The clinical utility of behavior modification has frequently been demonstrated with problems in living of the kind often encountered in probation casework. Despite this, the approach has been used only infrequently in the probation context. A review of the literature reveals that probation workers are receptive to behavior modification concepts, and that their knowledge of, and competence with, ... [Show full abstract] the approach is enhanced by training. However, the evidence that trained probation officers can implement behavioral procedures in everyday casework, and that behavioral casework then produces successful client outcome, is indicative rather than definitive. Possible reasons for difficulties with the implementation and outcome of behavior modification in probation settings are discussed, and consideration is given to ways in which the potential use of behavior modification in probation casework may be more fully realized.