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Training leaders to apply behavioral concepts to improve safety

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... The most common intervention strategies adopted by those responsible for managing safety are education, persuasion, or monitoring behaviours and providing feedback. The latter strategy is typified by "Behaviour-Based Safety" (BBS) initiatives which aim to increase "safety behaviours" and decrease "at-risk behaviours" through direct observation of work practices and feedback (Gravina, King, & Austin, 2019;Sulzer-Azaroff & Austin, 2000). BBS programmes, also referred to as 'safe behaviour,' 'behaviour modification' or 'behavioural safety' (Hopkins, 2006), have been criticised due to their lack of theoretical foundation, largely top-down and reductionist implementation procedures. ...
... Despite the criticisms of safety management generated behaviour change strategies, there is some support for their effectiveness (Gravina et al., 2019;Myers, McSween, Medina, Rost, & Alvero, 2010). However, because their theoretical foundation is often unclear, there is a limited body of knowledge about what works, in what situations, for what problems, both within and across sectors (Chadwick, 2018). ...
... The premise that reinforcement can promoting behaviour change originated from the work of behaviourists at the beginning of the 20 th century (e.g., Skinner, 1938). Although the approach has been criticised due to its inherent reductionist nature there is some evidence that reinforcement in the form of feedback during structured Behaviour-Based Safety initiatives can be effective in changing safety behaviours (Gravina et al., 2019;Myers, McSween, Medina, Rost, & Alvero, 2010).In addition, in one study involving roofing workers, positive reinforcement in the form of monetary compensation also led to improved safety performance (Austin, Kessler, Riccobono, & Bailey, 1996). ...
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Understanding the factors that either facilitate or hinder the performance of specific safety behaviours is impor- tant in developing effective intervention strategies. A questionnaire to identify determinants of safety behaviours for safety–critical workers does not currently exist. This study reports the development and validation of the Safety Behaviour Change Questionnaire (SBCQ) based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Following initial questionnaire development, a 3-stage testing procedure was adopted with three independent rail worker samples (totalling 620 participants), with a focus on three separate specific safety behaviours (removing slip/trip hazards, using PPE, safe tool storage). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used for the identification of the underlying structure of the initial set of items. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was undertaken to generate the model of best fit at the calibration and validation stages. The final version of the SBCQ consisted of 13 factors and 26 items. Subsequent analysis of psychometric invariance confirmed the stability of the model factor struc- ture across three distinct research sub-samples. These initial results suggest that the SBCQ demonstrates reliable, stable and valid properties, and that it can be utilised by safety managers and practitioners to guide the design of safety interventions for a range of safety behaviours.
... Humble behaviorism and IPP will scale our science and practice to meet the needs of the world and all who live in it. Child maltreatment prevention programs (Prinz et al., 2009), positive parenting (Biglan, 2015), and occupational safety improvements (Geller, 2001;Gravina et al., 2019) are just some of the accomplishments resulting from the practice of humble behaviorism. Development, implementation, and widespread adoption of behavior analytic interventions require the support of other disciplines (Biglan, 2009;Lehman & Geller, 2004). ...
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The need to bring behavior analysis to scale is no more obvious or urgent than now. Collaboration between behavior analysts and healthcare workers, educators, policymakers, mental health clinicians, social workers, and so many other professionals is critical to reaching under-resourced and traditionally marginalized populations. First, however, interprofessional collaboration must be adopted widely and reinforced within the behavior analytic community. Disciplinary centrism and hubris pose barriers to effective interprofessional collaboration, leading one to assume the position that practitioners of the same discipline are better trained and smarter than those of a different field. However, cultural humility (Wright, 2019) is an alternative to disciplinary centrism that allows professionals to retain identities born of cultural histories and training (Pecukonis, 2020). Furthermore, cultural reciprocity is a process of self-observation and collaborative inquiry that involves questioning one’s own assumptions and forces individuals (and professions) to confront the contradictions between their values and their practices (Kalyanpur & Harry, 1999). In this paper, we revisit the call for Humble Behaviorism first made by Alan Neuringer in 1991 and the recommendations of fellow behavior analysts since. Specifically, we introduce a framework of cultural reciprocity to guide humble behaviorists as they acquire behaviors necessary to establish and maintain productive interprofessional relationships. We encourage them to act on their ethical and moral duties to address social problems of global concern and bring behavior analysis to scale.
... Humble behaviorism and IPP will scale our science and practice to meet the needs of the world and all who live in it. Child maltreatment prevention programs (Prinz et al., 2009), positive parenting (Biglan, 2015), and occupational safety improvements (Geller, 2001;Gravina et al., 2019) are just some of the accomplishments resulting from the practice of humble behaviorism. Development, implementation, and widespread adoption of behavior analytic interventions require the support of other disciplines (Biglan, 2009;Lehman & Geller, 2004). ...
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The need to bring behavior analysis to scale is no more obvious or urgent than now. Collaboration between behavior analysts and healthcare workers, educators, policy-makers, mental health clinicians, social workers, and so many other professionals is critical to reaching under-resourced and traditionally marginalized populations. First, however, interprofessional collaboration must be adopted widely and reinforced within the behavior analytic community. Disciplinary centrism and hubris pose barriers to effective interprofessional collaboration, leading one to assume the position that practitioners of the same discipline are better trained and smarter than those of a different field. However, cultural humility (Wright, Behavior Analysis in Practice, 12(4), 805-809, 2019) is an alternative to disciplinary centrism that allows professionals to retain identities born of cultural histories and training (Pecu-konis, Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 40(3), 211-220, 2020). Furthermore, cultural reciprocity is a process of self-observation and collaborative inquiry that involves questioning one's own assumptions and forces individuals (and professions) to confront the contradictions between their values and their practices (Kalyanpur & Harry, 1999). In this paper, we revisit the call for Humble Behaviorism first made by Alan Neuringer in 1991 and the recommendations of fellow behavior analysts since. Specifically, we introduce a framework of cultural reciprocity to guide humble behaviorists as they acquire behaviors necessary to establish and maintain productive interprofessional relationships. We encourage them to act on their ethical and moral duties to address social problems of global concern and bring behavior analysis to scale.
... This is supported by the findings of Conchie et al. (2013) in the construction industry, where supervisors indicated that their engagement in safety leadership was promoted when being equipped with the necessary knowledge, skills, and tools. Moreover, leadership interventions have proven their effectiveness in the safety literature, as leadership interventions have successfully improved supervisors' leadership and employees' safety behavior (Gravina et al., 2019;Kelloway and Barling, 2010). Second, it may be important to increase ATS supervisors' role clarity and include leadership aspects to their role definition. ...
Article
Safety behavior is the most critical task for air traffic controllers and other air traffic safety (ATS) employees. The literature shows that one of the main antecedents for ensuring safety is leadership. Yet, the understanding of leadership within air traffic control (ATC) is very limited. Drawing on both social learning theory and social exchange theory, the current research proposes and investigates the relationship between leadership aspects and ATS employees’ safety behaviors. Data were obtained from 49 ATS employees of a European air navigation service provider (ANSP), who rated their current supervisor’s servant leadership, trustworthiness, leader-member exchange, and support for safety as well as their own safety compliance and safety citizenship behavior during one to five consecutive shifts. The results of hierarchical regression analyses showed, unexpectedly, a significant negative association between supervisors’ trustworthiness and employees’ safety citizenship behavior. None of the other hypothesized relationships was significant. These findings as well as additional findings from post-hoc interviews and open comment fields suggest that the specific ATC context may require different processes than other industries. Additionally, trustworthiness may be related to lower safety citizenship behavior, possibly because ATS employees believe trustworthy supervisors take care of everything. Although a closer additional examination is warranted, ANSPs might want to take into account difficulties associated with supervisors’ trustworthiness.
... Such training help in ensuring a congenial safety culture and higher employee motivation for adherence to safety practices. Leadership commitment and support to safety training are also crucial towards encouraging the right behaviours amongst workers [17]. The line manager's support of the safety professional in implementing safety training initiatives at the workplace is crucial in creating a positive safety culture [18]. ...
Article
Training is important for the development of skills and knowledge. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of post- safety training on the supervisors learning process, behaviour towards safety and development of safe work environment in the automotive original equipment manufacturing (OEM) companies. In the present study, a total of 129 supervisor level employees from different Indian automotive OEMs units, who have undergone a minimum of one-day safety training in the past three years, were a part of the survey. The survey was administered with the aid of a pre-validated designed questionnaire (developed in consultation with industry experts) to collect responses from the supervisor’s level employees during the period of January- August 2019. The 63 different manufacturing OEM automotive units from the Delhi- NCR and Pune- Nashik - Kolhapur from Western region agreed to participate in the survey. The results obtained were tested using multiple hierarchical regression analysis in a stepwise method, along with the correlation coefficient analysis. The results indicated that knowledge acquisition, learning process, and employee involvement regarding risks and hazards identification were positively related to the perceived effectiveness of post- safety training by the supervisors. It was further found that the post- safety training has no significant contribution towards the perceived self- behavior change and development of safe work environment. The effectiveness of safety training and development of safe environment along with the change in behavior towards the safety is related to factors such as related education in safety and health, working experience in the field of safety or EHS domain and knowledge of the supervisors gained through their career which play a significant role. A safety culture can be created by the organization by harnessing the safety-related work experience of the supervisors and periodically conducting the skill development program.
... According to action theory, top management commitment to safety is a cognitive resource that helps employees to shape their perceptions toward managing workplace safety (Norman, 1990(Norman, , 1993. The theory suggests that top management commitment to safety should contribute to employees' favorable process safety (Dekker et al., 2011;Gravina, King, & Austin, 2019). Cooper (2015) suggests that commitment to safety should be derived by directly questioning top management and monitoring their commitment to safety. ...
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This study examines the psychometric properties of process safety and models the relationships between top management commitment to safety (Model 1), top management safety practices (Model 2), and supervisory safety behavior (Model 3). It is hypothesized that these determinants are positively related to process safety. Data were provided by 180 workers in an oil refining company in the UAE. The results show high reliability in the overall process safety score and dimensions (employees’ engagement in safety, employees’ safety performance, and safe working environment). Confirmatory factor analyses indicate that 12 items can be combined into a higher-order process safety factor model. The findings from the controlled models demonstrate that top management commitment to safety, top management safety practices, and supervisory safety behavior are positively and significantly related to process safety and its dimensions. By contrast, in the freely estimated model, top management commitment to safety and top management safety practices are not significantly related to process safety. Overall, process safety has very good psychometric properties, suggesting that it can be used for safety research and future research related to psychological–behavioral safety.
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Research purpose. The aim of the research is to demonstrate the impacts of an absence of organizational policies and strategies in the field of work security on enterprise competitiveness. The movement of loads in the warehouses of industrial and distribution companies is critical in optimizing the times of availability of products to market. This is an activity that, in the field of management, appears to be simple and not very complex, duly framed by national and international laws. However, when poorly managed, it can express significant costs that affect competitiveness and even significantly affect the operational functioning of companies. Knowing that the safety of cargo handling by different equipment presupposes rules and safety policies at different levels, the present study aims to demonstrate the economic impacts based on a real situation in one of the largest handling equipment companies in Portugal. Design / Methodology / Approach. Given the nature and objectives of the study, which seeks to demonstrate that the work security rules and policies compliance or non-compliance has benefits or costs and affects the competitiveness of economic organizations, the work was developed based on three phases. The first phase focused on direct observation of safety practices in operational activities. After this observation, in a second phase, we proceeded to collect and analyze existing data in the company under study, referring to the number of work accidents recorded in the past. In the last phase, we sought to understand and justify the results with the company’s top management. This last phase provided the understanding of the administrators’ view on the subject and the confrontation with the associated impacts, not only at the financial level but at the level of the company’s operation. Findings. This study made it possible to show the impact (associated costs) on organizational performance and that this reality, unfortunately, is not often part of top management’s concern. As a management issue that is often relegated to middle management, this study demonstrates the frequent failure to comply with safety rules due to the pressure of daily activities, the increased number of accidents with the personnel growing in the company, and that this situation can be enhanced through the low degree of control by the enterprise top management over the existing reality. With this concrete study, it was possible to verify the weak relevance of the topic for the company’s administration and the assumption of the difficulty in regularizing the existing situation. The need to review management practices and models in this field became evident. Originality / Value / Practical implications. The relevance of this study made it possible to point out to the top management administration that, in terms of competitiveness. However, the direct costs of the operation are relevant; there are indirect and opportunity costs, such as accidents or unavailability of equipment, which represent costs that can compromise the competitiveness of the company. This study also had the advantage of providing management with evidence of the existing reality in the company, which tends to be undervalued or go unnoticed in the day-to-day company’s current activities. In addition, it should also be noted that a proposal for an improvement plan for the company’s safety was made available.
Chapter
An extensive study of the recent findings provides the ways to incorporate and develop ways to implement the effective safety culture using Behavior-based aspect. Construction accidents data is either not available or highly underreported leading toward a situation where attention to safety is not paid. As a result, the recent scenario of reported accidents from Indian viewpoint published by Association of Researchers in Construction Management, which states that the construction sector is second largest employer in India. On an average, 38 fatal accidents occur per day with total number of people dying in construction sector, Indian construction industry alone adds 24.20% fatality in the total of 48,000 occupational accidents occurring annually. With the past accidents and analysis of the behavior of the workers, BBS is an important factor to change the atmosphere in construction industry. Construction industry is regarded as one of the major backbones in nation development, certain laws like BOCW have been introduced in India but due to negligence, dynamic and transitory nature, gaps were observed which include some critical factors like training, top management and analysis of the workers behavior in the construction industry due to which implementation of Behavior-based Safety becomes a challenging role. As one of the major backbones of nation development, construction industry is dynamic and transitory in nature. Despite applicable laws, top management role, past accident analysis, etc. implementing behavior-based safety is a challenging role. The paper proposed a fair emphasis on various behavioral factors like performance evaluation, organizational behavior, worker participation, safety stressors, etc. that are effective and adaptable for safety improvement in construction industry.
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A recent prevalence of high visibility catastrophic events has garnered increased attention to process safety issues. While the use of Behavior-Based Safety interventions demonstrate a reduction in workplace injuries by targeting employee behavior, we believe that process safety requires a greater focus on the behavior of leaders (e.g., creating and executing strategy). One effective method to begin targeting leader behavior for the improvement of process safety is to teach leaders about the principles of behavior, including ways by which the science may be applied within their own organizational models.
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Background: Behaviour-based safety (BBS) is one of the promising methods implemented in industry to reduce the incidence of accidents and injuries. Researchers have reported diverse BBS applications in various industries. The diversity of applications and results reveals a need for systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the overall effectiveness of BBS to improve workers’ safety and health.Objective: To quantitatively assess the effectiveness of behaviour-based safety (BBS) interventions in reducing accidents and injury occurrence in occupational settings.Methods: A critical appraisal was conducted to assess the methodological quality of study. A meta-analysis was also performed to identify the direction and size of the effect.Results: Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria with a poor to marginal methodological quality. Eight studies achieved a statistically significant reduction in accidents/injuries after conducting a BBS intervention. The overall metaSAR (0.60, 95% CI 0.72–0.97) displayed a statistical significance in reducing accidents/injuries.Conclusions: A statistically significant reduction in injuries/accidents was observed after conducting a BBS intervention in a workplace. However, this statistical significance should be interpreted with caution, due to the poor to marginal methodological quality of studies included in the meta-analysis. Reliable results require interventions with high methodological quality based on the specific needs of the workplace.
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Safety belt use, turn signal use, and intersection stopping were observed at 3 pizza delivery locations per driver's license plate numbers. After baseline observations, employees at 1 store participated in goal setting targeting complete stops. Employees at the other store were assigned a goal. Over 4 weeks, the group's percentages of complete intersection stopping were posted. Both intervention groups significantly increased their complete intersection stops during the intervention phase. The participative goal-setting group also showed significant increases in turn signal and safety belt use (nontargeted behaviors) concurrent with their increases in intersection stopping (targeted behaviors). Drivers decreased their turn signal and safety belt use concurrent with the assigned goal condition targeting complete stops.
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A practical intervention program, targeting the safety belt use of pizza deliverers at two stores, increased significantly the use of both safety belts (143% above baseline) and turn signals (25% above baseline). Control subjects (i.e., pizza deliverers at a third no-intervention store and patrons driving to the pizza stores) showed no changes in belt or turn signal use over the course of 7-month study. The intervention program was staggered across two pizza stores and consisted of a group meeting wherein employees discussed the value of safety belts, received feedback regarding their low safety belt use, offered suggestions for increasing their belt use, and made a personal commitment to buckle up by signing buckle-up promise cards. Subsequently, employee-designed buckle-up reminder signs were placed in the pizza stores. By linking license plate numbers to individual driving records, we examined certain aspects of driving history as moderators of pre- and postintervention belt use. Although baseline belt use was significantly lower for drivers with one or more driving demerits or accidents in the previous 5 years, after the intervention these risk groups increased their belt use significantly and at the same rate as drivers with no demerits or accidents. Whereas baseline belt use was similar for younger (under 25) and older (25 or older) drivers, younger drivers were markedly more influenced by the intervention than were older drivers. Individual variation in belt use during baseline, intervention, and follow-up phases indicated that some drivers require more effective and costly intervention programs to motivate their safe driving practices.
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A review of the Journal of Organizational Behavior Management(1991–2002) was conducted to determine to what extent researchers in OBM programmed for “institutionalization” of applied interventions. Criteria for the term “institutionalization” were derived from McSween and Matthews (2001), and Grindle, Dickinson, and Boettcher (2000). Four dependent measures of institutionalization were developed that addressed the extent to which internal staff was involved in the design of the intervention, whether in-house employees were trained in implementing any component of the intervention, and whether interventions incorporated formal systems of collecting data or dispensing consequences that were overseen by internal personnel. Data on intervention effectiveness and maintenance of intervention effects were collected. Results indicated that the majority of interventions incorporated at least one institutionalization element, and that the average study incorporated two institutionalization elements. A statistically significant outcome was obtained for a regression analysis in which number of institutionalization components in an intervention was used as a predictor variable, and effect sizes calculated between baseline and intervention phases was used as a criterion variable. A non-significant regression coefficient was, however, obtained when effect sizes calculated between baseline and maintenance phases were used as a criterion variable, and number of institutionalization variables as predictor. The failure of the regression analyses focused on effect sizes calculated between baseline and maintenance phases to reach statistical significance may have been due to the low number of studies that were included in the analyses (n= 7).
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Research and applications of behavioral principles have established behavior-based safety initiatives as potentially effective solutions to certain occupational health and safety challenges. The present study adds to the existing literature a longitudinal evaluation of an employee-driven behavior-based accident prevention initiative implemented in industrial settings. Up to 5 years of injury data from 73 companies, drawn from a target population of 229 companies who implemented behavior-based safety, were examined. Comparisons of pre- to post-initiative incident levels across groups revealed a significant decrease in incidents following the behavior-based safety implementation. Effect sizes were estimated from the average percentage reduction from baseline. The average reduction from baseline amounted to 26% in the first year increasing to 69% by the fifth. These findings are critically examined in terms of both internal and external validity. Future research will focus on differential effects of specific elements of the behavior-based safety initiative described herein.
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One-on-one interviews and focus-group meetings were held at 20 organizations that had implemented a behavior-based safety (BBS) process in order to find reasons for program success/failures. A total of 31 focus groups gave 629 answers to six different questions. A content analysis of these responses uncovered critical information for understanding what employees are looking for in a BBS program. A perception survey administered to individual employees (n = 701) at these organizations measured a variety of variables identified in prior research to influence success in safety efforts. The survey data showed five variables to be significantly predictive of employee involvement in a BBS process: 1) perceptions that BBS training was effective; 2) trust in management abilities; 3) accountability for BBS through performance appraisals; 4) whether or not one had received education in BBS; and 5) tenure with the organization. Also, employees in organizations mandating employee participation in a BBS process (n=8 companies) reported significantly higher levels of: (a) involvement; (b) trust in management; (c) trust in coworkers; and (d) satisfaction with BBS training than did employees whose process was completely voluntary (n = 12 companies). In addition, employees in mandatory processes reported significantly greater frequency of giving and receiving positive behavior-based feedback.
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The paper presents three intervention studies designed to modify supervisory monitoring and rewarding of subordinates' safety performance. Line supervisors received weekly feedback concerning the frequency of their safety-oriented interactions with subordinates, and used this to self-monitor progress toward designated improvement goals. Managers higher up in the organizational hierarchy received the same information, coupled with synchronous data concerning the frequency of workers' safety behaviors, and highlighting co-variation of supervisory action and workers' behavior. In all the companies involved, supervisory safety-oriented interaction increased significantly, resulting in significant changes in workers' safety behavior and safety climate scores. Continued improvement during the post-intervention period suggests the inclusion of workers' safety behavior as in-role supervisory responsibility. Applied and theoretical implications are discussed.
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Safety coaching is an applied behavior analysis technique that involves interpersonal interaction to understand and manipulate environmental conditions that are directing (i.e., antecedent to) and motivating (i.e., consequences of) safety-related behavior. A safety coach must be skilled in interacting with others so as to understand their perspectives, communicate a point clearly, and be persuasive with behavior-based feedback. This article discusses the evidence-based "ability model" of emotional intelligence and its relevance to the interpersonal aspect of the safety coaching process. Emotional intelligence has potential for improving safety-related efforts and other aspects of individuals' work and personal lives. Safety researchers and practitioners are therefore encouraged to gain an understanding of emotional intelligence and conduct and support research applying this construct toward injury prevention.
Behavior based safety approach at a Kuwait Research Institution
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