm EM2N.
Ceramic Morphologies Seibold, Hinz, García del Castillo, Martínez Alonso,
Mhatre, Bechthold
357
Jose Luis García del Castillo y López is an architect, computa-
tional designer, and educator. His current research focuses on the
development of digital frameworks that help democratize access to
robotic technologies for designers and artists. Jose Luis is a regis-
tered architect, and holds a Master in Architectural Technological
Innovation from Universidad de Sevilla and a Master of Design
Studies in Technology from the Harvard University Graduate
School of Design. He currently pursues his Doctor of Design degree
at the Material Processing and Systems group at the Harvard
Graduate School of Design, and works as Research Engineer in the
Generative Design Team at Autodesk Inc.
Nono Martínez Alonso is an architect and computational designer
with a penchant for simplicity. He focuses on the development of
intuitive tools for designers and how the collaboration between
human and articial intelligences can enhance the design process.
Nono holds a Master in Design Studies in Technology from the
Harvard Graduate School of Design and works as a Software
Engineer in the Generative Design Team at Autodesk Inc. Previously,
he worked in the design and delivery of complex architectural
geometries at award-winning rms, such as AR-MA and Foster +
Partners. Nono interviews people on The Getting Simple Podcast
to deconstruct how certain life habits can reduce the unnecessary
complexities of our day-to-day.
Saurabh Mhatre is a Research Associate with the Material
Processes and Systems Group (MaP+S) at the Harvard Graduate
School of Design, where he graduated with distinction with a
Masters in Design Technology. His interest lies in the synergy
between design, technology and materiality. He is passionate about
fabrication, robotics and photography.
Martin Bechthold—trained as an architect—is the Kumagai
Professor of Architectural Technology at the Harvard Graduate
School of Design, and Associate Faculty at the Wyss Institute for
Biologically Inspired Engineering. He directs the Doctor of Design
Program and co-directs the Master in Design Engineering (MDE)
program. Bechthold is the founding director of the Materials
Processes and Systems (MaP+S) Group. He collaborates with
Allen Sayegh and Joanna Aizenberg in the context of the Adaptive
Living Environments (ALivE) group where material scientists and
designers work together to develop novel adaptive materials for
applications in products and buildings.
IMPRECISION IN MATERIALS + PRODUCTION
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... The fact that clay molds contract more than concrete during the dehydration and curing process makes de-molding from complex geometries much easier than many other formwork material choices. However, the accuracy of the system decreases significantly as the horizontal dimension of the formwork increases due to deformation under internal stress and gravity (Carvalho, 2019;Seibold et al., 2018;Sihan Wang, Xuereb Conti, & Raspall, 2019), rendering the technique challenging to be applied to building component scale at its current stage. ...
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This paper presents a hybrid formwork fabrication method utilizing additive manufacturing with clay on top of curved foam surfaces robotically fabricated with hot wire. The primary focus of this study is to develop a relatively efficient and highly sustainable formwork manufacturing method capable of producing geometrically complex modular concrete building components. The method leverages fluidity and recyclability of clay to produce uniquely shaped, free-form parts of the mold, and reduces overall production time by using foam for shared mold support/enclosure. A Calibration and tool path generating method based on computational modeling to integrate the two systems are also subsequently developed.
... Ceramic Morphologies"(Seibold, Hinz, del Castillo y López, Alonso, & Mhatre, 2018), "Ceramic Information Pavilion"(Lange, Holohan, & Kehne, Ceramic INformation Pavilion, 2017)), and "Ceramic Constellation"(Lange, Holohan, & Kehne, Ceramic Constellation| Robotically Printed Brick Specials., 2018) are examples of large-scale projects using a substructure to assemble the modules produced by 3D printing to create architectural elements and spaces. ...
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Digital fabrication tools are typically employed to materialize a fixed design. Design limits the choice of material; Natural material behavior may be considered as flaws in the fabrication. What if these tools and material behaviors are being used as sketching tools to generate new design ideas? In this paper, we present a workflow in which digital fabrication tools, specifically robotic arms, are used as sketching tools. It is called robotic sketching; The goal is to sketch with effects of fabrication settings on emerging behaviors of materials in the first steps of design. We exemplify this workflow with a case on robotic clay 3D printing
... Process parameters from previous research by the MaP+S Group informed printing speed, nozzle size, and print bead dimensions ( Seibold et al. 2018). Early tests established parameters specific to the 4-axis coextrusion process, such as the rotation speed of the 4th axis (Table 2). ...
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The benefits of additive manufacturing technologies for the production of customized construction elements has been well documented for several decades. Multi-material additive manufacturing (MM-AM) enhances these capacities by introducing region-specific characteristics to printed objects. Several examples of the production of multi-material assemblies, including function- ally-graded materials (FGMs) exist at the architectural scale, but none are known for ceramics. Factors limiting the development and application of this production method include the cost and complexity of existing MM-AM machinery, and the lack of a suitable computational workflow for the production of MM-AM ceramics, which often relies on a continuous linear toolpath. We present a method for the MM-AM of paste-based ceramics that allows for unique material expressions with relatively simple end-effector design. By borrowing methods of co-extrusion found in other industries and incorporating a 4th axis of motion into the printing process, we demonstrate a precisely controlled MM-AM deposition strategy for paste-based ceramics. We present a computational workflow for the generation of toolpaths, and describe full-body tiles and 3D artifacts that can be produced using this method. Future process refinements include the introduction of more precise control of material gradation and refinements to material composition for increased element functionality.
... Robotic fabrication in architecture has also seen a tremendous development in the last decade, with many architecture schools incorporating robotics as part of their curricula, and dedicated conferences promoting research in the field [20][21][22][23]. Projects such as Flowing Matter [24] and the CEVISAMA pavilions [25] explore the promising possibilities that design to robotic fabrication workflows may open up for innovative building structures. Additionally, art projects such as Mimic [26] and Mimus [27] demonstrate the expressive potential that six-axis robotic arms have beyond their mere utilitarian implementations. ...
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Machina is a .NET library for programming and control of industrial robots. It is designed to build applications that interface with robotic devices in real time. The library features a high-level API of simple, device-agnostic action verbs to issue motion requests to robots, and translates them to device-specific instructions using low-level communication protocols and managing priority queues. It also features a set of execution-related events to notify users of changes in the asynchronous state of the robot, fostering programming styles that are reactive rather than prescriptive. These features promote an enactive approach to robotics, and provide an immediate and intuitive entry point to real-time robot control, making Machina particularly suitable for controlling systems that require concurrent responsiveness to sensory or user input. While Machina currently supports mostly six-axis industrial robotic arms, it can be easily extended to any actuable device that moves in three-dimensional space, such as 3D printers, CNC machines, drones, robotic toys, etc. Machina is geared towards users in the creative fields, like designers, artists, makers and creative coders, and promotes features such as interactivity, intuitiveness, feedback, concurrency and cross-platform compatibility, over performance or feature-fullness. We hope this framework will help ease access for novice users to the field of robotics.
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This research explores the customization potential of ceramic extrusion by means of integrating CNC fabrication tools into current industrial ceramic extrusion lines. In order to support this approach, we designed and built two wall prototypes made of 700 extruded ceramic pieces. The pieces were produced using a single extrusion die and were cut to custom lengths and angles using CNC disk cutters to produce a total of 38 unique pieces. We introduce the motivation behind our work, present a three-stage design workflow for the design of this type of ceramic system, and show our built prototype.
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The last few years have witnessed a robotic revival with a reinvigoration of interest in what the robot can offer the construction industry. Martin Bechthold looks back at the first robotic boom during the 1980s and 1990s when millions of Japanese yen were invested in developing robots that could address the shortage of construction labour. Bechthold further explores the similarities and dissimilarities of the current and previous periods of activity, as supported by his research at Harvard's Graduate School of Design (GSD). Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Although automation has advanced in manufacturing, the growth of automation in construction has been slow. Conventional methods of manufacturing automation do not lend themselves to construction of large structures with internal features. This may explain the slow rate of growth in construction automation. Contour crafting (CC) is a recent layered fabrication technology that has a great potential in automated construction of whole structures as well as subcomponents. Using this process, a single house or a colony of houses, each with possibly a different design, may be automatically constructed in a single run, imbedded in each house all the conduits for electrical, plumbing and air-conditioning. Our research also addresses the application of CC in building habitats on other planets. CC will most probably be one of the very few feasible approaches for building structures on other planets, such as Moon and Mars, which are being targeted for human colonization before the end of the new century.
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In Digital Design Media architects and related design professionals will find a complete conceptual guide to the multidimensional world of computer-aided design. In contrast to the many books that describe how to use particular programs (and which therefore go out of date very quickly), Digital Design Media constructs a lasting theoretical framework, which will make it easier to understand a great number of programs-existing and future-as a whole. Clear structure, numerous historical references, and hundreds of illustrations make this framework both accessible to the nontechnical professional and broadening for the experienced computer-aided designer. The book will be especially valuable to anyone who is ready to expand their work in CAD beyond production drafting systems. The new second edition adds chapters one merging technologies, such as the Internet, but the book's original content is as valid as ever. Thousands of design students and practitioners have made this book a standard.
Ceramic Prototypes: Design, Computation, and Digital Fabrication
---. 2016. "Ceramic Prototypes: Design, Computation, and Digital Fabrication." Informes de La Construcción 68 (544).
Ceramic Constellation Pavilion | HKU Faculty of Architecture
  • Hku
HKU. 2017. "Ceramic Constellation Pavilion | HKU Faculty of Architecture." http://www.arch.hku.hk/research_project/ ceramic-constellation-pavilion/.
Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia
  • Iaac
IAAC. 2017. "TerraPerforma." Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia. https://iaac.net/research-projects/ large-scale-3d-printing/terraperforma/.
Experimentation and Analysis of Contour Crafting (CC) Process Using Uncured Ceramic Materials
  • Hongkyu Kwon
Kwon, Hongkyu. 2002. "Experimentation and Analysis of Contour Crafting (CC) Process Using Uncured Ceramic Materials." Ph.D. diss., University of Southern California.