Conference Paper

« QUEL DOMMAGE QU’IL Y EST AUTANT DE FAUTE ! » LA PRISE EN COMPTE DES FAUTES PAR LES CONSOMMATEURS « WHAT A PITY THEY ARE SO MANY ERROR! » HOW ERRORS AFFECT CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDE, TRUST AND INTENTIONS

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Dans un contexte d'intensification de l'usage de l'écrit au travail, d'une forte demande en compétences rédactionnelles de la part des organisations et d'une diminution généralisée du niveau en orthographe, notre étude souhaite mettre en évidence le coût des fautes pour un site commercial ainsi que l'impact de ces fautes au sens large. Nous avons donc mené une expérimentation auprès d'internautes (N=1991) assignés aléatoirement à l'une des 3 conditions (site sans fautes, site avec des fautes typographiques, site avec des fautes d'orthographe). Les données ont fait l'objet d'une analyse lexicale et quantitative. Nos résultats indiquent que les participants ont uniquement repéré et pénalisé les sites contenant un type spécifique de fautes (typographiques) en termes d'attitudes à l'égard de la marque, de confiance dans le site Internet et d'intention d'achat. Ces résultats sont discutés, notamment l'effet différencié des fautes sur un site Internet. Abstract: In a context of intensification of professional writing at the workplace, of a growing demand for employees' writing skills and of a decrease in the spelling skills of both students and employees, our study aims to highlight the cost of the spelling errors on a commercial website and their impacts on the company in the broad sense. In our experiment, adult participants (N=1991) were randomly assigned to three major conditions (no errors, typographical errors and spelling/grammar errors) when they visited a website. Both lexical and quantitative analysis suggest that they only identified a type of errors (the typographical ones) and that this kind of errors had a detrimental impact on both the attitudes towards the brand and trust in the website and on intentions to purchase. Results are discussed, especially the differences in evaluation of written errors. Remerciements : Les auteurs tiennent à remercier la société AB-Tasty qui nous a offert son soutien technique pour la mise en oeuvre des déclinaisons de sites ainsi que le suivi quantitatif de l'audience. « QUEL DOMMAGE QU'IL Y EST AUTANT DE FAUTE ! » LA PRISE EN COMPTE DES FAUTES PAR LES CONSOMMATEURS

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Adult participants (n = 224), mostly undergraduates, were randomly assigned to three major conditions representing three levels of textual errors (none, few, many). They read a text requesting financial assistance, then rated the writer on the Big Five personality traits (Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Emotional Stability), and on three personality domains (Social Evaluation, Intellectual Evaluation, Potency). Finally, they judged the likelihood that the writer’s request would be granted, and gave reasons for their decision. Generally, textual errors created an overall negative impression, which was mainly accounted for by Conscientiousness. However, textual errors did not affect the financial judgments, which were predicted mainly by Conscientiousness and Intellectual Evaluation. Participants who cited writing errors in their reasons for their financial judgment gave a lower rating for the likelihood that the request would be honoured. For those who were more accurate at detecting errors, textual errors created a negative impression on the Big Five traits, accounted for by Conscientiousness, and on the three personality domains, accounted for by Intellectual Evaluation. There was also a negative effect of textual errors on the financial judgment, which was mediated mainly by Intellectual Evaluation. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments explored reader reaction to written errors that were either typographic or grammatical. Errors were embedded in short texts presented as email responses to a housemate ad. In the first experiment, readers evaluated the writer and message on several dimensions (e.g., Was the writer trustworthy? Did the email flow smoothly?). Those dimensions were divided into a “social” scale (e.g. “This student seems similar to me”) and an “academic” scale (e.g. “This email reads well”). Both kinds of error correlated with lower ratings on the academic scale while only grammatical errors correlated with lower ratings on the social scale. In the second experiment, readers were asked to edit the emails. In Experiment 1, paragraphs with either typographical or grammatical errors were both evaluated more negatively than fully correct paragraphs and the cost was mitigated by high levels of electronic communication, such as texting and using Facebook. In Experiment 2, typos were more likely to be corrected than either homophonous grammatical forms or hypercorrected forms. These results suggest that written errors, when they are salient, contribute to the social meaning of text. Furthermore, this contribution is modulated by at least some characteristics of the reader.
Article
Full-text available
The extension of writing at work now observable in the professional world was not measured quantitatively. The french Working Conditions Survey of 2005 measures the extension of four activities related to literacy: reading and writing according to their duration and the sending and receiving email correspondence by volume. Five key determinants are common to these four activities: the employee’s occupational category, function, academic level, size and sector of activity of its establishment. Practices related to writing at work are homogeneous, there is no divide between reading and writing, between paper and electronic, even if access to computer tools tends to reinforce existing cleavages. The academic capital in terms of general education, focus of interest for many researchs, plays a secondary role instead of the employee’s activity - occupational category and function exercised - . Finally, the results establish the importance taken today by writing in the industrial world.
Article
Full-text available
With the rapid growth of the Internet, the ability of users to create and publish content has created active electronic communities that provide a wealth of product information. However, the high volume of reviews that are typically published for a single product makes harder for individuals as well as manufacturers to locate the best reviews and understand the true underlying quality of a product. In this paper, we reexamine the impact of reviews on economic outcomes like product sales and see how different factors affect social outcomes such as their perceived usefulness. Our approach explores multiple aspects of review text, such as subjectivity levels, various measures of readability and extent of spelling errors to identify important text-based features. In addition, we also examine multiple reviewer-level features such as average usefulness of past reviews and the self-disclosed identity measures of reviewers that are displayed next to a review. Our econometric analysis reveals that the extent of subjectivity, informativeness, readability, and linguistic correctness in reviews matters in influencing sales and perceived usefulness. Reviews that have a mixture of objective, and highly subjective sentences are negatively associated with product sales, compared to reviews that tend to include only subjective or only objective information. However, such reviews are rated more informative (or helpful) by other users. By using Random Forest-based classifiers, we show that we can accurately predict the impact of reviews on sales and their perceived usefulness. We examine the relative importance of the three broad feature categories: “reviewer-related” features, “review subjectivity” features, and “review readability” features, and find that using any of the three feature sets results in a statistically equivalent performance as in the case of using all available features. This paper is the first study that integrates eco- - nometric, text mining, and predictive modeling techniques toward a more complete analysis of the information captured by user-generated online reviews in order to estimate their helpfulness and economic impact.
Article
Full-text available
As use of the Internet has increased, many issues of trust have arisen. Users wonder: will my privacy be protected if I provide information to this Internet vendor? Will my credit card remain secure? Should I trust that this party will deliver the goods? Will the goods be as described? These questions are not merely academic. A recent Boston Consulting Group study revealed that one out of ten consumers have ordered and paid for items online that never were delivered (Williams, 2001). This year consumers filed around 11,000 complaints with the Federal Trade Commission alleging auction fraud, a figure up from the 107 lodged in 1997. It is no wonder that people are increasingly worried about whom to trust in online interactions. This paper explores the conditions under which online trust thrives and looks at examples of best and worst corporate practices. Online trust issues arise in a wide array of forums – chat rooms, news postings, e-catalogues, and retail transactions, to name a few. This paper focuses primarily on the online retail market, but the analysis applies to informational and entertainment sites as well.
Article
Full-text available
What are the effects of forced exposure to the brand website on perceived brand personality? An experiment with random assignment to exposure vs. control (non‐exposure) groups for ten websites is analysed. Three covariates are included to test their impact on brand personality after website exposure: product type (utilitarian/functional vs. auto‐expressive), enduring involvement with the product category and attitude toward the website.The results of this study show significant differences between exposed and non‐exposed individuals. Two dimensions of brand personality (youthfulness/modernity and sincerity/confidence) increase after exposure to the brand website. In addition, the brand is perceived younger and more modern when a visitor to the site has a positive attitude toward the brand's website than when s/he has a negative attitude toward the website. This reinforces the perception of the brand as being more sincere and trustworthy, which is particular important for e‐commerce websites.
Article
Despite the time spent on writing at work and employers’ dissatisfaction with their employees’ spelling skills, little is known about recruiters’ attribution, and decision making when they read application forms with spelling errors. This study examines the impact of spelling and typographic errors on recruiters’ attributions about applicants, and on their shortlisting decision. Based on a sample of 20 French recruiters, we conducted an experiment to collect both qualitative data through the verbal protocol method and quantitative data. Specific verbal reports are associated with different types of errors. Recruiters also form attributions about candidates. We demonstrate that spelling errors affect recruiters’ behavior more negatively than typographic ones. We discuss the implications of these findings for researchers and practitioners.
Article
Consumers increasingly rely on online product reviews when making purchase decisions. However, assessing the credibility of online reviewers presents consumers with unique challenges. This paper examines how consumer perceptions of reviewer credibility are influenced by the presence and type of textual errors in the review itself. The results of an online experiment indicate that consumers’ reactions to textual errors are moderated by their general trust in others. Low-trust consumers are relatively insensitive to textual errors in judging reviewer credibility. However, high-trust consumers are less forgiving of typographical errors (which may signal carelessness) than orthographical errors (which may indicate cognitive challenges). Implications for future research are discussed.
Article
The growing ubiquity of mobile telephony able to send e-mail raises new questions, and renews old issues, about the effect of the medium on a message. This article reports experimental results testing effects of user- and medium-generated cues on perceptions of message senders. Grounded in warranting theory, we assess the interaction of low- and high-warrant cues on perceptions of the sender's professionalism, hypothesizing senders of grammatically accurate messages are perceived as more credible. However, we also hypothesize an interaction between grammatical accuracy and the system-generated high-warrant cues from the mobile device used to send the message. Responses from 111 students assessing the credibility of an e-mail sender indicate that, although a message's user-generated content (grammatically accurate vs. erred) influences receiver's perceptions, negative attributions are attenuated by cues reflecting the transmission medium (i.e., a message's mobile signature block). Findings offer theoretical implications for warranting theory. Additionally, results suggest practitioners need to craft a message and indicate the transmission medium strategically to mitigate any impacts on attributions of professionalism to message receivers.
Article
Using feedback comments to assess the reputation of others has been touted as the main mechanism in the success of e-commerce Web sites. This research examines how errors in feedback comments might influence perceptions of a comment target and source. Findings suggest that errors reduced the favorability of a target's reputation and the desire to spend money with that target. Errors also decreased the favorability of impressions and levels of trust toward the sources of those comments. However, these effects were only present in positive comments; negative feedback was unaffected by errors. These results are discussed regarding their implications for reputations and written communication in general.
Article
Communication skills are a fundamental personal competency for a successful career in accounting. What is not so obvious is the specific written communication skill set employers look for and the extent those skills are computer mediated. Using survey research, this article explores the particular skills employers desire and their satisfaction level with new hires. Results indicate that basic writing mechanics are the skills in highest demand, followed by effective documentation. Except for email proficiency, employers do not consider computer-mediated communication competencies as important as traditional business communication skills. The article concludes with curricular implications for accounting communication.
Article
The rise of online reviews written by consumers makes possible an examination of how the content and style of these word-of-mouth messages contribute to their helpfulness. In this study, consumers are asked to judge the value of real online consumer reviews to their simulated shopping activities. The results suggest the benefits of moderate review length and of positive, but not negative, product evaluative statements. Non-evaluative product information and information about the reviewer were also found to be associated with review helpfulness. Stylistic elements that may impair clarity (such as spelling and grammatical errors) were associated with less valuable reviews, and elements that may make a review more entertaining (such as expressive slang and humor) were associated with more valuable reviews. These findings point to factors other than product information that may affect the perceived helpfulness of an online consumer review.
Article
This research examines how the perception of consistency between brand image and website image affects brand attitude. With the massive development of the internet, most of the brick-and-mortar companies created their own website. Two prevailing strategies emerged: some companies transposed their brand with the corresponding name, image and values to the website and others created a new brand name to exist on the net. As the representation of a brand on the internet is limitless, it is not sure that brand image perceived by website visitors is consistent with their prior brand image. Results provide empirical evidence of a moderating effect of perceived consistency on the relation between website and brand attitude.
Article
We investigated expectations regarding a writer's responsibility to proofread text for spelling errors when using a word processor. Undergraduate students read an essay and completed a questionnaire regarding their perceptions of the author and the quality of the essay. We manipulated type of spelling error (no error, homophone error, non-homophone error) and information provided about the author's use of a spell checker (no information, author did not use a spell checker, author did use a spell checker). Participants' perceptions of the author's abilities and the quality of the essay suffered when the essay contained non-homophone spelling errors—errors that are typically flagged by a spell checker. Further, participants reported that they would be most likely to blame the writer rather than the spell checker for spelling errors contained in the text. These findings suggest that perceptions of both an author's abilities and the written products are affected by spelling errors. Even when supportive tools are available, the responsibility for producing error-free text remains with the author.
Conference Paper
The credibility of web sites is becoming an increasingly important area to understand. To expand knowledge in this domain, we conducted an online study that investigated how different elements of Web sites affect people's perception of credibility. Over 1400 people participated in this study, both from the U.S. and Europe, evaluating 51 different Web site elements. The data showed which elements boost and which elements hurt perceptions of Web credibility. Through analysis we found these elements fell into one of seven factors. In order of impact, the five types of elements that increased credibility perceptions were “real-world feel”, “ease of use”, “expertise”, “trustworthiness”, and “tailoring”. The two types of elements that hurt credibility were “commercial implications&rdquo ;and “amateurism”. This large-scale study lays the groundwork for further research into the elements that affect Web credibility. The results also suggest implications for designing credible Web sites.
Article
Although there has been a great deal of research on impression formation, little application of that research has been made to electronic commerce. A research model was constructed that hypothesized errors, poor style, and incompleteness to be inversely related to the users' level of perceived quality of an online store. Further, this perceived quality of the online store's Web site would be directly related to users' trust in the store and, ultimately, to users' intentions to purchase from the store. An experimental study with 272 undergraduate and graduate student volunteers supported all the hypotheses. In addition, it was found that the relationship between the factors and perceived quality was mediated by the perception of the flaws. The perception of flaws rather than the actual flaws influenced users' perception of quality. Supplemental analysis also seemed to indicate a pattern of diminishing effects with each subsequent flaw.
Skills requirements for tomorrow's best jobs: Helping educators provide students with skills and tools they need. IDC
  • C Anderson
  • J F Gantz
Anderson, C., & Gantz, J. F. (2013). Skills requirements for tomorrow's best jobs: Helping educators provide students with skills and tools they need. IDC, October.
« The hotel were graet »: The effects of valence and language errors on the attitude towards the hotel, review credibility, booking intention and eWOM intention of consumers
  • E M Hilbrink
Hilbrink, E. M. (2017). « The hotel were graet »: The effects of valence and language errors on the attitude towards the hotel, review credibility, booking intention and eWOM intention of consumers. University of Twente.
Fouten tellen. De invloed van de dichtheid van dtfouten op de lezerswaardering
  • F Jansen
  • E De Roo
Jansen, F., & Roo, E. de. (2012). Fouten tellen. De invloed van de dichtheid van dtfouten op de lezerswaardering. Neerlandistiek, 2012.
Do Employers Forgive Applicants' Bad Spelling in Résumés? Business and Professional Communication Quarterly
  • C Martin-Lacroux
  • A Lacroux
Martin-Lacroux, C., & Lacroux, A. (2016). Do Employers Forgive Applicants' Bad Spelling in Résumés? Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 2329490616671310.
Orthographe mon amour. Presses universitaires de Grenoble
  • A Millet
  • V Lucci
  • J Billiet
Millet, A., Lucci, V., & Billiet, J. (1990). Orthographe mon amour. Presses universitaires de Grenoble.
The phenomenology of error. College composition and communication
  • J M Williams
Williams, J. M. (1981). The phenomenology of error. College composition and communication, 32(2), 152-168.
L'orthographe, une norme sociale
  • B Wynants
Wynants, B. (1997). L'orthographe, une norme sociale. Sprimont: Éditions Mardaga.
Writing: A ticket to work . . . or a ticket out? A survey of business leaders
National Commission on Writing. (2004). Writing: A ticket to work... or a ticket out? A survey of business leaders. Consulté à l'adresse : http://www.college board.com/prod_downloads/writingcom/writing-ticket-to-work.pdf