Conference Paper

Human Factors and Ergonomics Evaluation of a Tablet Based Augmented Reality System in Maintenance Work

Authors:
  • VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
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Abstract

Augmented reality (AR) technologies start to be mature enough to be used in industrial work settings. However, human factors and ergonomics (HFE) and safety issues have not been considered thoroughly yet. The purpose of this study was to identify what kind of postures users adopt when using a tablet based AR system during a maintenance task. In addition, safety, user experience and user acceptance were studied. Results indicate that the participants adopted varying kind of working postures with the AR system, but none of the postures were severe for the well-being. User experience was positive and user acceptance on a good level. The participants saw some safety concerns related to using the AR system but were mainly concerned if the tablet could be used in the harsh maintenance environments. The findings of this study can be used to improve HFE and safety of AR systems in industrial settings.

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... 24% of the papers belonging to these topics showed the application of VR for operator's maintenance training; whereas 68% described advantages and applications of enabling technologies supporting the operator during maintenance activities; only one paper [55] showed the evaluation of ergonomics principles through the adoption of AR. Figure 7 provides details on the technologies adopted in the abovementioned papers and related application fields. ...
... Sixteen papers [55,[65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79] were focused on AR technology (20% of papers selected). A prototype of a monitor-based AR system is presented in Reference [65], consisting of a motorized controllable camera and a laptop with a headset. ...
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Maintenance contributes to gaining high business performance, guarantees system availability and reliability as well as safe and sustainable operations. Maintenance activity effectiveness depends on competences and the skills of operators whose performance strongly affects maintenance and production operations. The research field of human issues in industrial maintenance was deeply addressed in the literature; however, the current industrial paradigm, which focusses on the integration of new technologies in conventional manufacturing operations to support human performance, sheds light on new challenges for enterprises and opportunities for research in this field. While some literature reviews in the field of human errors and human factors are available, no study investigated the main topics, research trends and challenges related to the role of maintenance operators in manufacturing systems. This paper addresses the current state-of-the-art role of maintenance operators in manufacturing systems, providing an overview of the main studies. A systematic literature review was carried out to identify significant papers. Then, a topic modelling algorithm was used to detect the main topics of the selected papers to provide the research trends of the subject. The identified topics provided interesting research insights on the human role in industrial maintenance. Research trends and further research opportunities were defined.
... Focusing on users' postures, recently, Aromma et al. [1] reported a study evaluating a tablet-based AR system in maintenance work regarding human factors and ergonomics. Their study showed that the users adopted varied kinds of postures, of which some postures may increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders in the long term. ...
... To sum up, this work made the following contributions to the research field of multimedia and human-computer interaction: (1) it is the first work to investigate the potential impact of the augmented-reality head-mounted display (AR-HMD) on users' movement behavior in screen-based office work; (2) inspired by related work, we analyzed the movement behavior through the lenses of macro-movements and micro-movements with categorizing the movements to sub-groups; (3) we used Bayesian method, in addition to the null-hypothesis significant test, to analyze and report the study results; (4) the study results confirmed the effect of the freedom and simplicity (EoFS) of moving the virtual screen in HoloLens on users' movement behavior; (5) besides EoFS, we also found that the discomfort of using HoloLens could partially cause users' movement behavior; (6) based on the findings and the limitations of this work, we provide four research opportunities for future work. ...
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... Ergonomics describes the influence of the AR HMD on a user's gestures and form when performing a particular task. It considers whether the user's wellbeing is affected by the AR HMD or how the gestures affect the user's posture and the overall performance of the system (Aromaa et al. 2018). For example, the form factor of the AR HMD hardware, such its burdensome weight and low user field of view, causes the users to become potentially tired or to exert themselves in unsafe body positions during the task execution. ...
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... These can already be used in early phases of product development. Especially in the design of human-technology interaction, research interest is increasing [5]. Through immersion in the use of such technologies, special forms of interaction spread. ...
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... The study by Vorraber, Gasser, Webb, Neubacher and Url (2020) reported that 67% of participants in the study agreed that risk was minimized using AR-based remote maintenance processes supported by cutting-edge optical head-mounted display technology (paper ID 7). The research by Aromaa, Väätänen, Kaasinen, Uimonen and Siltanen (2018) pointed out how the use of hand-held devices may also raise new kinds of safety issues as people are viewing the environment via AR devices (paper ID 37). Indeed, some participants in their study were concerned about the "safety" of the tablet: it should not break, and it should tolerate the harsh industry conditions. ...
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Purpose: The correct interaction between the workforce and augmented, virtual, and mixed reality technologies represents a crucial aspect of the success of the smart factory. This interaction is, indeed, affected by the variability of human behavior and its reliability, which can strongly influence the quality, safety, and productivity standards. For this reason, this paper aims to provide a clear and complete analysis of the impacts of these technologies on the performance of operators. Design/methodology/approach: A Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was conducted to identify peer-reviewed papers that focused on the implementation of augmented and virtual technologies in manufacturing systems and their effects on human performance. Findings: In total, 61 papers were selected and thoroughly analyzed. The findings of this study reveal that Augmented, Virtual and Mixed Reality can be applied for several applications in manufacturing systems with different types of devices, that involve various advantages and disadvantages. The worker’s performance that are influencing by the use of these technologies are above all time to complete a task, error rate and mental and physical workload. Originality/value: Over the years Augmented, Virtual and Mixed Reality technologies in manufacturing systems have been investigated by researchers. Several studies mostly focused on technological issues, have been conducted. The role of the operator, whose tasks may be influenced positively or negatively by the use of new devices, has been hardly ever analyzed and a deep analysis of human performance affected by these technologies is missing. This study represents a preliminary analysis to fill this gap. The results obtained from the SLR allowed us to develop a conceptual framework that investigates the current state-of-the-art knowledge about the topic and highlights gaps in the current research.
... can be attributed to the use of AR data glasses(Aromaa et al., 2016;Werrlich et al., 2017;Helin et al., 2018;Quandt et al., 2018;Lee et al., 2020;Masood and Egger, 2020;Park et al., 2020). Of the eleven papers that use touch interaction, four are attributed to the use of a smartphone(Aromaa et al., 2016;Aromaa et al., 2018a;Stigall and Sharma, 2019;Min et al., 2020) and five to the use of a tablet(Kim and Lee, 2016;Aromaa et al., 2018b;Jetter et al., 2018;Catal et al., 2019;Stigall and Sharma, 2019;Daling et al., 2020). Stigall and Sharma, 2019 used both a smartphone and a tablet. ...
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... These include onsite applications where AR can be seen implemented in smart helmets and tablets, primarily to help engineers make more accurate and rapid judgments for construction review tasks (Ren, Liu, and Ruan 2017). In industrial settings, case studies of AR systems' user experiences have demonstrated their potential to reduce errors in assembly and improve the quality of maintenance work (Aromaa et al. 2018). A wide range of AR applications can be found in medicine, art, marketing, communication, etc. ...
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... One work combining these elements [35] analyzes the effect of AR interfaces in tasks performance realization since this interface depends on movements the user performs intending to focus in minimize the physical effort. Another approach [36] is integrating AR system and ergonomics while using an AR device in maintenance activities. In this work, the postures adopted by the users while using the system are analyzed concluding that the postures adopted don't represent a high risk since they are maintained in short periods. ...
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... Projection-based systems are not helpful for dynamic, variable working conditions nor for real process operations, yet they are applicable for training. Wearable systems are particularly suitable for industrial applications, leaving the operator's hands free, but they can be non-compatible with specific personal protective equipment [25]. The use of tablets can be easier and more robust for industrial applications, even if it could limit the operators' actions and hand movements [26]. ...
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... Apart from assembly tasks, AR can also act as effective assistance in maintenance work. A study by Aromaa et al. [24] considers the aspects of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) and safety issues, while working in harsh maintenance environments. The authors focus on what kind of postures the users adopt when using a tablet-based AR system during a maintenance task. ...
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Chapter
With the introduction of Industry 4.0, traditional industrial manufacturing and processes are turning into “digital practices.” Products and procedures are becoming increasingly intricate due to the exponential rise of industrial internet of things (IIoT) technologies, which have been introduced to improve and support processes and control systems. Workers will need new skills to address challenges that technology alone cannot answer because of this complexity. In the context of Industry 4.0, extended reality (XR) appears to be a promising solution for training and maintenance operations. Several studies have demonstrated the benefits of using XR for assembly, training, and maintenance tasks. However, they have all been described as specific use cases or devices. Before XR becomes widely used, the industry must overcome two‐dimensional and three‐dimensional data standardization challenges, authoring tools, new interfaces, a semantic understanding of real‐world objects, tasks to perform, hardware solutions, user acceptance, and performance analysis.
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We describe a systematic, quantitative study of the benefits using context recognition (specifically task tracking) for a wearable maintenance assistance system. A key objective of the work is to do the evaluation in an environment that is as close as possible to a real world setting. To this end, we use actual maintenance tasks on a complex piece of machinery at an industrial site. Subjects for our study are active Zeiss technicians who have an average of 10 years job experience. In a within subject Wizard of Oz study with the interaction modality as the independent variable we compare three interaction modalities: (1) paper based documentation (2) speech controlled head mounted display (HMD) documentation, and context assisted HMD documentation. The study shows that the paper documentation is 50% and the speech only controlled system 30% slower then context. The statistical significance of 99% and 95% respectively (one sided ANOVA test). We also present results of two questionnaires (custom design and standard NASA TLX) that show a clear majority of subjects considered context to be beneficial in one way or the other. At the same time, the questionnaires reveal a certain level of uneasiness with the new modality.
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Recent statistics on causes of aviation accidents and incidents demonstrate that to increase air-transportation safety, we must reduce human errors' impact on operations. So, the industry should first address human factors related to people in stressful roles to significantly minimize such errors. In particular, aviation maintenance employees work under high-pressure conditions- that is, they're under strict time constraints and must adhere to stringent guidelines. Because of such constraints, they might be prone to making errors. Unfortunately, many of these errors might not become apparent until an accident occurs. Although maintenance errors are a recognized threat to aviation safety, there are few simulation and computer-based tools for managing human factor issues in this field. The main advantages in using computer-based systems to train or support technicians are that computers don't forget and that they can help humans clearly understand facts. Such features can help reduce errors due to procedure violations, misinterpretation of facts, or insufficient training. Toward that end, augmented reality (AR) is a promising technology to build advanced interfaces using interactive and wearable visualization systems to implement new methods to display documentation as digital data and graphical databases. Nevertheless, many factors-such as cumbersome hardware, the need to put markers on the aircraft, and the need to quickly create digital content-seem to hinder its effective implementation in industry.
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The aim of this study was to determine how head and neck postures vary when using two media tablet (slate) computers in four common user configurations. Fifteen experienced media tablet users completed a set of simulated tasks with two media tablets in four typical user configurations. The four configurations were: on the lap and held with the user's hands, on the lap and in a case, on a table and in a case, and on a table and in a case set at a high angle for watching movies. An infra-red LED marker based motion analysis system measured head/neck postures. Head and neck flexion significantly varied across the four configurations and across the two tablets tested. Head and neck flexion angles during tablet use were greater, in general, than angles previously reported for desktop and notebook computing. Postural differences between tablets were driven by case designs, which provided significantly different tilt angles, while postural differences between configurations were driven by gaze and viewing angles. Head and neck posture during tablet computing can be improved by placing the tablet higher to avoid low gaze angles (i.e. on a table rather than on the lap) and through the use of a case that provides optimal viewing angles.
Conference Paper
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Although there has been much speculation about the potential of Augmented Reality (AR), there are very few empirical studies about its effectiveness. This paper describes an experiment that tested the relative effectiveness of AR instructions in an assembly task. Task information was displayed in user's field of view and registered with the workspace as 3D objects to explicitly demonstrate the exact execution of a procedure step. Three instructional media were compared with the AR system: a printed manual, computer assisted instruction (CAI) using a monitor-based display, and CAI utilizing a head-mounted display. Results indicate that overlaying 3D instructions on the actual work pieces reduced the error rate for an assembly task by 82%, particularly diminishing cumulative errors - errors due to previous assembly mistakes. Measurement of mental effort indicated decreased mental effort in the AR condition, suggesting some of the mental calculation of the assembly task is offloaded to the system.
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Valid measurement scales for predicting user acceptance of computers are in short supply. Most subjective measures used in practice are unvalidated, and their relationship to system usage is unknown. The present research develops and validates new scales for two specific variables, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, which are hypothesized to be fundamental determinants of user acceptance. Definitions for these two variables were used to develop scale items that were pretested for content validity and then tested for reliability and construct validity in two studies involving a total of 152 users and four application programs. The measures were refined and streamlined, resulting in two six-item scales with reliabilities of .98 for usefulness and .94 for ease of use. The scales exhibited high convergent, discriminant, and factorial validity. Perceived usefulness was significantly correlated with both self-reported current usage (r=.63, Study 1) and self-predicted future usage (r =.85, Study 2). Perceived ease of use was also significantly correlated with current usage (r=.45, Study 1) and future usage (r=.59, Study 2). In both studies, usefulness had a significantly greater correlation with usage behavior than did ease of use. Regression analyses suggest that perceived ease of use may actually be a causal antecedent to perceived usefulness, as opposed to a parallel, direct determinant of system usage. Implications are drawn for future research on user acceptance.
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In 1985, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) convened an ad hoc committee of experts who reviewed the current literature on lifting, recommend criteria for defining lifting capacity, and in 1991 developed a revised lifting equation. Subsequently, NIOSH developed the documentation for the equation and played a prominent role in recommending methods for interpreting the results of the equation. The 1991 equation reflects new findings and provides methods for evaluating asymmetrical lifting tasks, lifts of objects with less than optimal hand-container couplings, and also provides guidelines for a larger range of work durations and lifting frequencies than the 1981 equation. This paper provides the basis for selecting the three criteria (biomechanical, physiological, and psychophysical) that were used to define the 1991 equation, and describes the derivation of the individual components (Putz-Anderson and Waters 1991). The paper also describes the lifting index (LI), an index of relative physical stress, that can be used to identify hazardous lifting tasks. Although the 1991 equation has not been fully validated, the recommended weight limits derived from the revised equation are consistent with or lower than those generally reported in the literature. NIOSH believes that the revised 1991 lifting equation is more likely than the 1981 equation to protect most workers.
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This technical note details the preliminary stage in the development of a postural analysis tool, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). REBA has been developed to fill a perceived need for a practitioner's field tool, specifically designed to be sensitive to the type of unpredictable working postures found in health care and other service industries. A team of ergonomists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists and nurses collected and individually coded over 600 postural examples to produce a new tool incorporating dynamic and static postural loading factors, human-load interface (coupling), and a new concept of a gravity-assisted upper limb position. Initial reliability for inter-observer coding shows promise but further work is needed to establish the validity of the tool.
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In 1997, Azuma published a survey on augmented reality (AR). Our goal is to complement, rather than replace, the original survey by presenting representative examples of the new advances. We refer one to the original survey for descriptions of potential applications (such as medical visualization, maintenance and repair of complex equipment, annotation, and path planning); summaries of AR system characteristics (such as the advantages and disadvantages of optical and video approaches to blending virtual and real, problems in display focus and contrast, and system portability); and an introduction to the crucial problem of registration, including sources of registration error and error-reduction strategies
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Augmented Reality (AR) technologies for supporting maintenance operations have been an academic research topic for around 50 years now. In the last decade, major progresses have been made and the AR technology is getting closer to being implemented in industry. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of AR have been explored and quantified in terms of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) for industrial maintenance. Unfortunately, some technical issues still prevent AR from being suitable for industrial applications. This paper aims to show, through the results of a systematic literature review, the current state of the art of AR in maintenance and the most relevant technical limitations. The analysis included filtering from a large number of publications to 30 primary studies published between 1997 and 2017. The results indicate a high fragmentation among hardware, software and AR solutions which lead to a high complexity for selecting and developing AR systems. The results of the study show the areas where AR technology still lacks maturity. Future research directions are also proposed encompassing hardware, tracking and user-AR interaction in industrial maintenance is proposed.
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Inspection tasks focus on observation of the environment and are required in many industrial domains. Inspectors usually execute these tasks by using a guide such as a paper manual, and directly observing the environment. The effort required to match the information in a guide with the information in an environment and the constant gaze shifts required between the two can severely lower the work efficiency of inspector in performing his/her tasks. Augmented reality (AR) allows the information in a guide to be overlaid directly on an environment. This can decrease the amount of effort required for information matching, thus increasing work efficiency. AR guides on head-mounted displays (HMDs) have been shown to increase efficiency. Handheld AR (HAR) is not as efficient as HMD-AR in terms of manipulability, but is more practical and features better information input and sharing capabilities. In this study, we compared two handheld guides: an AR interface that shows 3D registered annotations, that is, annotations having a fixed 3D position in the AR environment, and a non-AR picture interface that displays non-registered annotations on static images. We focused on inspection tasks that involve high information density and require the user to move, as well as to perform several viewpoint alignments. The results of our comparative evaluation showed that use of the AR interface resulted in lower task completion times, fewer errors, fewer gaze shifts, and a lower subjective workload. We are the first to present findings of a comparative study of an HAR and a picture interface when used in tasks that require the user to move and execute viewpoint alignments, focusing only on direct observation. Our findings can be useful for AR practitioners and psychology researchers.
Conference Paper
Industrial maintenance is an increasingly complex and knowledge intensive field. Although new technologies in maintenance have been studied extensively, their usage is still lacking in the industry. We have studied knowledge-sharing solutions using augmented reality (AR) and wearable technologies in actual industry cases to find out if maintenance technicians find them useful and usable in their everyday work. Two test cases were included: the use of a wearable system consisting of three devices in the crane industry, and the use of AR guidance in the marine industry. In both cases two maintenance technicians tested the technologies and data were collected using questionnaires, interviews and observation. The maintenance technicians were positive towards the use of these technologies in their work. However, some practical issues were raised concerning the simultaneous use of multiple devices and the placement of the devices. A more system-level approach to designing wearable and AR technologies could be applied to ensure their utility in the field. Findings from this study can be used when designing and implementing wearable and AR technologies in maintenance, but also in other industry domains like the manufacturing industry.
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This paper presents the design and implementation of an augmented reality (AR) tool in aid of operators being in a hybrid, human and robot collaborative industrial environment. The system aims to provide production and process related information as well as to enhance the operators’ immersion in the safety mechanisms, dictated by the collaborative workspace. The developed system has been integrated with a service based station controller, which is responsible for orchestrating the flow of information to the operator, according to the task execution status. The tool has been applied to a case study from the automotive sector, resulting in an enhanced operator's integration with the assembly process.
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Current pedestrian collision warning systems use either auditory alarms or visual symbols to inform drivers. These traditional approaches cannot tell the driver where the detected pedestrians are located, which is critical for the driver to respond appropriately. To address this problem, we introduce a new driver interface taking advantage of a volumetric head-up display (HUD). In our experimental user study, sixteen participants drove a test vehicle in a parking lot while braking for crossing pedestrians using different interface designs on the HUD. Our results showed that spatial information provided by conformal graphics on the HUD resulted in not only better driver performance but also smoother braking behavior as compared to the baseline.
Conference Paper
Industrial maintenance is a complex and knowledgeintensive field. Therefore, maintenance technicians need to have easy access to versatile and situationally relevant knowledge. The aim of this paper is to increase the understanding of maintenance technicians’ interactions and knowledge sharing with colleagues and technology during maintenance work. Three industrial maintenance cases were studied using interviews and observation. As a result, a model for knowledge sharing in maintenance work was developed. Based on the model, it is easier to tackle challenges in knowledge gathering and sharing. In addition, it supports the research and development of technologies that contribute to knowledge sharing in the future.
Conference Paper
Research into Augmented Reality (AR) devices for professional use has largely focused on hand-held devices and Head Mounted Displays (HMDs). There are advantages and disadvantages to both solutions, and which is used will largely depend on the context of use. In this paper, we present an outdoor user evaluation of an alternative wearable AR device mounted on the forearm to allow hands free movement. Findings on the strengths and weaknesses of the system along with user recommendations were obtained, and serve as an indicator to its potential applicability for wider use, particularly in comparison with a hands free HMD solution.
Conference Paper
Augmented Reality (AR) technologies offer the potential to aid users in a number of professional areas. However, to date, most studies have been tested in controlled laboratory conditions. This paper outlines a user experience study of a wearable mobile augmented reality system in an outdoor urban environment. We describe the use case of using a see-through monocular head-mounted display (HMD) with augmented imagery for orientation, and the use of gesture input for interacting with information while on-the-move. Participants had to navigate to a target location, whilst receiving information updates, and complete a series of gesture-based tasks. Despite participants managing to complete the tasks after some assistance, it was found that more improvements to the user experience are required for it to be viable in outdoor-use. In particular, better visibility, when see-through HMDs are used in a bright environment, and improved situation awareness. This paper further highlights the difficulties in using gesture input, and points to a number of areas requiring further research into the use of wearable mobile AR systems in the context of this work.
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The focus of this research was to examine how effectively augmented reality displays, generated with a wearable computer, could be used for aiding an operator performing a manual assembly task. Fifteen subjects were asked to assemble a computer motherboard using four types of instructional media: paper manual, computer-aided, opaque augmented reality display, and see-through augmented reality display. The time of assembly and assembly errors were measured for each type of instructional media, and a questionnaire focusing on usability was administered to each subject at the end of each condition. The results of the experiment indicated that the augmented reality conditions were more effective instructional aids for the assembly task than either the paper instruction manual or the computer-aided instruction. The see-through augmented reality display resulted in the fastest assembly times, followed by the opaque augmented reality display, the computer-aided instruction, and the paper instructions respectively. In addition, subjects made fewer errors using the augmented reality conditions compared to the computer-aided and paper instructional media. However, while the two augmented reality conditions were a more effective instructional media when time for assembly was the response measure, there were still some important usability issues associated with the augmented reality technology that were not present in the non-augmented reality conditions.
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We explore the development of an experimental augmented reality application that provides benefits to professional mechanics performing maintenance and repair tasks in a field setting. We developed a prototype that supports military mechanics conducting routine maintenance tasks inside an armored vehicle turret, and evaluated it with a user study. Our prototype uses a tracked headworn display to augment a mechanic's natural view with text, labels, arrows, and animated sequences designed to facilitate task comprehension, localization, and execution. A within-subject controlled user study examined professional military mechanics using our system to complete 18 common tasks under field conditions. These tasks included installing and removing fasteners and indicator lights, and connecting cables, all within the cramped interior of an armored personnel carrier turret. An augmented reality condition was tested against two baseline conditions: the same headworn display providing untracked text and graphics and a fixed flat panel display representing an improved version of the laptop-based documentation currently employed in practice. The augmented reality condition allowed mechanics to locate tasks more quickly than when using either baseline, and in some instances, resulted in less overall head movement. A qualitative survey showed that mechanics found the augmented reality condition intuitive and satisfying for the tested sequence of tasks.
Conference Paper
We report on recent progress in the iterative process of exploring, evaluating and refining Augmented Reality-based methods to support the order picking process. We present our findings from three user studies and from demonstrations at several exhibitions. The resulting setup is a combined visualization to precisely and efficiently guide the user, even if the augmentation is not always in the field of view of the HMD.
Conference Paper
We present the design, implementation, and user testing of a pro- totype augmented reality application to support military mechan- ics conducting routine maintenance tasks inside an armored ve- hicle turret. Our prototype uses a tracked head-worn display to augment a mechanic's natural view with text, labels, arrows, and animated sequences designed to facilitate task comprehension, location, and execution. A within-subject controlled user study examined professional military mechanics using our system to complete 18 common tasks under field conditions. These tasks included installing and removing fasteners and indicator lights, and connecting cables, all within the cramped interior of an ar- mored personnel carrier turret. An augmented reality condition was tested against two baseline conditions: an untracked head- worn display with text and graphics and a fixed flat panel display representing an improved version of the laptop-based documenta- tion currently employed in practice. The augmented reality condi- tion allowed mechanics to locate tasks more quickly than when using either baseline, and in some instances, resulted in less over- all head movement. A qualitative survey showed mechanics found the augmented reality condition intuitive and satisfying for the tested sequence of tasks.
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A practical method for identifying and evaluating poor working postures, ie, the Ovako Working Posture Analysing System (OWAS), is presented. The method consists of two parts. The first is an observational technique for evaluating working postures. It can be used by work-study engineers in their daily routine and it gives reliable results after a short training period. The second part of the method is a set of criteria for the redesign of working methods and places. The criteria are based on evaluations made by experienced workers and ergonomics experts. They take into consideration factors such as health and safety, but the main emphasis is placed on the discomfort caused by the working postures. The method has been extensively used in the steel company which participated in its development. Complete production lines have already been redesigned on the basis of information gathered from OWAS, the result being more comfortable workplaces as well as a positive effect on production quality.
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RULA (rapid upper limb assessment) is a survey method developed for use in ergonomics investigations of workplaces where work-related upper limb disorders are reported. This tool requires no special equipment in providing a quick assessment of the postures of the neck, trunk and upper limbs along with muscle function and the external loads experienced by the body. A coding system is used to generate an action list which indicates the level of intervention required to reduce the risks of injury due to physical loading on the operator. It is of particular assistance in fulfilling the assessment requirements of both the European Community Directive (90/270/EEC) on the minimum safety and health requirements for work with display screen equipment and the UK Guidelines on the prevention of work-related upper limb disorders.
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This review provides an overview of the range of methods that have been developed for the assessment of exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Relevant publications and material on exposure assessment techniques have been gathered for inclusion in this review. The methods have been categorized under three main headings: (1) self-reports from workers can be used to collect data on workplace exposure to both physical and psychosocial factors by using methods that include worker diaries, interviews and questionnaires; (2) observational methods that may be further subdivided between (a) simpler techniques developed for systematically recording workplace exposure that enable an observer to assess and record data on a number of factors using specifically designed pro-forma sheets for establishing priorities for workplace intervention; and (b) advanced techniques developed for the assessment of postural variation for highly dynamic activities that record data either on videotape or are computer analysed using dedicated software; (3) direct measurements using monitoring instruments that rely on sensors attached directly to the subject for the measurement of exposure variables at work. The choice between the methods available will depend upon the application concerned and the objectives of the study. General, observation-based assessments appear to provide the levels of costs, capacity, versatility, generality and exactness best matched to the needs of occupational safety and health practitioners (or those from related professions) who have limited time and resources at their disposal and need a basis for establishing priorities for intervention.
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This paper addresses issues of user interface design, relating to ease of use, of handheld CSCW. In particular, we are concerned with the requirements that arise from situations in which a traditionally designed mobile computer with a small keyboard and screen, may not be easily used. This applies to many mobile use contexts, such as inspection work and engineering in the field. By examining two such settings, we assert that what is usually pointed to as severe shortcomings of mobile computing today, for example: awkward keyboard, small display and unreliable networks, are really implications from a conceptual HCI design that emphasise unstructured, unlimited input; a rich, continuous visual feedback channel and marginal use of sound. We introduce MOTILE, a small prototype that demonstrates some alternative ideas about HCI for mobile devices. We suggest that identifying complementing user interface paradigms for handheld CSCW may enhance our understanding not only of mobile computing o...
Maintenance Past or Through the Tablet? Examining Tablet Use with AR Guidance System
  • Timo Iina Aaltonen
  • Kaj Kuula
  • Jaakko Helin
  • Karjalainen
  • Aaltonen Iina
Iina Aaltonen, Timo Kuula, Kaj Helin, and Jaakko Karjalainen. 2016. Maintenance Past or Through the Tablet? Examining Tablet Use with AR Guidance System. In Proceedings of European Association for Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Conference (EuroVR).
Use of Wearable and Augmented Reality Technologies in Industrial Maintenance Work
  • Susanna Aromaa
  • Eija Iina Aaltonen
  • Joona Kaasinen
  • Ilari Elo
  • Parkkinen
Wearable mobile Augmented Reality: Evaluating outdoor user experience
  • J Steven
  • Mark D Kerr
  • Yinquan Rice
  • Marcus Teo
  • Yian L Wan
  • Jamie Cheong
  • Lillian Ng
  • Thant Ng-Thamrin
  • Dominic Thura-Myo
  • Wren
Look at Me: Augmented Reality Pedestrian Warning System Using an In-Vehicle Volumetric Head Up Display
  • Alexandre Kim
  • Teruhisa Miranda Anon
  • Nanxiang Misu
  • Ashish Li
  • Kikuo Tawari
  • Fujimura
The potentials of in-situ-projection for augmented workplaces in production. A study with impaired persons
  • Albrecht Oliver Korn
  • Thomas Schmidt
  • Hörz
Recent Advances in Augmented Reality
  • Rodald Azuma
  • Yohan Baillot
  • Reinhold Behringer
  • Steven Feiner
  • Simon Julier
  • Blair Macintyre
Rodald Azuma, Yohan Baillot, Reinhold Behringer, Steven Feiner, Simon Julier, and Blair MacIntyre. 2001. Recent Advances in Augmented Reality. Computer Graphics and Applications 21, 6: 34-47. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-2235-4
Definition and domains of ergonomics
  • Iea
  • IEA
Osmo Karhu, Pekka Kansi and Ilkka Kuorinka. 1977. Correcting working posture in industry: a practical method for analysis
  • Osmo Karhu
  • Pekka Kansi
  • Ilkka Kuorinka
  • Karhu Osmo