ArticleLiterature Review

The antioxidant activity of artichoke (Cynara scolymus): A systematic review and meta‐analysis of animal studies

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Abstract

Current evidence has shown antioxidant activity of artichoke as a potent source of antioxidant compounds. However, it seems that the antioxidant activity of artichoke has not yet been reviewed. Therefore, the present study was designed to perform a systematic review of human studies, animal models, and in vitro systems and to conduct a meta‐analysis of animal studies on the antioxidant effects of artichoke. We searched four electronic databases till April 2018 using relevant keywords. All English language articles were assessed. For animal studies, standardized mean difference was pooled using a random effects model. The included studies were evaluated for eligibility and risk of bias. Thirty‐nine articles (two human, 23 animal, and 14 in vitro studies) were reviewed. The results of in vitro systems supported the antioxidant effect of artichoke, whereas limited clinical trials indicated no change or a slight improvement of antioxidant status. Finding of animal studies indicated that artichoke extract supplementation increased superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase level in liver, as well as, decreased malondialdehyde level in liver and plasma of animals with induced disease significantly compared with comparison group. This meta‐analysis provided convincing evidence for antioxidant activity of artichoke in animals.

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... Cynara scolymus L. (Artichoke), a member of Asteraceae family, is an ancient herbaceous perennial plant, originating from the Mediterranean area, which today is widely cultivated all over the world because of its nutritional benefits and medicinal purposes (Salekzamani et al., 2019). Phytochemicals analysis of Cynara scolymus has been found to contain powerful polyphenolic compounds which have therapeutic options including remarkable antioxidant activity against ROS and preventing the formation of free radicals (El-Boshy et al., 2017). ...
... Phytochemicals analysis of Cynara scolymus has been found to contain powerful polyphenolic compounds which have therapeutic options including remarkable antioxidant activity against ROS and preventing the formation of free radicals (El-Boshy et al., 2017). Previous studies have reported that artichoke extract has important activities such as hepatoprotective (Gebhardt and Fausel, 1997), hypoglycemic (Salem et al., 2017), antibacterial (Shimoda et al. 2003), antioxidant (Salekzamani et al., 2019), anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory (El-Boshy et al., 2017). ...
... Extract-treated animals in this study have enhanced Hb, PCV levels and RBCs numbers in comparison with PHZ group. Therefore, the beneficial impact of ethanol extract of artichoke in improving hematinic profile in PHZ-induced anemia may be due to reducing ROS which leads to establishing fragility of RBCs and restoring the total Hb concentration in the blood (Avcı et al., 2006;Rezazadeh et al., 2012, Salekzamani et al., 2019. On the other hand, it was reported that Cynara scolymus is rich in phenolic compounds belonging to different classes such as benzoic and cinnamic derivatives, flavonoids and tannins (Lattanzio et al., 2009). ...
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BACKGROUND: Hemolytic anemia is a disorder characterized by the premature erythrocytes destruction. Phenylhydrazine (PHZ) induces oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which causes hemolytic anemia. Cynara scolymus due to its antioxidant compounds, has been used for various therapeutic purposes in traditional medicine. OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Cynara scolymus extract on PHZ -induced anemia in male rats. METHODS: Hemolytic anemia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of PHZ (40 mg/kg) for 2 days. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group 1 (normal control). Group 2 (anemic control) received only PHZ. The groups 3 to 5 were injected with 100, 200, 400 mg/kg of the Cynara scolymus by gavage, respectively, daily from day 2 to day 15 after PHZ administration. At the end of the treatment period, blood samples were collected to assess hematological parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and antioxidant enzymes activity, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the serum and erythrocytes. RESULTS: In anemic rats, serum and erythrocytes MDA level increased, but SOD and TAC activity decreased when compared with control group (P≤ 0.05). These changes were ameliorated by treatment with Cynara scolymus at different doses (P≤ 0.05). Also, improvement in several hematological parameters was observed in anemic rats after administration of Cynara scolymus (P≤ 0.05). CONCLUSION: Cynara scolymus extract exhibits protective property against PHZ-induced oxidative stress presumably due to antioxidative activity.
... It is rich in polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, lignans with a wide spectrum of medical applications in nearly all parts of the plants (Abu-Reidah, Arraez-Roman, Segura-Carretero, & Fernandez-Gutierrez, 2013;Blanco et al., 2018;Dabbou et al., 2016;Durazzo et al., 2013;Jiménez-Moreno et al., 2019). The biological activities include mainly lipid-lowering, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory (Pagano et al., 2016;Salekzamani, Ebrahimi-Mameghani, & Rezazadeh, 2019) developing commercial products for treating cardiovascular diseases, such as Oleactiv® produced by FY-TEXIA (Vendre, France) as an anti-atherosclerotic drug. It is composed of artichoke, in addition to olive (Olea europaea L.), white and red grape pomace and seed (Vitis vinifera L.) extracts (Romain et al., 2018). ...
... In contrast, in vivo action was reported via the determination of oxidative stress biomarkers, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) for anti-oxidant and inhibition of carrageenan-induced edema activities in addition to histopathological examination (Ben Salem, Affes, et al., 2017). Experimentally, exposure of normal cell lines in in vitro studies to inflammatory cytokines, ultraviolet B (UVB), and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) confirmed the potential effects of ALE in the mitigation against harmful and cell destructive ROS production (Salekzamani et al., 2019). In vivo investigations and meta-analysis studies supported the anti-oxidant activity of artichoke extract in animals found to be mediated via increase of liverprotective enzymes against free radicals such as SOD, CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), asides from a decline of malondialdehyde levels in liver and plasma (Salekzamani et al., 2019). ...
... Experimentally, exposure of normal cell lines in in vitro studies to inflammatory cytokines, ultraviolet B (UVB), and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) confirmed the potential effects of ALE in the mitigation against harmful and cell destructive ROS production (Salekzamani et al., 2019). In vivo investigations and meta-analysis studies supported the anti-oxidant activity of artichoke extract in animals found to be mediated via increase of liverprotective enzymes against free radicals such as SOD, CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), asides from a decline of malondialdehyde levels in liver and plasma (Salekzamani et al., 2019). ...
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Cynara cardunculus L. with its three botanical varieties are presented as potential food and drug resources. Its young flower heads are commonly consumed as a principal part of different Mediterranean dishes, especially the globe artichoke, whereas its different plant parts are considered potential sources of valuable phytoconstituents, mainly polysaccharides, and polyphenols. These chemicals contribute to its nutrition, industry, and bioactivities, including hepatic-and cardiovascular protection and inflammation disorders. A holistic comparative study of artichoke phytochemicals make-up as determinants of its quality, nutritive value and health benefits is presented for its different varieties. Such reviewed evidence is an essential prerequisite for a future better selection of certain variety, and or utilization in therapeutic, food and pharmaceutical applications. The review presented few endeavors for the development of potential novel functional foods fortified with artichoke extracts and/or its bioactive which are of value and need to be more recognized commercially.
... Our systematic review and meta-analysis of eight clinical trials generated novel evidence, showcasing that artichoke administration may elicit significant beneficial effects on circulating AST and ALT Our results were concordant with a recent meta-analysis of animal studies that proposed the potential properties of artichoke on the reduction of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. 28 The role of oxidative stress (increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and oxidant and antioxidant imbalance) in cellular degradation and toxicity of the liver has been identified in several studies. 29,30 Indeed, following rupture of the plasma membrane and cellular damage, the release of liver enzymes into the blood circulation occurs. ...
... It seems that the antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of artichoke could prevent liver toxicity and improve the cell membrane integrity, which may be characterised by reduced levels of ALT, AST, and alkaline phosphatase enzymes. 28 Another possible explanation for the reduction in liver enzyme levels and hepato-protective consequences, following of artichoke administration, could be manifest from its' lipid and glycemicreducing action. There is strong evidence indicating that increased transportation of fat to the liver, and accumulation of lipids within hepatocytes, mostly in the form of triglycerides, may be risk factors for impaired liver function. ...
... Numerous studies have shown that artichoke extract can improve the balance of antioxidants and oxidants, which plays an important role in controlling and regulating cell function. 28 It has also been suggested that artichokes, and their extracts, can be effective as an antioxidant in the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress. 33,46 Therefore, the beneficial effect of artichoke treatment on cell integrity, and consequently the reduction of in both ALT and AST enzyme levels, may be explained in this manner. ...
Article
Objective A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to summarize studies conducted on the effects of artichoke supplementation on liver enzymes. Methods Suitable studies were detected by searching online databases, including Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases, until 05 June 2021. As liver enzymes were reported in different units, standardized mean differences (SMD) were used and data were pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity, publication bias, and sensitivity analysis were also assessed. Results Pooled analysis, of eight clinical trials, revealed that artichoke supplementation significantly reduced the concentration of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P=0.001) and alanine transaminase (ALT) (; P = 0.016), in comparison with placebo. Subgroup analysis suggested that artichoke administration significantly reduces AST and ALT in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (P=0.003 for AST and P<0.001 for ALT), and ALT among overweight/obese subjects (P=0.025). Conclusions Artichoke supplementation elicited significant reductions in liver enzymes, especially among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
... Относительно недавно опубликован систематический обзор и метаанализ 39 исследований, в которых анализировалось влияние артишока на состояние печени [73]. Следует отметить, что из трайлов, вошедших в метаанализ, в двух исследования проведены с участием людей, в 23 -с привлечением лабораторных животных, а 14 работ проведены в условиях in vitro. ...
... Изучив результаты экспериментальных работ, S. Salekzamani и соавт. (2019) подтвердили, что экстракт листьев артишока повышает содержание супероксиддисмутазы, каталазы, глутатиона в печени, а также снижает концентрацию малонового диальдегида в печени и плазме крови лабораторных животных по сравнению с плацебо [73]. ...
Article
Composition of the Engilen preparation, medicinal properties of plants that make up the preparation, indications for its prescription are analyzed in detail in the article. Particular attention is paid to the advantages of Engilen, such as: optimal doses and ratio of active ingredients, wide range of indications, effectiveness upon combined diseases of the digestive system and with the concomitant pathology of other organs and systems. The results of our own study are presented, showing the effectiveness of Engilen upon chronic acalculous cholecystitis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in patients with excessive body mass or obesity. In addition, an effective correction of various types of the gall-bladder dysfunction has been obtained.
... Antioxidative, hepatoprotective, bile expelling, and lipid-lowering effects have been associated with the artichoke leaf extract [40]. In particular, Salekzamani et al. [41] reviewed the Cynara scolymus antioxidant activities in human, animal, and in vitro studies. Only data obtained in in vitro studies supported the antioxidant activities of artichoke (leaves or heads extracts) in the prevention or reduction of the oxidative stress. ...
... e human trials, due to the limited numbers (only two) showed no change or slight increase in the antioxidant status. e meta-analysis of animal studies (23, mainly rats) pointed out that the artichoke extract supplementation had beneficial effect on antioxidant balance (increase superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSH, and glutathione peroxidase levels and decrease malondialdehyde level in liver and plasma) in animals with induced liver disease compared with others [41]. ...
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Numerous complementary feeds to support liver function are commercially available for small animals. Aiming to furnish a scientific support for clinicians/nutritionists that necessitate a complementary feed to support liver function in dogs and cats, with the present paper, we analyzed scientific evidences supporting the use, for this purpose, of ingredients/additives such as artichoke (Cynara scolymus), curcumin, dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), milk thistle (Silybum marianum), phosphatidylcholine, and S-adenosylmethionine. Although sustained by significant results, our review found only few scientific papers, and albeit we believe that they represent a significant aid in handling hepatopathies, in the authors’ opinion, this topic probably deserves, and would benefit of, further studies.
... Artichoke is a native plant of the Mediterranean basin, which is known worldwide for its medicinal properties, including hypoglycemic, cholesterol lowering, anti-atherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, prebiotic and probiotic, choleretic (ALE might increase secretion in perfused rat liver and liver cell cultures), antimicrobial, antifungal, immunomodulatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. However, it is accepted that the positive impact of artichoke on health is mainly related to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects 20 . ...
... By helping to remove ROS, ALE prevents lipid peroxidation in cell membranes and significantly prevents oxidative damage 20 . In this study, with the use of ALE during I/R injury, a statistically significant improvement was observed in the ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, and CK values in plasma, which had increased as a result of membrane damage, and this was considered the hepatoprotective effect of ALE against I/R injury. ...
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Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect and mechanism of action of artichoke leaf extract in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. Methods: Rats were divided into three groups such as sham, control, and artichoke leaf extract groups. Antioxidant enzyme activities and biochemical parameters were examined from the tissue and serum obtained from the subjects. Histopathological findings were scored semiquantitatively. Results: Statistically, the antioxidant activity was highest in the artichoke leaf extract group, the difference in biochemical parameters and C-reactive protein was significant compared with the control group, and the histopathological positive effects were found to be significantly higher. Conclusions: As a result, artichoke leaf extract had a hepatoprotective effect and that this effect was related to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of artichoke.
... ALE contains bioactive and flavonoid compounds such as caffeoylquinic acids and luteolin glucosides. 88,89 The potent antioxidant, choleretic, hepatoprotective, bile-enhancing and lipid-lowering effects of this herb have been recognized as well. The research studies demonstrated that artichoke seems to be a beneficial effect on the liver. ...
... ALE also has shown a remarkable increase in anti-inflammatory factors, which indicated that serum NF-κB, TNF-α, Cox-2, CD 40, and HGF levels have a significant increase as a result of treatment with both crude aqueous methanolic extract and crude aqueous fraction as in comparison with the nonalcoholic steatohepatitis induced in untreated rats. 88,89 ...
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Free radicals are a group of damaging molecules produced during the normal metabolism of cells in the human body. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation, cigarette smoking, and other environmental pollutants enhances free radicals in the human body. The destructive effects of free radicals may also cause harm to membranes, enzymes, and DNA, leading to several human diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, malaria, coronavirus disease (COVID‐19), rheumatoid arthritis, and neurodegenerative illnesses. This process occurs when there is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidant defenses. Since antioxidants scavenge free radicals and repair damaged cells, increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables containing high antioxidant values is recommended to slow down oxidative stress in the body. Additionally, natural products demonstrated a wide range of biological impacts such as anti‐inflammatory, anti‐aging, anti‐atherosclerosis, and anti‐cancer properties. Hence, in this review article, our goal is to explore the role of natural therapeutic antioxidant effects to reduce oxidative stress in the diseases. Role of natural products in oxidative stress (Confirmation of publication and licensing light by bio RENDER; Agreement Number: PS238VX2QY)
... Varios estudios han mostrado los posibles efectos antioxidantes de la alcachofa en humanos y animales (Rezazadeh, Aliashrafi, Asghari-Jafarabadi, & Ebrahimi-Mameghani, 2018;Skarpanska-Stejnborn, Pilaczynska-Szczesniak, Basta, Deskur-Smielcka, & Horoszkiewicz-Hassan, 2008). En concreto, sus extractos parecen incrementar la actividad de algunas enzimas con acción antioxidante en el hígado como el enzima superoxido dismutasa, la catalasa, el glutatión, el glutatión peroxidasa (Salekzamani et al., 2019), a la vez que disminuye los niveles hepáticos y plasmáticos del malondialdehído. El malondialdehído es un producto directo de la acción de los radicales libres de oxígeno. ...
... For this goal, many plant extracts and plant chemicals have been investigated in recent times. Recently, it has been shown that extracts and bioactive molecules from artichoke (i.e., apigenin, luteolin, cynaropicrin) possess a high antioxidant capacity [29,30], are effective in supporting the treatment of dyslipidaemia [31][32][33], and have some significant antitumour activity [3]. ...
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(1) Background: Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hegi, popularly known as artichoke, is an herbaceous plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. Artichoke leaf extracts (ALEs) have been widely used in traditional medicine because of their hepatoprotective, cholagogic, hypoglycaemic, hypolipemic and antibacterial properties. ALEs are also recognized for their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic activities, as well as effect on cell growth of ALEs on human colon cancer HT-29 and RKO cells. HT-29 and RKO cells exhibit a different p53 status: RKO cells express the wild-type protein, whereas HT-29 cells express a p53-R273H contact mutant. (2) Methods: Four different ALEs were obtained by sequential extraction of dried artichoke leaves; ALEs were characterized for their content in chlorogenic acid, cynaropicrin, and caffeoylquinic acids. HT-29 and RKO cells were used for in vitro testing (i.e., cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis induction). (3) Results: Two out of the four tested ALEs showed marked effects on cell vitality toward HT-29 and RKO tumour cells. The effect was accompanied by a genotoxic activity exerted at a non-cytotoxic concentrations, by a significant perturbation of cell cycle (i.e., with increase of cells in the sub-G1 phase), and by the induction of apoptosis. (4) Conclusions: ALEs rich in cynaropicrin, caffeoylquinic acids, and chlorogenic acid showed to be capable of affecting HT-29 and RKO colon cancer cells by inducing favourable biological effects: cell cycle perturbation, activation of mitochondrial dependent pathway of apoptosis, and the induction of genotoxic effects probably mediated by the induction of apoptosis. Taken together, these results weigh in favour of a potential cancer chemotherapeutic activity of ALEs.
... Meta-analysis is a set of techniques used to combine the results of various independent studies into single report in order to create a precise estimate of an 'effect' (Hoffman 2015). This statistic method was largely implemented in medical research for highlighting the multiple studies performed by different scientific teams in various environments (Ioannidis 2012;Salekzamani et al. 2018). Recently, some authors investigated this approach in aquaculture to assess the effect of plant protein inclusion on fish growth (Sales 2009;Hua & Bureau 2012;Collins et al. 2013;Novriadi 2017). ...
Article
Plant‐based additives are currently used in aquaculture for their various beneficial properties. Curcumin and turmeric are usually applied for their interesting results on growth performance of fish. In this paper, the effect of dietary inclusion of curcumin and turmeric powder on growth performance in fish was studied. Twenty data sets from 5 studies and 29 data sets from 8 publications were respectively computed for curcumin and turmeric in this analysis. Specific growth rate (SGR) was the quantitative criteria recorded for each data set. After, a brief systemic summary of each study, the quantitative analysis was performed. Results showed a significant increase in pooled standard mean difference (SMD) for both fixed and random model in curcumin and turmeric. Although fish species were categorized into family (subcategory), high heterogeneity (>96%) was found in all random and fixed model analysis. Contrary to turmeric, higher curcumin inclusion results in lower specific growth rate. The higher effect sizes observed when fed curcumin at lower inclusion levels suggests that feeding low levels of phytochemicals might be beneficial and its content in turmeric should be analysed for quite homogeneous feed. This study contributes to the analysis of overall growth performance properties of turmeric and curcumin incorporation in fish diet, irrespective to their strong antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities.
... The natural plant products are also used as natural antioxidants to replace the synthetic antioxidants, which have toxic and dangerous effects 25 . It has been suggested that some plants, which have antioxidant activity, could decrease the risk of disease linked to oxidative stress in humans, thanks to the improvement of its antioxidant defence system, inhibition of the production of reactive oxygenated species and also to the redox properties of antioxidants [26][27][28] . There is a large variety of methods to determine this activity (DPPH, FRAP, CUPRAC, ORAC, ABTS, betacarotene, etc.). ...
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p>The aim of this study is the valorization of the Cistus monspeliensis plant, native to North of Morocco, as antioxidant and corrosion inhibitor. Firstly, the plant is extracted by maceration in a mixture of water/acetone solvents. Phytochemical tests are carried out on the extract obtained. The antioxidant power of Cistus monspeliensis extract is evaluated by two methods: the test of reduction of the free radical DPPH <sup>∙</sup> (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) and that of Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization are used to study the anticorrosion effect of Cistus monspeliensis extract. The results showed that the extract, 27.6% yield, contains phenolic compounds in the form of flavonoids, hydrolysable and condensed tannins, saponins, reducing sugars and glycosides. This extract has an antioxidant capacity similar to that of ascorbic acid with an inhibition concentration of 0.077 mg/mL 0.102 mg/mL for DPPH and FRAP test, respectively. Tafel plots show that the extract is an excellent cathodic inhibitor. The maximum inhibition efficiency of 92 % was obtained with 0.25 g/L of the inhibitor at 298 k. The impedance plot is characterized by a single capacitive loop attributed to the charge transfer process. The results also showed that the inhibitor acts on the surface of the metal principally by adsorption, leading to the formation of a protective film limiting the corrosion of ordinary steel.</p
... 14 Although, artichoke and artichoke products supplementation appears to be a safe alternative for the glycemic control, the current evidence relatively limited and non-conclusive. 4,6,[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] A few studies have reported that the supplementation of artichoke and artichoke products have a promising effect on controlling the glycemic indices. 13,14,16,18 In contrast, others did not confirm such effects. ...
Article
Objectives Cynara scolymus L. (common artichoke) and its products have been considered as potential phytotherapeutic agents for various conditions, such as cardiovascular, hepatic and gastric diseases, among others. Until now, the effects of artichoke and artichoke products administration on glycemic indices have not been sufficiently appraised. The present study evaluated the effects of artichoke and artichoke products administration on the glycemic indices. Methods Clinical trials were identified in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase and Scopus databases; to infinity until 15 March 2020. Weighted mean differences (WMD) were pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis and publication bias were reported using standard methods. Results Pooled analysis of nine Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), demonstrated that the administration of artichoke and artichoke products led to a significant reduced fasting blood sugar (FBS) (WMD: -5.28 mg/dl, 95% CI: -8.95, -1.61; p = 0.005). However, other glycemic indeces including fasting insulin (WMD: -0.45 μIU/dL, 95% CI: -1.14, 0.25; p = 0.20), HOMA-IR (MD: -0.25, 95% CI: -0.57, 0.07; p = 0.12) or Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (WMD: -0.09, 95% CI: -0.20, 0.02; p = 0.09) did not alter after the administration of artichoke and artichoke products. A subgroup analysis comparing the kind of intervention, revealed that just the supplementation of artichoke and artichoke products, in a noco-supplementation form, was efficacy for the reduction of Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (WMD: -0.52, 95% CI: -0.85, -0.19; p = 0.002) Conclusions The supplementation of artichoke and artichoke products can significantly reduce the FBS concentrations in humans. Moreover, these outcomes suggested that just the supplementation of artichoke and artichoke products is more effective in the reduction of HOMA-IR levels than the co-supplementation form. However, additional clinical trials with longer study periods are necessitated to obtain a robust conclusion for producing new guidelines as part of a healthy diet.
... Assaying the polyphenol scavenging capabilities can be performed through several assays procedures. These assays include Troxol-equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC), the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, the ferric reducing ability assay (FRAP), the inhibition of Cu 2+ -induced plasma oxidation and the inhibition of red blood cell haemolysis induced by peroxyl radicals [55][56][57]. ...
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Background Artichoke is an edible plant that is grown in the Mediterranean region and is known for its antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer activities. Different artichoke extraction methods can impressively affect the nature as well as the yield of the extracted components. Main body The different methods of artichoke extraction and the influence of the extraction conditions on the extraction efficiency are summarized herein. In addition, cancer causalities and hallmarks together with the molecular mechanisms of artichoke active molecules in cancer treatment are also discussed. Moreover, a short background is given on the common types of cancer that can be treated with artichoke extracts as well as their pathogenesis. A brief discussion of the previous works devoted to the application of artichoke extracts in the treatment of these cancers is also given. Conclusion This review article covers the extraction methods, composition, utilization and applications of artichoke extracts in the treatment of different cancers.
... Artichoke leaves contain up to 2 per cent of phenolic acids, including caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and cinnarin; flavonoids (0.1 per cent-1 per cent); and volatile oils. 10 According to a meta-analysis by Salekzamani et al, 11 artichoke has health-promoting properties for a variety of diseases, with convincing evidence in animal models of its antioxidant ability to restore 'redox homeostasis'. Unfortunately, the authors of that meta-analysis were unable to suggest the best dosage or duration of treatment for artichoke due to the high heterogeneity between included studies and the equivalent antioxidant effects identified with lower (<1000 mg/ kg) and higher dosages (≥1000 mg/kg). ...
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Background Despite hepatotoxic effects, imidocarb dipropionate is the drug of choice for treatment of equine piroplasmosis. It is important, therefore, to identify adjuvant therapies that may improve the safety of imidocarb dipropionate by reducing the risk of liver damage during its use. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective and hepatoregulatory effects of treatment with Cynara scolymus and Silybum marianum during administration of imidocarb dipropionate. Methods Ten healthy horses, seroconverted to Theileria equi by C-ELISA, were treated with 5 mg/kg/day of imidocarb dipropionate for three consecutive days. The study population was divided into two groups. The control group did not receive any complementary treatments. The treated group received a daily oral supplement containing C scolymus and S marianum for 30 days. Physical, haematological and histological examinations of hepatic fragments were performed. Results All haematological values remained within normal range for the study population. Histological analysis revealed that treated group animals had 62 per cent less lobular inflammation, 55 per cent less pigment accumulation, 65 per cent less steatosis and 57 per cent less portal inflammation than control group animals, with an equivalent percentage of hydropic degeneration. Conclusion C scolymus and S marianum supplements resulted in beneficial hepatoprotective effects in horses treated with imidocarb dipropionate.
... These polyphenolic constituents exhibit potent ROS and free radicals scavenging ability [20], which in turn play a vital role as an antioxidant in the preventive treatments of oxidative damage-related disorders. Studies have shown the artichoke extract properties, such as hepatocurative [21], lipid-lowering [22], hypoglycemic [23], antioxidant [24,25], anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory [26,27] in both vivo and vitro experiments. ...
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Background: Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) possesses bioactive components with antioxidant effects. This plant has been widely used in traditional medicine. Objectives: The current study aimed to examine the protective activity of Hydroethanolic Extract of Cynara scolymus (HECS) against experimentally-induced hemolytic anemia in rats. Methods: Hemolytic anemia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of Phenylhydrazine (PHZ) 40 mg/kg for 2 days. PHZ induces oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species formation, which causes hemolytic anemia. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups (n=6 for each group). Group 1 (normal control) was injected with normal saline. Group 2 (anemic control) received only PHZ. Groups 3 to 5 were injected with 100, 200, 400 mg/kg of the HECS by gavage, respectively, daily from day 2 to day 15 after PHZ administration. At the end of the treatment period, their blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis. Results: The results indicated that serum Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in the PHZ (anemic) group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P
... Inulin molecules are found in a variety of vegetables such as asparagus, leeks, artichokes, onions, and garlic items with varying degree of polymerization (DP) which is associated to their different functional features [10]. e extracted inulin from these plants are known for their therapeutic, preventive, and physioprotective effects as lowering of blood cholesterol or glucose level by reducing lipogenesis and the antioxidant effects [9][10][11][12][13]. Moreover, these inulin-type fructans selectively stimulate also the growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp. in the human colon and as a result of their fermentation, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) can be formed. ...
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Globe artichoke is an intriguing source of indigestible sugar polymers such as inulin-type fructans. In this study, the effect of ultrasound in combination with ethanol precipitation to enhance the extraction of long chain fructans from artichoke wastes has been evaluated. The inulin-type fructans content both from bracts and stems was measured using an enzymatic fructanase-based assay, while its average degree of polymerization (DP) was determined by HPLC-RID analysis. Results show that this method provides artichoke extracts with an inulin-type fructans content of 70% with an average DP between 32 and 42 both in bracts and in stems. The prebiotic effect of long chain inulins from artichoke extract wastes was demonstrated by its ability to support the growth of five Lactobacillus and four Bifidobacterium species, previously characterized as probiotics. Besides, we considered the possibility to industrialize the process developing a simpler method for the production of inulin-type fructans from the artichoke wastes so that the artichoke inulin preparation could be suitable for its use in synbiotic formulations in combination with different probiotics for further studies including in vivo trials.
... In a clinical study reported in the literature, the benefits of artichoke extract supplementation were shown in patients with metabolic syndrome, where a significant decrease in LDL cholesterol was observed, based on the antioxidant effects induced by polyphenolic compounds [50]. In addition, an important decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver was observed in preclinical studies [51]. ...
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Oxidative stress is among the major triggers for many important human functional disorders, which often lead to various metabolic or tissue diseases. The aim of the study is to obtain five standardized vegetal extracts (Cynarae extractum—CE, Rosmarini extractum—RE, Taraxaci extractum—TE, Cichorii extractum—CHE, and Agrimoniae extractum—AE) that contain active principles with an essential role in protecting liver cells against free radicals and quantify their antioxidant actions. The compounds of therapeutic interest from the analyzed extracts were identified and quantified using the UHPLC–HRMS/MS technique. Thus, the resulting identified compounds were 28 compounds in CE, 48 compounds in RE, 39 compounds in TE, 43 compounds in CHE, and 31 compounds in AE. These compounds belong to the class of flavonoids, isoflavones, phenolic acids and dicarboxylic acids, depsides, diterpenes, triterpenes, sesquiterpenes, proanthocyanidins, or coumarin derivatives. From the major polyphenolic compounds quantified in all the extracts analyzed by UHPLC–HRMS/MS, considerable amounts have been found for chlorogenic acid (619.8 µg/g extract for TE–2032.4 µg/g extract for AE), rutoside (105.1 µg/g extract for RE–1724.7 µg/g extract for AE), kaempferol (243 µg/g extract for CHE–2028.4 µg/g extract for CE), and for naringenin (383 µg/g extract for CHE–1375.8 µg/g extract for AE). The quantitative chemical analysis showed the highest content of total phenolic acids for AE (24.1528 ± 1.1936 g chlorogenic acid/100 g dry extract), the highest concentration of flavones for RE (6.0847 ± 0.3025 g rutoside/100 g dry extract), and the richest extract in total polyphenols with 31.7017 ± 1.2211 g tannic acid equivalent/100 g dry extract for AE. Several methods (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP) have been used to determine the in vitro total antioxidant activity of the extracts to evaluate their free radical scavenging ability, influenced by the identified compounds. As a result, the correlation between the content of the polyphenolic compounds and the antioxidant effect of the extracts has been demonstrated. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing the antiradical capacity within the study groups. Although all the analyzed extracts showed good IC50 values, which may explain their antihepatotoxic effects, the highest antioxidant activity was obtained for Agrimoniae extractum (IC50ABTS = 0.0147 mg/mL) and the lowest antioxidant activity was obtained for Cynarae extractum (IC50ABTS = 0.1588 mg/mL). Furthermore, the hepatoprotective potential was evaluated in silico by predicting the interactions between the determined phytochemicals and key molecular targets relevant to liver disease pathophysiology. Finally, the evaluation of the pharmacognostic and phytochemical properties of the studied extracts validates their use as adjuvants in phytotherapy, as they reduce oxidative stress and toxin accumulation and thus exert a hepatoprotective effect at the cellular level.
... Artichoke has a wide array of applications such as: anti-cancer effect [33], treatment of liver disease [34] and gastrointestinal disorders [35], antioxidant effect [36], anti-inflammatory [37], anti-obesity [38], antifungal [39], reduction of lipid levels in blood (cholesterol) which is good for cardiovascular health [31]. Hitherto, no study is reported on the effects of Artichoke. ...
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Regarding the favorable advantages of green inhibitors, there are a number of studies to introduce the inhibition behavior of this type of material to enhance the protection of metals. In the present study, the mild steel substrates are protected in the acidic process by Artichoke as a green corrosion inhibitor. Some professional measurements were chosen for the corrosion inhibitive action evaluation of the Artichoke at various concentrations in the acidic solution. The electrochemical outcomes implied that the Artichoke revealed a superior inhibition action to mild steel. It was demonstrated that the charge transfer resistance of the Artichoke with a higher concentration (1000 ppm) enhanced from ∼9.9 Ω. cm2 to ∼795.2 Ω. cm2 after 24 h of immersion. The maximum corrosion inhibition efficiency (about 98.7%) and surface coverage (about 76.3%) were obtained in the presence of 1000 ppm Artichoke extract after 24 h immersion. The polarization results also revealed that by the addition of Artichoke extract, the corrosion current density of the mild steel significantly decreased from 6.3 μA/cm2 for the sample without inhibitor to 0.1 μA/cm2 for the sample containing 1000 ppm inhibitor. The Artichoke could effectively protect the steel through physicochemical interaction and film formation to mitigate the serious demolition of cl−. This green corrosion inhibitor is applicable to work out the corrosion obstacles of metallic equipment in the acidic process. Also, the adsorption of anticorrosive chemicals on the substrate was computationally ascertained by molecular/DFT (density functional theory) modelings
... For instance, animal experiments indicated that these extracts elevate superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase activities in the liver and lower the contents of malondialdehyde in the liver and plasma. 38 Additionally, artichoke can alleviate diabetes induced by a high-fat diet in mice. 39 Analytically, the plant contains the following chemicals, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid), cynarin (1,3-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid), 3,5-Odicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, luteolin-7rutinoside, cynaroside, apigenin-7-rutinoside, and apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (detected by high-performance liquid chromatography, HPLC). ...
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Hypertension adversely affects the quality of life in humans across modern society. Studies have attributed increased reactive oxygen species production to the pathophysiology of hypertension. So far, a specific drug to control the disease perfectly has not been developed. However, artichoke, an edible vegetable, plays an essential role in treating many diseases due to its potent antioxidant activities. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of artichoke bud extract (ABE) on heart tissue metabolomics of hypertensive rats. Spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats were divided into six groups, then exposed to different doses comprising ABE, Enalapril Maleate, or 1% carboxylmethyl cellulose for 4 weeks. Their blood pressures were recorded at 0, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after the start of the test period. Thereafter, all rats were anesthetized, and blood was collected from their cardiac apexes. Then, we measured the levels for 15 kinds of serum biochemical parameters. An established orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis model completed the metabolomic analysis. Hypertensive rats in the ABE group exhibited well-controlled blood pressure, relative to those in the model group. Specifically, artichoke significantly lowered serum levels for total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), and uric acid (UA) in the hypertensive rats. This effect involved the action of eight metabolites, including guanine, 1-methylnicotinamide, p-aminobenzoic acid, NAD, NADH, uridine 5′-monophosphate, adenosine monophosphate, and methylmalonic acid. Collectively, these findings suggest that ABE may play a role in affecting oxidative stress and purine, nicotinate, and nicotinamide metabolism.
... In traditional Turkish medicine, the dried seeds of this plant are used to treat the disease, and its fresh leaves are used as a diuretic (4). Its main medicinal properties are treating liver failure, increasing bile secretion, and lowering blood lipids (5)(6)(7)(8). Artichoke hydroalcoholic extract can be effective in preventing type 1 diabetes (9). ...
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Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory and lethal effect of artichoke on pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus and compare it with antibiotics in vitro. Methods: Ten strains of S. aureus were isolated from the vagina of women in Amir Al-Momenin Hospital of Zabol, Iran. The resistance pattern was determined by the disk diffusion method. Finally, the effect of the extract on bacteria was determined by the 96-well microplate method. Results: The results of the antibiotic resistance pattern showed that S. aureus samples had the highest resistance to oxacillin antibiotic and were sensitive to other antibiotics, and only one sample was sensitive to vancomycin antibiotic. The lowest inhibitory concentration of artichoke against S. aureus was 3.1 mg/mL, but five strains were inhibited at a concentration of 6.25 mg/mL. Conclusions: Ethanolic extract had a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of S. aureus pathogens. Further clinical research is necessary for clinical use of these extracts.
... sylvestris (Lamk)) [1]. The globe artichoke is widely investigated for its chemical profile and valued for its nutraceutical and medicinal properties [2][3][4][5][6][7]. Globe artichokes contain a very little amount of fats and high levels of minerals (potassium, sodium, phosphorus), vitamin C, fiber, inulin and polyphenols, hydroxycinnamates, and flavones [8,9]. ...
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Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus (L.), is a perennial plant widely cultivated in the Mediterranean area, known for its edible part named capitula or heads. Its functional properties are related to its high levels of polyphenolic compounds and inulin. “Carciofo di Paestum”, an Italian traditional cultivar, is a labeled PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) product of the Campania region, representing an important economic resource. So far, a few chemical investigations were performed on this cultivar, mainly focused on the analysis of methanol extracts. Due to the increasing use of food supplements, in this study, a comprehensive analysis of green extracts of Carciofo di Paestum” PGI heads was performed. EtOH, EtOH: H2O (80:20, 70:30, 60:40) extracts, as well as infusions and decoctions prepared according to Pharmacopeia XII were analyzed by LC-ESI/QExactive/MS/MS. A total of 17 compounds corresponding to caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, phenolics, flavonoids, and terpenoids were identified. The extracts were further submitted to NMR analysis to highlight the occurrence of primary metabolites. Both LCMS and NMR data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), showing significant differences among the extraction methods. Moreover, 5-caffeoylquinic acid and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were quantified in the extracts by LC-ESI/QTrap/MS/MS using the Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) method. Furthermore, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of C. cardunculus var. scolymus “Carciofo di Paestum” extracts were evaluated.
... It has been shown that C. scolymus extracts are able to prevent reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and improve the antioxidant status in animal studies (Ben Salem et al., 2017;El-Boshy et al., 2017;Tang et al., 2017). Several clinical trials revealed a slight improvement in the anti-oxidant status in humans after oral intake of artichoke leaf extracts, as assessed by the levels of several serum enzymes, such as malondialdehyde, oxidized-LDL, glutathione peroxidase or superoxidase dismutase (Rezazadeh et al., 2018a(Rezazadeh et al., , 2018bSalekzamani et al., 2019;Skarpañska-Stejnborn et al., 2008). ...
Article
Artichoke leaf (Cynarae folium) extracts are used as traditional herbal medicinal products to treat a wide range of human ailments, being widely commercialized as nutraceutical or pharmaceutical preparations. In the current study, the hydromethanolic dried leaf extracts of Cynara scolymus L. var. major Brotero and C. scolymus L. var. redonensis N.H.F. Desp. were phytochemically and biologically investigated. The liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS) metabolite profiling showed a complex composition, with phenolic acids (mostly mono- and di-caffeoylquinic acids), flavonoids and sesquiterpene lactones as the most representative classes. The strong antioxidant activity of the two C. scolymus varieties was evidenced in DPPH [64.84–65.21 mg trolox equivalents (TE)/g] and ABTS (86.39–95.55 mg TE/g) radical scavenging, cupric (160.49–171.07 mg TE/g) and ferric (71.47–78.95 mg TE/g) reducing capacity, metal chelating and phosphomolybdenum assays. In addition, the two extracts also displayed anti-enzymatic effects, as assessed in cholinesterase, tyrosinase, glucosidase and amylase tests. Lastly, the artichoke samples (at the concentration of 20 μg/mL) proved a very potent inhibition of the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely interleukin (IL)-1β [7.55–15.75% of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) + cells], IL-8 (11.72–13.46% of LPS + cells) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (4.07–10.35% LPS + cells), in LPS-stimulated human neutrophils. Overall, the results of our study indicate that the two C. scolymus varieties could be regarded as a rich source of biologically active compounds, opening thus the perspectives for their future large scale cultivation and valorization as bio-functional ingredients with putative antioxidant, anti-enzymatic and anti-inflammatory effects.
... It is consumed and used in traditional medicine for the treatment of liver diseases and as an antidiabetic, cardiotonic, choleretic, and antihemorrhodial agent (Conceição et al., 2012;Gostin & Waisundara, 2019;Salem et al., 2017). Scientific evidence has attributed lipidlowering, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory (Chihoub et al., 2019;Salekzamani, Ebrahimi-Mameghani, & Rezazadeh, 2019), antimicrobial, and cytotoxic (Chihoub et al., 2019;Conceição et al., 2012) effects to this plant. Furthermore, in the last few years, the economic and commercial interest associated with this species has been growing due to its diverse industrial applications, such as the production of paper pulp, energy (including biodiesel), and lignocellulosic biomass, and also as a food ingredient for the production of edible oils and some types of cheese (Almeida & Simões, 2018;Barbanera et al., 2021;Bartocci et al., 2016). ...
Article
Cardoon seeds collected in Greece at four different maturity stages (samples S1 to S4) were analysed in terms of chemical composition and in vitro bioactivities. The content of phenolic compounds (six compounds in total) increased with increasing maturity, and 3,5-O-dicaffeyolquinic (14.8–33.8 mg/g extract) acid was the compound detected in higher abundance. Mature seeds (sample S4) also revealed the highest content in lipids (23 g/100 g extract) and tocopherols (29.62 mg/100 g dw) and demonstrated the highest cytotoxic (GI50 of 97–216 µg/mL) and anti-inflammatory (IC50 = 148 µg/mL) activities, and capacity to inhibit the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (IC50 = 5 µg/mL). Cardoon seed hydroethanolic extracts also revealed high antibacterial and antifungal potential, particularly samples S3 and S1, respectively. This study proved the multifaceted potential associated with valorisation of cardoon seeds, while their biological and chemical composition can be influenced by the maturity stage.
... In the literature, artichoke leaf extract (Cynara scolymus) has already been described as an antioxidant [4], choleretic and a hepatoprotective agent [5], as well as a lipid metabolism regulator [6,7]. The most important benefit seems to be supported by its hepatoprotective properties [8]. ...
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The aging of our population is accompanied by an increased prevalence of chronic diseases. Among those, liver, joint and adipose tissue-related pathologies have a major socio-economic impact. They share common origins as they result from a dysregulation of the inflammatory and metabolic status. Plant-derived nutrients and especially polyphenols, exert a large range of beneficial effects in the prevention of chronic diseases but require clinically validated approaches for optimized care management. In this study, we designed an innovative clinical approach considering the metabolites produced by the digestive tract following the ingestion of an artichoke leaf extract. Human serum, enriched with metabolites deriving from the extract, was collected and incubated with human hepatocytes, human primary chondrocytes and adipocytes to determine the biological activity of the extract. Changes in cellular behavior demonstrated that the artichoke leaf extract protects hepatocytes from lipotoxic stress, prevents adipocytes differentiation and hyperplasia, and exerts chondroprotective properties in an inflammatory context. These data validate the beneficial health properties of an artichoke leaf extract at the clinical level and provide both insights and further evidence that plant-derived nutrients and especially polyphenols from artichoke may represent a relevant alternative for nutritional strategies addressing chronic disease issues.
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Trotz jahrzehntelanger, intensiver Forschung ist die Wirksamkeit der Artischocke noch immer nicht in klinischen Studien belegt. – Dennoch scheint eine Linderung von Verdauungsbeschwerden plausibel
Chapter
Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a species of thistle cultivated as a food. The edible portion of the plant consists of the flower buds before the flowers come into bloom. It is a perennial plant native to the Mediterranean region. C. cardunculus L. var. scolymus is a rich source of bioactive phenolic compounds, and also inulin, other fibers, and minerals. For this reason, it is considered a functional food. Several studies described numerous pharmacological activities associated with the artichoke, such as hepatoprotective, antioxidative, anticarcinogenic, hypocholesterolemic, antibacterial, anti-HIV, bile-expelling, and urinative effects. Moreover, the biological activities of the artichoke have been reported in various studies, mainly the strong antioxidative effects, which are attributed to caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, and flavonoids such as luteolin glycosides. The present chapter reviews some selected literature published recently about the globe artichoke, its chemical composition and nutritional and functional properties, with the purpose of contributing to the systematization of the information concerning the relation between chemical composition and health benefits.
Chapter
Despite the concerted efforts in pursuit of developing effective therapy, the human race has merely succeeded in its fight against cancer. The limited success in this battle against cancer may be attributed to the development of resistance to the available therapeutic regimens, frequent recurrence, metastasis, tumor heterogeneity, and immune evasion. The sub-populated cancer stem cells (CSCs) are often held responsible for cancer relapse, therapy resistance, and metastasis. The stemness and tumorigenicity of CSCs are regulated by various pathways such as Wnt/β-catenin, hedgehog, PI3K-AKT, JAK-STAT, TGF-β, and notch signaling. Various therapeutic agents targeting CSCs are now being considered for the treatment of various malignancies. However, conventional therapies are associated with various side effects. Therefore, current therapeutic approaches are witnessing a paradigm shift towards natural compounds. To this end, dietary polyphenols are considered promising drug candidates for their both preventive as well as therapeutic properties. In this chapter, the non-flavonoid polyphenols are discussed in the context of their ability to target CSCs and their role in attenuation of fundamental pathways involved in the maintenance of CSCs such as Wnt/β-catenin, hedgehog, notch, and induction of programmed cell death pathways has been explored. The overview of this chapter will help the oncologist to devise more efficacious combinatorial therapies, utilizing naturally occurring non-flavonoid polyphenols and their derivatives along with chemotherapeutic drugs, which will offer the advantage of eliminating both the CSCs and other malignant cells in the heterogeneous tumor mass as a multipronged approach. The traditional knowledge of phytomedicines along with the current advancements of molecular and precision medicine and suitable delivery system hold a great promise to combat cancer and exterminate it from the root.
Chapter
Epidemiologic reports have revealed that cancer is a major health risk and considered a leading cause of increasing death rates all over the world. High oxidative stress can mediate chronic diseases such as onset of cancer because of damaging effects on vital molecules, DNA mutation, cell proliferation, and genome modification. Among bioactive phytoconstituents, dietary polyphenols are widely distributed in fruits, vegetables, spices, etc., having strong antioxidant activity and believed to act extensively as chemopreventive agents causing interference with carcinogenesis. Anticancer effect of polyphenols is induced via regulation of antioxidant enzymatic activity, apoptosis induction by downregulation of various signaling pathways, and cell cycle arrest by initiating cell senescence associated with oxidative stress. Several polyphenols are demonstrated to act directly by affecting epigenetic process via modulating level of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Additionally, prooxidant mechanism of polyphenols impedes the metabolic process of cancer stem cells as well as self-renewal signaling pathways. Polyphenols can be suggested as a beneficial anticancer tool in a combinational protocol with a standard chemotherapeutic agent resulting in significantly fewer side effects.
Chapter
Oxidative stress (OS), an imbalance between prooxidants and antioxidants, may play a role in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. There is debate about whether OS is causal or merely associated to metabolic syndrome. Substantial evidence indicated the importance of the potential natural antioxidants in the restoration of impaired redox state in patients with metabolic syndrome. Artichoke leaf extract (ALE), an extract from the antioxidant-rich herb, is potentially involved in the prevention and treatment of free radical–related diseases mainly by neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed during oxidative damage, and improving the antioxidant defense system. A recent meta-analysis of animal studies demonstrated the antioxidant activity of ALE in experimentally induced disease. Indeed, the supplementation with ALE resulted in decreased concentration of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in patients with metabolic syndrome. The mechanisms involved in the antioxidant properties of ALE are complex and multifactorial. Although, the antioxidant capacity of ALE has been demonstrated in experimental studies, there are limited human studies in patients with metabolic syndrome.
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This book reviews the applications of polyphenols in cancer treatment. The initial chapter of the book classifies different polyphenols and discusses their biological and chemical properties. The subsequent chapters then explore the diverse role of polyphenols in modulating signal transduction pathways in cancer including, cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This book highlights the usefulness of polyphenol enriched seafood in modulating the anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ. The book also presents nanoformulation of polyphenol as a promising strategy for their enhanced bioavailability and targeted delivery. Lastly, the book examines the toxicity and safety evaluations of polyphenols as anticancer agents.
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The relationship between low LDL-C (cholesterol associated with low-density lipoprotein) and a lower relative risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been widely demonstrated. Although from a pharmacological point of view, statins, ezetimibe and PCSK inhibitors, alone or in combination are the front and center of the therapeutic approaches for reducing LDL-C and its CV consequences, in recent years nutraceuticals and functional foods have increasingly been considered as a valid support in the reduction of LDL-C, especially in patients with mild/moderate hyperlipidemia - therefore not requiring pharmacological treatment - or in patients intolerant to statins or other drugs. An approach also shared by the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS). Of the various active ingredients with hypolipidemic properties, we include the artichoke (Cynara cardunculus, Cynara scolymus) and the bergamot (Citrus bergamia) which, thanks essentially to the significant presence of polyphenols in their extracts, can exert this action associated with a number of other complementary inflammation and oxidation benefits. In light of these evidence, this review aimed to describe the effects of artichoke and bergamot in modifying the lipid and inflammatory parameters described in in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies. The available data support the use of standardized compositions of artichoke and bergamot extracts, alone or in combination, in the treatment of mild to moderate dyslipidemia, in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome, hepatic steatosis, or intolerant to common hypolipidemic treatments.
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Cynara cardunculus L. is an Asteraceae member widely diffused in the Mediterranean Basin, rich in phenolic acids (caffeoylquinic acids and derivatives), flavones (luteolin, apigenin and their conjugates), anthocyanins, inulin and vitamin C. Thanks to their numerous biological activities, these compounds are in high demand for food and no-food applications. To match such request, in this research we evaluated the effect of three water-supply (100%, 75% and 50% of plant requirement) and light (24 h, 12 h and 0 h) treatments on the polyphenols profile of C. cardunculus seedlings, with the aim of developing a production system under controlled conditions. Overall, the 100% of plant water requirement increased the amount of caffeoylquinic acids (+28%), luteolines (+27%) and total measured polyphenols (+26%) respect to water-stressed plants (75% and 50% of plant requirement), with cultivated cardoon showing a higher concentration than the globe artichoke. Concerning the light treatment, the trend 0 < 12< 24 h was found for all phytochemical compounds. In particular, 24 h of light strongly induced the biosynthesis of caffeoylquinic acids (+119%), luteolines (+273%) and total measured polyphenols (+129%) compared to 0 h of light. In both experiments, the most abundant compounds were 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Regardless of experiment, the genetic background showed a significant role, since the responses were genotype-dependent. From these results clearly emerged the possibility of producing polyphenols-enriched C. cardunculus seedlings in controlled conditions.
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Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of artichoke leaf extract (Cynara scolymus) in experimental obstructive jaundice. Methods: Rats were separated into three groups, namely, sham, control, and artichoke leaf extract. Ischemia was created for 60 min, and then liver tissue and blood samples were taken at the 90th minute of reperfusion. Artichoke leaf extract was given at a 300 mg/kg dose 2 h before the operation. Antioxidant enzyme activities and biochemical parameters were examined from the tissue and serum. Histopathological findings of the liver were scored semiquantitatively. Results: Antioxidant enzyme activities in the artichoke leaf extract group were statistically significantly higher than that in the other two groups. Biochemical parameters, which show hepatocellular damage, were found to be similar in both sham and artichoke leaf extract groups. Although the values in the sham group were higher than the artichoke group in terms of protein and gene expressions, no statistically significant difference was found between these two groups. Regarding the hepatocellular effects of obstructive jaundice, the artichoke leaf extract group showed lower scores than the control group in all histopathological scores. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that artichoke leaf extract had a hepatoprotective effect that was associated with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of artichoke leaf extract.
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A high-fat diet (HFD) promotes oxidative stress, which contributes to the development of kidney dysfunction. We examined the protective effects of an ethanol extract of artichoke leaves (EEA) compared to Atorvastatin (ATOR) in the kidney of Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet. The experimental animals were divided into five groups: control (Cont), HFD, HFD treated with EEA (200 mg/kg), HFD treated with EEA (400 mg/kg), and HFD treated with ATOR. Organ weights, lipid profile, renal markers, and antioxidants enzymes were measured. Oral administration of EEA (200 and 400 mg/kg) for 60 days showed a significant decrease in organ weights and kidney markers levels accompanied by decreasing in oxidative stress biomarkers as compared to HFD groups. The histological findings showed a renoprotective effect of artichoke extract. These findings suggest that EEA exerts anti-oxidant kidney effects in HFD- induced obese rats.
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The consumption of flowers as food is reported in various cultures around the world as part of traditional cuisine or alternative medicine, in addition to their wide use as ornaments. However, many species of edible flowers can be considered more than a delicacy or a garnish due to their nutritional value as source of protein and essential aminoacids. In this scenario, flowers represent an important segment to expand food market, due to their suitable sensory and nutritional characteristics, as well as presence of bioactive compounds beneficial to human health. Research on consumer behavior and purchase intent have been unraveling ways to explore the different attributes of edible flowers, in order to conquer this promising market in the following decades. Socio-cultural factors involved in the consumption of edible flowers have been subject of several studies aiming at popularizing and expanding this growing industry and encouraging local use of traditional flowers is important to preserve endangered traditions. On the other hand, nutritional properties, pharmacological benefits, chemical composition and the forms of preparation of edible species have been increasingly studied with the growing search for natural and health foods. Modern and effective methods for extraction of bioactive compounds from flowers are also contributing to explore their components, allowing the development of functional ingredients for food industry. Some key information as proper taxonomy and toxicological profile are still necessary to stimulate the consumption of edible flowers, as well as the creation of a good practice manual for proper management (cultivation, handling and preparation) of flowers for commercialization. Scientific and technical information on nutritional, therapeutic and chemical features of edible flowers are reviewed and discussed, aiming at strengthening the knowledge, and, consequently, consuming habits and research on their benefits in human diet.
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The aerial portions of Cynara scolymus commonly have been eaten as vegetables or functional foods by the people lived in Mediterranean region. In preliminary antioxidant screening, the rhizome portions (CSR) of this species showed better potential than leaves ones. However, neither phytochemical nor pharmacology studies of CSR have been reported to date. The purpose of this research was to identify the active components from CSR through bioassay-guided fractionation. The antioxidant properties of secondary metabolites 1–9 were evaluated in this investigation. Compounds 4–6, 8, and 9 showed antioxidant activities based on DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 22.91–147.21 μM. Besides, compound 8 significantly and dose-dependently reduced H2O2-induced ROS levels in keratinocyte HaCaT cells without cytotoxicity toward HaCaT. Overall, our studies demonstrated the rhizome of C. scolymus could be used as a new natural antioxidant like the edible aerial portions and phenolic compounds are the active components.
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The process to develop a chromatographic method for fingerprinting complex matrices should be performed through a multiparameter approach that could lead to the desired separation and save environmental resources such as organic solvents and energy. In other words, this process should be pursued by employing an optimized experimental design and having a response function which takes into consideration separation parameters together with environmental parameters. Green Analytical Chemistry principles should be pursued during all steps of the research. This work presents a heuristic approach to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography method for fingerprinting an extract from leaves of Cynara scolymus L., a food plant consumed worldwide. A fractional factorial design was used to identify relevant chromatographic variables followed by a comprehensive design for optimization purposes (Doehlert design). A response function called green chromatographic fingerprinting response was employed to obtain a compromise between fingerprint quality and low environmental impact of the method. This optimized approach led to the development of a robust and green method for fingerprinting C. scolymus by HPLC-PAD. This method proved to be greener than the reference method reported in literature and compatible even with no state of art HPLC instruments because the system backpressure did not exceed 15 MPa and the column temperature was 35 °C.
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The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of artichoke byproducts extract (AE) and butylated hydroxyltoluene (BHT) in raw beef patties during refrigerated storage. Freshly minced beef was assigned to one of the following three treatments: (1) control (no antioxidant) (2) 27.3 mg AE phenolics/100 g meat (optimized by using response surface methodology), (3) 10 mg BHT/100 g meat. Total phenolic content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, color values, iron content, primary oxidation products, secondary oxidation products and protein oxidation were evaluated during storage. Results showed that AE is rich sources of phenolic compounds and these compounds showed high efficiency as antioxidant against lipid oxidation during the storage. The AE treatment substantially inhibited (P < 0.05) lipid and protein oxidation in raw beef patties to a much greater extent than BHT treatment. The amount of carbonyls from protein oxidation significantly (P < 0.05) increased during storage, and this increase was significantly higher in the control patties than in their treated counterparts. a* values of refrigerated beef patties decreased with storage. It was concluded that AE have potential to be used as natural antioxidant when compared to BHT in meat products.
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Oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented pathological factors in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a healthy food and folk medicine with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of ethanolic extract from artichoke against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were treated with an ethanolic extract of artichoke (0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 g/kg body weight) by gavage once daily. Up to 40% alcohol (12 mL/kg body weight) was administered orally 1 h after artichoke treatment. All mice were fed for 10 consecutive days. Results showed that artichoke extract significantly prevented elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, the decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione were elevated by artichoke administration. Histopathological examination showed that artichoke attenuated degeneration, inflammatory infiltration and necrosis of hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-�B) in liver tissues were significantly suppressed by artichoke treatment. Results obtained demonstrated that artichoke extract exhibited significant preventive protective effect against acute alcohol-induced liver injury. This finding is mainly attributed to its ability to attenuate oxidative stress and suppress the TLR4/NF-�B inflammatory pathway. To the best of
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Cynara scolymus is a pharmacologically important medicinal plant containing phenolic acids and flavonoids. Experimental studies indicate antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of C. scolymus but there have been no studies about therapeutic effects of liver diseases yet. In the present study, hepatocurative effects of C. scolymus leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injury in rats were investigated by serum hepatic enzyme levels, oxidative stress indicator (malondialdehyde-MDA), endogenous antioxidants, DNA fragmentation, p53, caspase 3 and histopathology. Animals were divided into six groups: control, olive oil, CCl 4 , C. scolymus leaf extract, recovery and curative. CCl 4 was administered at a dose of 0.2 mL/kg twice daily on CCl 4 , recovery and curative groups. Cynara scolymus extract was given orally for 2 weeks at a dose of 1.5 g/kg after CCl 4 application on the curative group. Significant decrease of serum alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate-aminotransferase (AST) levels were determined in the curative group. MDA levels were significantly lower in the curative group. Significant increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in the curative group was determined. In the curative group, C. scolymus leaf extract application caused the DNA % fragmentation, p53 and caspase 3 levels of liver tissues towards the normal range. Our results indicated that C. scolymus leaf extract has hepatocurative effects of on CCl 4 -induced oxidative stress and hepatic injury by reducing lipid peroxidation, providing affected antioxidant systems towards the normal range. It also had positive effects on the pathway of the regulatory mechanism allowing repair of DNA damage on CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity.
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Cynara scolymus L., Asteraceae, are traditionally used to treat dyspepsia. This study evaluated the hypolipidemic and antiatherogenic effects of an aqueous extract prepared from the leaves of C. scolymus in rat's model. Hypercholesterolemic rats (1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid for 15 days) were treated (0.5ml/200g) with extract of C. scolymus (150, 300, or 600mg/kg p.o.; n=6) or simvastatin (4mg/kg p.o.; n=6) once per day for 30 days along with hypercaloric diet. A control group (C) was given water (0.5ml/200g; n=6). A high-cholesterol diet was maintained throughout the treatment period. Rats treated with extract of C. scolymus (150, 300, or 600mg/kg) and simvastatin showed significant decreases in serum levels of total cholesterol (−46.9%, −51.9%, −44%, and −41.9%, respectively) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C; −52.1%, −54.8%, −51.9%, and −46.7%, respectively), compared with group C (p<0.005). Biochemical analyses revealed significant decrease in the concentration of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, C-reactive protein, oxidized-LDL, and antioxidized-LDL in rats treated with extract of C. scolymus (150, 300, or 600mg/kg). There were no differences in serum ALT enzyme activity between the groups. Our results suggest that hypolipidemic and antiatherogenic effects could be related with the presence of polar substances present in aqueous extract of C. scolymus.
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Both leaves and heads from artichokes are rich in phenolic compounds belonging to different classes: benzoic and cinnamic derivatives, flavonoids and tannins. There are conditions when these phenolic compounds show antioxidant activities and quench different types of free radicals. Therefore, they can be used as nutrient compounds, because of their role in preventing and treating different diseases of radical origin, or as food preservatives. This research deals with the composition and biological activities of artichoke extracts prepared from leaves and heads. Mono-caffeoylquinic acids and di-caffeoylquinic acids are the predominant phenolics in these extracts, which also contain flavonoids (apigenin and luteolin glycosides) and tannins (hydrolysable and condensed tannins). Artichoke extracts and some of their pure phenolic constituents were assessed for their protective role in the control of oxidative damage to biological molecules (proteins, lipids and DNA), caused by free radicals such as RCOO· and/or OH·, and the mechanism of their action using the β-carotene/linoleate assay, the deoxyribose assay and the metmyoglobin assay. The results of this study suggests that artichoke heads are rich in phenolics showing, in some conditions, a good antioxidant activity and might, therefore, be regarded as a source of dietary antioxidants. In addition, leaves and outer bracts of artichoke heads can be considered as a cheap, as yet unused, source of natural non toxic antioxidants for use in industrial processes (to preserve and stabilize the freshness, nutritive value, flavour and colour of foods).
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Artichoke, Cynara cardunculus, is a dietary and medicinal plant species with a long tradition of use dating back to the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. It comprises the globe artichoke, C. cardunculus subsp. scolymus, the cultivated cardoon, C. cardunculus subsp. altilis, and the wild cardoon, C. cardunculus subsp. sylvestris. The edible part of the plant is limited to the fleshy leaves (bracts) and receptacle of a large immature inflorescence, named capitulum or head, that has been shown to be a rich source of bioactive compounds. On the other hand, leaves, external bracts and stems discarded by the artichoke processing industry corresponding to about 80–85 % of the total biomass of the plant, represent a suitable potential source of food additives and nutraceuticals. Nutritional and pharmacological properties of artichoke heads and leaves are attributed mainly to polyphenolic compounds and inulin present at high concentration. Other classes of chemical compounds, including flavonoids, anthocyanins, sesquiterpenes, and triterpenes have been also found in the plant at lower amounts. This review, after a general historical, phytogeographical, and ethnobotanical overview, summarizes the current knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of this plant, with special emphasis on the agronomical and nutritional importance of the plant and to the methods of analysis, including the recently developed metabolomic studies.
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Polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) have been shown to be potential chemopreventive and anticancer dietary compounds. High doses of polyphenolic extracts (AEs) induce apoptosis and decrease the invasive potential of the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB231. However, the molecular mechanism underlying AEs antiproliferative effects is not completely understood. We demonstrate that chronic and low doses of AEs treatment at sublethal concentrations suppress human breast cancer cell growth via a caspases-independent mechanism. Furthermore, AEs exposure induces a significant increase of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining and upregulation of tumour suppressor genes, and in MDA-MB231 cells. AEs treatment leads to epigenetic alterations in cancer cells, modulating DNA hypomethylation and lysine acetylation levels in total proteins. Cell growth arrest correlates with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in AEs treated breast cancer cells. Inhibition of ROS generation by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) attenuates the antiproliferative effect. These findings demonstrate that chronic AEs treatment inhibits breast cancer cell growth via the induction of premature senescence through epigenetic and ROS-mediated mechanisms. Our results suggest that artichoke polyphenols could be a promising dietary tool either in cancer chemoprevention or/and in cancer treatment as a nonconventional, adjuvant therapy.
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The aim of this study was to assess the effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf aqueous extract (ALE) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. ALE (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) was administered to STZ-induced diabetic rats and fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), atherogenic index, lipid peroxidation (LPO), red blood cell (RBC) superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and plasma antioxidant capacity were measured. The oral administration of ALE for 21 days significantly reduced TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and hyperglycemia in treated diabetic rats as compared to diabetic control group. ALE also markedly ameliorated the level of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased plasma antioxidant capacity of treated diabetic group. The results clearly indicate the beneficial reducing effects of ALE on serum TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C, glucose levels and plasma MDA level in STZ-treated rats.
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In vitro studies form a pivotal role in dental research contribution to a substantial evidence base. The reporting standards of these studies are not uniform thus resulting in lacunae in evidence reported. The effort of this concept note is to propose a Checklist for Reporting in vitro Studies (CRIS guidelines) that would promote quality and transparency in reporting in vitro studies.
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Artichoke can be eaten as a fresh, canned or frozen vegetable for its health benefits due to the high content of polyphenols. The aim of this study is to elucidate the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L) and baby anzio artichoke (Cyrnara scolymus). The results of this investigation revealed that, the globe artichoke showed a moisture, protein and carbohydrate content higher than baby anzio. On the other hand the baby anzio showed a lipid content higher than globe artichoke. Baby anzio extract showed a higher phenolic compounds than glob artichoke extract. The baby anzio methanol extract showed the antioxidant activity higher than globe artichoke (IC50 of baby anzio extract lower that IC50 of globe artichoke extract). At the same time the baby anizio extract exhibited more toxicity and inhibition zone diameter against 5 pathogenic bacterial strains than globe artichoke extract. This study confirmed that the two varieties of artichoke exhibited moderate functional properties like antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Subsequently, baby anzio artichoke is more effective and powerful in antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.
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The objective of this study was the investigation of a potential influence of artichoke leaf extract (ALE) on the cell physiology and gene expression of phase I/II enzymes of human liver cells HepG2 and investigation on potential cell protective effects against ethanol-induced cell toxicity against HepG2 cells. Cell biological assays under in vitro conditions using HepG2 liver cells and investigation of mitochondrial activity (MTT test), proliferation assay (BrdU incorporation ELISA), LDH as toxicity marker, gene expression analysis by RT-PCR and enzyme activity of glutationtransferase. Artichocke extract, containing 27% caffeoylquinic acids and 7% flavonoids induced mitochondrial activity, proliferation and total protein content under in vitro conditions in human liver cells HepG2. These effects could not be correlated to the well-known artichoke secondary compounds cynarin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside. The flavones luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside had inhibitory effects at 100 µg/mL level on HepG2 cells, with luteolin being a significant stronger inhibitor compared to the respective glucoside. Artichoke leaf extract had minor stimulating effect on gene expression of CYP1A2, while CYP3A4, GGT, GPX2, GSR and GST were slightly inhibited. GST inhibition under in vitro conditions was also shown by quantification of GST enzyme activity. Induction of gene expression of CYP1A2 was shown to be supraadditive after simultaneous application of ethanol plus artichoke extract. Artichoke leaf extract exhibited cell protective effects against ethanol-induced toxicity within cotreatment under in vitro conditions. Also H2O2 damage was significantly inhibited by simultaneous artichoke incubation. Pre- and posttreatments did not exert protective effects. DMSO-induced toxicity was significantly reduced by pre-, post- and cotreatment with artichoke extract and especially with luteolin-7-O-glucoside, indicating a direct interaction with the toxifying agent and an induction of repair mechanisms.
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Spices, like vegetables, fruit, and medicinal herbs, are known to possess a variety of antioxidant effects and other biological activities. Phenolic compounds in these plant materials are closely associated with their antioxidant activity, which is mainly due to their redox properties and their capacity to block the production of reactive oxygen species. More recently, their ability to interfere with signal transduction pathways involving various transcription factors, protein kinases, phosphatases, and other metabolic enzymes has also been demonstrated. Many of the spice-derived compounds which are potent antioxidants are of great interest to biologists and clinicians because they may help protect the human body against oxidative stress and inflammatory processes. It is important to study the bioactive compounds that can modulate target functions related to defence against oxidative stress, and that might be used to achieve health benefits individually. In the present review, an attempt has been made to summarize the most current scientific evidence about the in vitro and in vivo effects of the bioactive compounds derived from herbs and spices, focused on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, in order to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals.
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Background: Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2)-rs7903146 polymorphism is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. The response of insulin and insulin resistance to artichoke leaf extract (ALE) may be affected by TCF7L2-rs7903146 polymorphism. Objective: This study examined the effects of ALE supplementation on metabolic parameters of the TCF7L2-rs7903146 polymorphism in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Design, setting, participants and interventions: This double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 80 patients with MetS in Sina Clinic, Khoy, Iran. The patients were randomized into ALE or placebo groups to receive either ALE (1800 mg/d as four tablets) or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Main outcome measures: Anthropometric indices, blood pressure, glucose and lipid profile levels were measured before and after the study. Moreover, patients were genotyped for TCF7L2 polymorphism. Results: ALE supplementation decreased insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in patients with the TT genotype of TCF7L2-rs7903146 polymorphism (P < 0.05). There was no significant interaction between blood pressure, glucose and lipid profile response to ALE supplementation. Conclusion: The responses of insulin and HOMA-IR to ALE supplementation have shown an interaction with single-nucleotide polymorphism rs7903146 in TCF7L2. Trial registration: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial IRCT201409033320N9.
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Introduction The potentially favorable effects of artichoke leaf extract (ALE) have been shown on lipid profile; however, results are inconsistent. Taq IB polymorphism in cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene may modulate the response to intervention. This study was aimed to examine the effects of ALE supplementation on serum lipid profile and CETP levels regarding CETP Taq IB polymorphism in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods In this double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 80 patients with MetS were randomized to receive ALE (1800 mg per day as four tablets) or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Serum levels of lipid profile and CETP, as well as physical activity levels were assessed before and after the intervention. Physical activity levels were measured using short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF). Moreover, patients were genotyped for CETP Taq IB polymorphism. Results Mean age and BMI of the patients was 38.91 ± 6.90 years and 34.32 ± 4.28 kg/m², respectively. Twenty-eight percent of the patients were male. ALE supplementation decreased serum triglyceride (TG) level compared to placebo over 12 weeks (−10% vs. −2%, p = 0.01). There was no interaction between CETP Taq IB genotype and response to ALE supplementation. The subgroup analysis showed that in men carriers of Taq IB-B1B1, LDL-C level significantly decreased in ALE group compared to the placebo group (-15% vs. 9%, p = 0.004). Conclusions ALE supplementation decreased TG levels without intervention-genotype interaction in patients with MetS. However, men with Taq IB-B1B1 genotype indicated a reduction of LDL-C in response to ALE.
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The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multicomponent condition with a complex etiology involving genetic and environmental factors. Artichoke leaf extract (ALE) has shown favorable effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ALE supplementation on metabolic parameters in women with MetS, using a nutrigenetics approach. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 50 women (aged 20–50 years) with MetS were randomly allocated into the two groups: “ALE group” (received 1,800 mg hydroalcoholic extract of artichoke as four tablets per day) and “placebo group” (received placebo consisted of corn starch, lactose, and avicel as four tablets per day) for 12 weeks. The biochemical and anthropometric parameters were determined before and after the intervention. The FTO-rs9939609 and the TCF7L2-rs7903146 polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. In carriers of A allele of the FTO-rs9939609, ALE supplementation resulted in a statistically significant decrease in serum triglyceride level compared with placebo (−19.11% vs. 10.83%; p < .05), with no other significant differences between the two groups. The TCF7L2-rs7903146 polymorphism showed no interaction with response to ALE (p > .05). These findings suggest that ALE supplementation may improve serum triglyceride level in A allele genotype of FTO-rs9939609 polymorphism in women with MetS.
Article
Background: Oxidative stress is associated with most components and complications of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Artichoke Leaf Extract (ALE) has demonstrated anti-oxidant properties in both laboratory and animal studies. Aim: This study was designed to examine the effects of ALE on oxidative stress indices in patients with MetS. Methods: In the current double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 80 patients with MetS were randomly allocated to either "ALE group" (received 1800 mg ALE as four tablets per day) or "Placebo group" (received placebo containing cornstarch, lactose and avicel as four tablets per day) for 12 weeks. Serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL), red blood cell glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD), as well as dietary intakes were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Results: A total number of 68 patients completed the study (ALE group = 33; placebo group = 35). Dietary intakes of energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients were not significantly different between two groups throughout the trial, with the exception of zinc (p < 0.05). The concentration of ox-LDL decreased significantly in ALE group in comparison to the placebo group (-266.8 ± 615.9 vs -129.5 ± 591.2 ng/L; p < 0.05). However, no significant inter- and intra-group changes in MDA, SOD, GPx, and TAC concentrations were observed. Conclusion: ALE decreased serum ox-LDL level in patients with MetS, with no beneficial effects on other antioxidant indices. Clinical trial registration number: IRCT201409033320N9.
Article
Nephrotoxicity represents a major health problem. This study aims to determine nephroprotective of artichoke leaves extract (ALE) against gentamicin (GM) injection in male rats. Rats (n=30) were divided into; negative control, nephrotoxic (GM) injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with GM (100 mg/kg b.wt/d for 10 days), and groups administered orally with ALE (200, 400 or 600 mg/kg b.wt/d) and injected with GM. The results revealed that, GM injection induced marked nephrotoxicity as evidenced by significant increase in kidney functions, albumin and potassium (K+), with significant decrease in serum levels of total protein and sodium (Na+) as compared with negative control group. There was significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level in GM group compared with negative control group. Renal examined tissues showed severe changes manifested by atrophy of glomerular tuft, necrosis of epithelial lining renal tubules with apoptosis of tubular epithelium and renal hemorrhage. Simultaneous administration of ALE during GM therapy protected kidney tissues as evidenced by normalization of kidney biochemical parameters and minimized the histopathological changes. Therefore, ALE has nephroprotective and antioxidant effects, thus could be beneficial for kidney patients.
Article
The human intracellular enzyme AKR1B1 belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. The AKR1B1-catalyzed reduction of aldehydes is part of the intracellular inflammatory pathway leading to the activation of NF-κB and the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. The present study is aimed at determining the inhibition of AKR1B1 brought about by an extract of artichoke leaves (bracts), and the effects of this extract and three participating compounds on the expression of AKR1B1, COX-2, and MMP-2 proteins in THP-1 cells. It seeks to identify the ability of the test substances to modulate the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of NF-κB in cells and the intracellular oxidant effect of test substances after incubation with LPS. Low concentrations of the extract inhibit the enzyme AKR1B1. After stimulation by LPS, the extract attenuated the activity of NF-κB in THP-1 cells, but no changes in the expression of AKR1B1 were recorded. The extract diminished the expression of the inflammation-related enzymes COX-2 and MMP-2, probably by inhibiting the activity of NF-κB. The extract significantly diminished the intracellular reactive oxygen species after a brief LPS incubation, which may also have reduced intracellular inflammation. The diminished activity of NF-κB in the cells could be linked to the inhibition of the activity of AKR1B1. Copyright
Article
The present study aimed to detect qualitatively the chemical constituents of aqueous extracts of Artichoke leaves (ALE) and pulp (APE) and to assess their effects against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Forty nine male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into the following 7 groups: the normal control (-ve control), the model (+ve control), the standard (silymarin-treated) and the other 4 pretreated groups by ALE and APE at low (200 mg/kg) and high (400 mg/kg) doses from each extract. Silymarin (50 mg/kg) and the plant extracts were orally given by stomach tube to rats in daily doses for 6 weeks. CCl4 was subcutaneously injected with 2 ml/kg to the model, the standard and the 4 pretreated groups during the last week of experiment to induce acute hepatotoxicity. Rats were weighed and weight gains were calculated. Blood samples were collected for separating the serum which used for biochemical analyses. Halve of livers of sacrificed rats was taken to assay the activity of hepatic tissue antioxidant enzymes and the other halve was used for histopathological examination. The results showed that both ALE and APE contain flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins and tannins, but they were devoid of resins and triterpenes. Oral administration of ALE and APE to CCl4-intoxicated rats significantly increased the body weight gain, decreased the elevated serum levels of liver enzymes AST, ALT and ALP, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and total bilirubin and increased serum level of total proteins. There were also significant increases in the activity of tissue superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase antioxidant enzymes accompanied with partial mitigation of histopathological lesions induced by CCl4 in the liver. The results denoted that ALE and APE have hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects and relatively alleviate the degenerative changes induced by CCl4 in the liver of rats. This study recommends that intake of edible parts of Artichoke in food or its use as herbal tea may be beneficial for patients suffering from liver diseases due to oxidative stress. Moreover, isolation of bioactive constituents of Artichoke plant is necessary to search for safe natural agents to be developed for therapy instead of chemically synthesized drugs which are usually accompanied by deleterious side effects.
Article
Objective: Urolithiasis is one of the most painful ailments of the urinary tract disorders found in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-urolithiatic activity of artichoke leaf extract (ART) on ethylene glycol (EG)-induced urolithiasis in albino rats. Methods: urolithiasis was induced by adding ethylene glycol (0.75% v/v) to drinking water of rats for 28 consecutive days. Concurrently, ART (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) were orally administrated either from the 1st day in the preventive regimen or from the 15th day in the curative regimen. A standard anti-urolithiatic drug, cystone (CST; 150 mg/kg; p.o.), was also used. Results: EG-induced UL was accompanied by an increase in the serum levels of uric acid, urea, creatinine and calcium with an increase in protein concentration in urine as indicators of renal damage. Moreover, induction of UL was associated with an elevated renal levels of lipid peroxides (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as reliable indices of oxidative stress. In both regimens, administration of ART (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg; p.o.) restored the body weight, the kidney weight and the relative kidney weight. Moreover, ART decreased the serum levels of uric acid, urea, creatinine and calcium and also decreased the protein concentration in urine in a dose dependent manner. It also attenuated the kidney levels of MDA and GSH. Conclusion: ART has a protective effect on the kidney functions in EG-induced UL in rats probably due to its potent anti-oxidant property. © 2016, International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. All rights reserved.
Article
Cynara scolymus (artichoke) plant has many natural antioxidants. Artichoke leaves extract have multiple pharmacological actions. This study was designed to explore the potential of dietary artichoke leaves in the management of hepatic and renal dysfunctions induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication. Diets containing 20% or 40% artichoke leaves were provided to rats treated with CCl4 (1ml/kg I.P.). Our data showed that artichoke treatments significantly restored the elevated activities hepatic enzymes; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotranseferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), in a dose dependent manner. Besides, plasma creatinine, urea and uric acid levels were markedly reduced by artichoke treatments as compared to CCl4 group. Oxidative stress induced by CCl4 was extremely managed by artichoke supplementation as the activities of both erythrocytes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and plasma catalase were noticeably increased by artichoke in a dose dependent manner as compared to those of CCl4 group. These results demonstrate that artichoke leaves have a marked antioxidative and protective potential against CCl4 intoxication.
Article
Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), originated in the Mediterranean areas, is a kind of vegetable with high nutritional and health value. Varieties of bioactive substances existing in artichoke contribute to the physiological effects in treating dyspeptic disorder, protecting the liver, anti-oxidation activities, cardiovascular protection and others. To study the influence of artichoke on the anti-oxidative function of D-galactose induced aging rats, fifty SD rats were divided into five groups: control group, aging model group, low, middle, high dosage of artichoke treatment groups. Except the control group, all other groups were injected with D-galactose solution (40 mg/kg BW) daily for successive 36 days. At the same time, rats in the artichoke treatment groups were orally given artichoke in the dosage of 20, 40, 80 mg/kg respectively. Finally, body weight, Hematology parameters, SOD (superoxide dismutase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), CAT (catalase) activities and the content of MDA (malondialdehyde) and LF (lipofusion) in serum, liver and brain were detected. The results showed that the activity of SOD in brain, liver, GSH-Px in brain, CAT in liver increased significantly compared with aging model group, while the content of MDA in serum, LF in brain and liver decreased significantly.
Article
Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf extract was one of the few herbal remedies which the clinical and experimental trials have complemented each other. Both experimental and clinical effects have been verified through extensive biomedical herbal remedy research. Specifically, antioxidant, choleretic, hepatoprotective, bile-enhancing and lipid-lowering effects have been demonstrated, which corresponded with its historical use. Ongoing research seems to indicate that artichoke indeed have medicinal qualities. Most significant appears to be its beneficial effect on the liver. In animal studies, liquid extracts of the roots and leaves of artichoke have demonstrated an ability to protect the liver, with possibly even to help liver cells regenerate. Although research is not yet conclusive, scientists were optimistic that its long-standing use in humans for digestive and bowel problems was indeed justified. It may also play a role in lowering cholesterol and thus help to prevent heart disease. Boiled wild artichoke reduced postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses in normal subjects but has no effect on metabolic syndrome patients. This article intended to review the wide ranging pharmacological effects of artichoke leaf extract.
Article
Cynarin is a derivative of hydroxycinnamic acid and it has biologically active functional groups constituent of some plants and food. We elucidated the antioxidant activity of cynarin by using different in vitro condition bioanalytical antioxidant assays like DMPD(•+), ABTS(•+), [Formula: see text], DPPH(•) and H2O2 scavenging effects, the total antioxidant influence, reducing capabilities, Fe(2+) chelating and anticholinergic activities. Cynarin demonstrated 87.72% inhibition of linoleic acid lipid peroxidation at 30 µg/mL concentration. Conversely, some standard antioxidants like trolox, α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) exhibited inhibitions of 90.32, 75.26, 97.61, 87.30%, and opponent peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the identical concentration, seriatim. Also, cynarin exhibited effective DMPD(•+), ABTS(•+), [Formula: see text], DPPH(•), and H2O2 scavenging effects, reducing capabilities and Fe(2+) chelating effects. On the contrary, IC50 and Ki parameters of cynarin for acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibition were determined as 243.67 nM (r(2): 0.9444) and 39.34 ± 13.88 nM, respectively. This study clearly showed that cynarin had marked antioxidant, anticholinergic, reducing ability, radical-scavenging, and metal-binding activities.
Article
Artichoke is a rich source of health promoting compounds such as polyphenols, important for their pharmaceutical and nutritional properties. In this study, the potential for bioavailability of the artichoke polyphenols was estimated by using both in vitro digestion and Caco-2 human intestinal cell models. In vitro digestive recoveries (bio-accessibility) were found to be 55.8% for total artichoke phenolics and in particular, 70.0% for chlorogenic acid, 41.3% for 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 50.3% for 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, highlighting potential sensitivity of these compounds to gastric and small intestinal digestive conditions. Uptake of artichoke polyphenols was rapid with peak accumulation occurring after 30 min with an efficiency of 0.16%, according to the poor uptake of dietary polyphenols. Some compounds, such as coumaric acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid derivatives, were also detected in the basolateral side assuming an extra and intracellular esterases activities on chlorogenic acid. Only apigenin-7-O-glucoside was absorbed and transported through the Caco-2 monolayer demonstrating its bioavailability in the extent of 1.15% at 60 min. In addition, permeability coefficient (Papp=2.29 x 10-5 cm/sec), involving apical to basolateral transport of apigenin 7-O-glucoside, was calculated to facilitate estimation of absorption and transport through Caco-2 monolayer. Finally, the mono and dicaffeoylquinic acids present in artichoke heads, exert an antioxidant activity on human low density lipoprotein system correlated to their chemical structure. In conclusion, the utilized in vitro models, although not fully responding to the morphological and physiological features of human in vivo conditions, could be a useful tool for investigating mechanistic effects of polyphenols released from food matrix.
Article
Unlabelled: Due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, artichoke (Cynara scolymus) has been used as folk medicine to treat various diseases. Cynaropicrin (Cyn), a sesquiterpene lactone, is the major bioactive phytochemical in the artichoke; however, its pharmacological mechanism remains unknown. Because some phytochemicals exert their antioxidant activity by activating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), leading to subsequent induction of the antioxidant pathway including nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Nad(p)h: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1), we investigated whether Cyn also activates the AhR-Nrf2-Nqo1 pathway. Cyn indeed induced the activation (nuclear translocation) of AhR, leading to nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and dose-dependent upregulation of Nrf2 and Nqo1 mRNAs in human keratinocytes. The Cyn-induced AhR-Nrf2-Nqo1 activation was AhR- and Nrf2-dependent, as demonstrated by the observation that it was absent in keratinocytes transfected by siRNA against either AhR or Nrf2. In accordance with these findings, Cyn actively inhibited generation of reactive oxygen species from keratinocytes irradiated with ultraviolet B (UVB) in a Nrf2-dependent manner. Cyn also inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α from UVB-treated keratinocytes. Our findings demonstrate that Cyn is a potent activator of the AhR-Nrf2-Nqo1 pathway, and could therefore be applied to prevention of UVB-induced photo aging.