PreprintPDF Available
Preprints and early-stage research may not have been peer reviewed yet.

Abstract

In this article, a science interest network model (SINM) is introduced and a first empirical test of the model is presented. The SINM models interest as a dynamic relational construct, in which different interest components, that is, affective, behavioral, and cognitive components and related motivational components mutually reinforce one another within the development of interest. The dynamical relational perspective hypothesizes the mutual interactions between interest components to underlie the development of interest. Applying the SINM to the PISA 2015 data of two countries, that is, The Netherlands and Colombia, we were able to not only illuminate the structure of interactions between the different variables (i.e., indicators) in the networks of different groups of adolescents but we could also make predictions about which variables are of structural importance within the interest construct and as such worthwhile to test as potential candidates for intervention. Additionally, we were able to replicate earlier findings of the literature, namely that (1) enjoyment is central within the interest network and that (2) important structural differences exist in the interest network across countries, which, for instance, point to differences in domain specificity of interest between countries. While the network approach is sensitive to structural differences in science interest across countries, the network structure is stable across subgroups within countries. Future studies are proposed to test theoretically important assumptions of a dynamical perspective on interest, such as the causal role of different interest components in the development of interest.
Introducing a Science Interest Network Model to
Reveal Country Dierences

 ! "
#$
#%&&'&%()*+
(,
#%-#!$'&%
(,
%$./*)0)*
© 2018, American Psychological Association. This paper is not the
copy of record and may not exactly replicate the *nal, authoritative
version of the article. Please do not copy or cite without authors'
permission. The *nal article will be available, upon publication, via
its DOI: 10.1037/edu0000327
(.
1,2"
12"31,4$
5#%#1,
&$26#
6.#
#$$&%2
#%&##
&#7$$.2#
$#%(##&1,1()8
%2$,-.22
.&$$$%.2
6.342"%6$#%
.$2$"#.$2.
%$$#2$$
22#%(&
22.#5%$&34
 &22"34#
$$692"$2
%#6#5&%.2
$+2"##$$
6$2"$$
.$.$#2$:$$$##
&#$#%&##
$$%6#
#%


!$1#1#
$2$&
2%."#$#22
.$&"$#
1 ##2$1
1,2"
,2"22$$%#5
. &"2#$
#$%;<&$
$+#2"%8;&;
%26$3,-.4$
%;1()81#$$
691,2"$+
%$,#53
.$%42
-.6
$
$%$6$6
#/! &%
,##$%##.
-.
=
1,2"
1&$2#
9.$%6&$
&.6%&$
5#>##&$#%
&>&$%&$
.$&9.2##
2#"+9.&$ &
2&$"2.%.$&$
$.$#?&$."&$
$#%2.#"%2
5@$"2.$#
(&$.$&$.$#
/&$#%&$2%2%
##$$&$#22$
#/:#"3 4
$.@$;2#2"2
$. % &%#A$$
%#&.%%.
! "#$%&'())*+
(%.$%$
22%;$%&$B
#%.#$
$3?!-))C4%%%
D$$##2
$.$2
E
1,2"
%343(&F(&)A,$
)841#&$.
#$.$G#%2"%#H
3(&F(&)#C042%
#%.2#%3
6.42
#3%;<&42&.$$&6

%#"&##
##%"
#$$$%.2#%
#3F
))CAI##))4+$2"31,4
#%$%$$1,
.2%#
#$$1,
#%-$($,2"3-(,A)C4
2$$$.2
#%$/6.(5%
2##)81(3?!-
)C4122&.$$$%
.26.341,
%6$#%.$2$"#
.$2%$$#2
8
1,2"
2"$22#%

Theoretical background
+G"%@$&%
H3(#0EC#=E4J)&%(#
.G%.%H25
%.&
$#3F)4%%
9%$##/:;#5
2&2$
. &"25$
.&3K00CA-F7000A
0*8L00JAI##F00A))C4
5%.$
%$23F
))CAI##))A))C4&$2
#%3.42
$$$6
#3FI##))EA%))042
$%2##.&6#
#3(&F6))A#F&
00JAF+7"0*84
(.5%
3)42#$7%.
C
1,2"
%&#%3F))CA
I##))))J43(&))JA(&F
(&)A))C4"%$9#%
3&))8))*A))04#%$3
%))))0A+5!%F;I
))J43(9.FI&
))*A00JA2F"00E4%$%
##$$%$;$
$$$.2$
2%$%%#
1#;.#&A&.%
$#&7.&$B$
%2. %2&.$. 
3))EA%))04&#"6
..2;"%%&%
! 3F))CAI##))42
&$#$#%9&
3 4B3))C4M%$
#%#BI##B3))4M#;. 
&%B#%2%
&& ,- 2
$#$.#&
! E;#&6.2
;$#%$$&&
! !)! "#$
J
1,2"
%&'*2$
&.&2. %3
))EA0*000)AF))AF
"0042$.#&
%%$%$#
6$"%$
&#7.#.& &3#4$;
2. %3.42$$
"23F))CA0*000)AF
))AF+7"0*84&#7
$$%.2#
#% ! 
Interest as Dynamic Construct
#%$$&%.2
##%.$
&%(&3)J4&
..&$
#%#;. @$25
2.#
#9&.$%.
&&&&32FK)))A
F))J42&$%;7
&+5%&&&
$$%3$4
*
1,2"
$$%$B#2. %
$#%#
#$%#2. %
29#%%$$##$3(&))A
(&F)E41#$&.
.2&#&%3
"%$$G1
H4;#$
 &2$%
.3(&F(&)A,$)84
(&(&3)4%$!##1(
))C.2;
#6$2.5
#22%$$;
2"
5&$2$$
.2#22
$#%#&2"##
&2"2$
$##2$.3
.F-)=AINF-)A
))C4K%2
#$7.$.&$&%3&
%A"00E4.$#9&2#
$#&9##%%
0
1,2"
3))C4&
#&$$$..
$2"%2"3)C4-$($
,2"3-(,4#$7$2"%$&
$.
377&.$-F0J0A"0*EA
!&F-"00=42$. 3)C4
1$#.&;
$.2$#.&
.23&4
Introducing the Science Interest Network Model (SINM)
-$($,2"3-(,A
)C42$1,2"31,41
1,$2"%2
$###2&>2
3G1 &.$H4
3G"2.$H4
#%$%.$%
1$#36.
4$234
#$%;<&%#%
$3(&)JAF))CAF
))4$$$%%
#$$26
)
1,2"
..#
#2#2
$%;<&3,2))J43"27
$".";KF$))*AF
&))*4%;$3))0A+#
F004.$2"#
$%$$%1%#
34#$7%
&#&2"
##A$&#&#
#$%!
$%$$&#$
%;<&&#$%
$$3)C4. ?%#%
$$&."$%
$$2"&
#2,2".
%.##%%%
$$34%
-#$72"2$
%#%
6.3$$"24
#2&#3
%;<&4 12"
#.&$ &G1 &.$

1,2"
H2&.$2
2%$
2":29#.%$
&#2""2:$/K
&$.$6@$%
 &9#&$%..$
&$ &$#
2.-@$&&$$$. %
2&$"
"2"$$2"&2$
$&%$%
.& &#2",#
%##$$
.2#%2
/O$$. A2.O2..$
AOAO.$
AO &.$A%O%$
.$A"O"2.$6%
A"O"2.$$%A#
O#.&.$%
##

1,2"
.:#5324
#9&D$ :#
5$
1"&%#%
$. &2%$%&+-$
%&;;2$$
3+F700*4(2##&#
$$$%2"#
#&$2"%%
$23
.#42
,3469&62"
##22"$.
%&2%2"
3:0J*A?#(F"7))41%
G &%.$H%
# &%.$
#6"2
$$%2"%#5$#%$
%6##%
#.&6
&$.#$&
%#&2"$;2$$
5%$3$4%3
$#FK$&))*AF#&))84:9#$
=
1,2"
2"#3,-A"$!#"#F)C4
2"%6$#.#A2$%
9#2 &%.$%
#2"%6$#
A *rst empirical test
5%2.
#$2"##2##1,1(
)8%2$,-.3?!-
)J4.;
$%..$%$&
2;5%
$$%.2#
#
1$%$&#2"
2%#$&.
##1(
)8$%2#/
/!&
! 11())C
1()8$#$
$%$$23?!-))C
)C41()8$%  
!22$%
3#4$%$.
E
1,2"
2##2&%;<&2
$1()822$
##%$$
1#&$$66
$#$&.%$$1())C3(&F
(&)4(&(&3)4#$.
;$$%$;
$%;9#$2$.$&
#$%31F")))A
1F+7))84-$$,2
$$$&2#2$;
F%;9#@$1$#2
@$.$$&#&%&
$.$%;9#
$$$&$. 2;.2
%B@$&%%#1F+7
3))842
$$&-$
F$@$$#1(
$3(&F(&)4-.2
$L%;9#92%
$.2
A2%.$
$&2$$&?6.2
$$2"2#&/"22
8
1,2"
&$-.2#&
#%2$3(&F(&)4
5&..$2$&-$.
2%"2$2.&%
$##$%##
###$%,
2(9#6.2,-$.
%$$#;#5"2
#-@$&.2
;#5"2;@$
.&,.2;
@$%6.
&2"%$$33$";.F&)4
:2#$2#
1,%.&2%$&+.&
%%.&%.&&#&
MBA6%%
$%3$F6)))A
2F$)))A.$7,$2PFK.
)))4(%;<&%%$6
.2.&1,%.&
#%%;<&1())C
3?!-))C4+$9#.&
$2%;<&
$,2&$$
C
1,2"
6.2#($$6
.2#$#$
"2.$29##.
6;.2"
&2#;&$2
$2;&$&
6$$29#.2,
-$..;$$69#
.2$#26!2$$";.&
3)42%'(##$%$3%#.
1(##4.2;#5
"2%.&!2
.$%!."$
%29#1,%!$#
%"2#
2!
$#(9#@$%#%;
#5.&;!$#22"2
$%2"#
$$
$72"&.$"
&$3)C4:$1,
25&#2"%$-.#
$2" #3,-A"$)C4. 
2.$$%22".&#
J
1,2"
;2;$2",92
9&%622
2"2.$&#
#:$2#
1,%.&%$%
."$%,
-$.#&
Method
Participants
Netherlands. +$1()8%$(P?LP+?
$$#7%E03=CJC.&4
+$91("6.2
#;"3P?42%%&
$3(P?LP+?46%.2P?
(P?LP+?,@$%$2P?
&##$%(P?LP+?
$$&$"$#2$
.$#.2&$(P?LP+?
$.#5#%2%
$EE$%P+?C**$%
(P?$03E00*).&4$2
%8J=&30O)04
+#2"%P+?$2%(P?
$$,-3"$)C45
56.22"%2
$%,-$##&
*
1,2"
Colombia++$1()8%-.$##
&$##&$
#7%J003E)=*0.&4+-.
91("6.22&
$2%%$##&$
3L4"-.##.
%$$2&$$%$##&
$$%2
%#7%888J3=8E)C.&4
?%#=JJ8$2%$##&
J*%$##&
28**&30O)*4
PISA Measures
%$%1()825&3?!-))C)C4
5&25G.&2;
$2%D7H
3?!-)C#=4$5&
2"2@$2@$6
#5&3 &%41
%222$$2$$
&.2%$+2#
.%$1($3?!-)J.4
2$&#
+#2"%2%$%
$,-3"$)C45
56.22"%2
$%,-$##&
0
1,2"
9.$#;..$
#&2"
Science interest evaluations (named science interest in PISA
2015)+#2$.&"$
2&2%25#/.#
%&%'&
2#$#$2
8;#"%3GH4E3G&
H4283G1B"22H4
$%&.&3-.B#4%
2)*%$#)*=%-.
#3?!-)J.4
Science enjoyment+! &%2$
5$G1&%$21.
H12$$E;#"%
3G&H4E3G&H4.&3-.B
#4% &2)08%$#
)0)%-.#3?!-)J.4
Behavior: Engagement with science+2$
$##6;&2
"2%&26$
2P#.$.&2
%$;#"%3G&%H4E3G
&H4#$%.2
$2%.
)
1,2"
$%@$2
.&3-.B#4%.2)0%.
$-.#3?!-)J.4

.
1 22,2 2,&2
&+
1
.
-$ - 1#
1. 1 Q2 #3&$.&4
1% 1 Q2 %3&%
%4
1 1 Q2 !&%34
1$ 1 Q2 '&
1# 1 Q2 2#$#
!%$ ! & $ :$.
! ! & $ ".
!2 ! & $ ##&2".
! ! & $ ! &@$"2.
! ! & $ 1.$.
   12P#.$R.S
.   1.2.$&."R.S#
2   12..$R.S#
   1R.S72##
   1R$.S
   1$$##$#T$.
   1$##$#T$.
2   12.%&
.   1%22..
P2 P$  !62#%2"
P P$  $. #%2"
P# P$  $&$. 22%#
##
P# P$  $. # .
1,2"
I I2 "$ -#&;!9#5&
I I2 "$ -#&;!$5!@$&
I I2 "$ -#&;1#!5&
I" I2 "$ I2;-
I"# I2 "$ I2;$F!#
I# I2 "$ &;&
I I2 "$ &;
I I2 "$ &;!F
 %;!<& $# @$$2###
$
 %;!<& $# !9#2&%@$&@$"6%6
 %;!<& $# .%.%
 %;!<& $# 1%&@$2#%.
 %;!<& $# 226$%
#
% %;!<& $# 1#5%#.%%

 %;!<& $# $22&$&$
$.$#.&%%
% %;!<& $# 1%&.%29#%%%
(Personal) value+:$2$$$%
3$4A$.
$%
3#4$%$%%$$1
#$7%%$%. %
&&.3#&4%$
$$2$1()82?
E;#"%3G&H4E3G&
H4$2$&2$
G"6&RS$. 342.$
2#2"12H
#$%.2$2
%$$%
$%.&3-.B#4%
$2)08%$#)*0%
-.#3?!-)J.4
Science knowledge#26
"2!"2.:&
"22#&%5&
.&3))24! 
&45 )!4
3?!-)C4&"22
$.&%5"2&3
"2%%#.
..&4) 6)&3
1,2"
"2%.%#@$&"2.$
$%$#%"2;.$
4&&"2@$25.
%&3#&#A?!-)C4
($&2$.%"2
$.6$1(.$#$.
$3P49%#&P2%
.$%$B#5&.
#$.%11()8.
$)P#"2$.3?!-
)J4($&%(&(&3)42&$
P=#"2$9%
"2#5&2$P)&
Science self-e9cacy+%;<&$2
"2&2$#%6"$
7@$$&2###
$&2%*@$E;#"
%3G1$&H4E3G1$BH4
#$%.2$
2%%;<&
$%;<&.&3-.B#4%
=2$P2%.#%
"22&2PP)
#22"##&,-3"$)C4
(22"5&62$&
P)
1,2"
%;<&2)0)%$#)**%
-.#3?!-)J.4
Socio-economic status (SES)+?%2"#
2$&2.!6
$B%&."$#B$#B
$#$.%#2
$.%."2$$
.1(9%$$$
3!-4%$2#-#(&3-(4
!-$2.&1(7#$&
27.3-.B#4.)CJ%
$#)J)%-.#3?!-)C
)J.4
Network Estimation
+$7$$%62"$%
#"5&)2"7))89)2$:,
*(%#$&$#2
$2#GH
.22%
$2"2#.&GH
#2#.&
.&22$%
2%3!#"#
)4""#
.22
1,2"
(##-(,22"$
;#"&.3"$F!#"#)C42@$
..&2.7%2/234%
";2%%)$%
2%A3=E42
%%$%
(.2&"22
%6&A%%)
$&2
%$34
3;E4-"22.7
$#
2"2$;#$3
"$)E42&
2.$. $7
$7%#.%$&2
#2&3:F
.))*A.00C4"#
%.#.%$2.5
2$9&1%-
31-A:&F))415$&
2#22"
2###&%2"22
2#%2"2
&$$.&:$3004
1,2"
12$)62"/$&2
2"22".
%$22".$B;
$
Network Analysis
Network comparison+,2"-#3,-A
"$)C42$#2"%$#
3,-.A.&A
;."$4$#$
#%#:&,-2
2"$$%22"22
&2#&&%2"$$2
2$,-2#52
@$&22"&.
3&4222
#$72$%.$3
U&;FP#))E42
&#%&..22,-
256.222"
1#&,-6#7
.2$#12$#22#6
#&72$.#%.$#
7$#$#
+-.#.$$#%
1,2"
2&#0$%-.
$#-.$.#27$
$#$##&%$#
7$%,-
Community detection++2
$3$42"2&"$
2$2".#
&2.2$2"#
3F#&))842.2#%2
#&2"3K&&F:)CAKF
!#"#)J42"#
%&%.&22
6&3KF!#"#)J41
5$%2".
$&
Small-world-ness+22"2
$$3(.F.V))A+F700*42
29%2",2"2
2$$$.&
&3+F
700*4;2$$2"$
$#.$&
#;29%.
$9384%.##2
#314%.#2%
1,2"
&(;29%
;2;%2"3$#FK$&))*4
2;29%$2"2
5&2$5$
)));-$%#3$#FK$&
))*4$B3)C4##.$$
G.H&&#
Node centrality+$$#%
62&2.$%
2$.%&
$&$.2
3))EA:0J*A?#))4
&%$&%&$#
#","7))$.;*2%$
.&<3-;<4
$###%)82",
&222"$%$
A%9%D$%
2"
Additional analyses. +#%.&$&"
.&%2"%&
3!#"#.F:)J42
,-#2"%6$.$#%$#
$&#5&$#2,-#
(P?2P+?$1-.#25
1,2"
#$%$##$##"
&2$2$&2"6
%9#$&%2"
$##&%.&"2$%
,-$$

Results
Descriptive Statistics
##$&$.$#.%$
.2$65&$%
##%%;<&#2
$$"2-.
$% &.
$$&6
#$.$#.##/+26
#.$#
%;<&,2.&
#.&&"2
.#-.#1.$
$%!."$"2
$%2!
."$1$#$%!."$
& &.
#-.$%!."$
%%;<&%2!
1,2"
."$2-.$%2!."$
$-.$%!
."$
.
%##$&$.$#
N Interest Enjoyment Behavior Value Knowledge Self-Efficacy
Netherlands 2129 2.53 (0.96)** 2.36 (0.89)** 1.38 (0.61)** 2.53 (0.99)** 588.15 (71.28)** 2.79 (0.86)
Boys 980 2.62 (0.95)** 2.50 (0.90)** 1.50 (0.69)** 2.63 (0.97)** 598.42 (74.48)** 2.86 (0.83)
Girls 1149 2.44 (0.93)** 2.25 (0.86)** 1.28 (0.50)** 2.45 (1.01)** 579.40 (67.08)** 2.72 (0.86)
Low SES 533 2.47 (0.97)** 2.31 (0.87)* 1.33 (0.57)** 2.52 (0.98)* 573.58 (70.16)** 2.70 (0.86)
High SES 533 2.67 (0.94)** 2.46 (0.89)* 1.45 (0.67)** 2.63 (0.99)* 605.42 (72.19)** 2.92 (0.82)
Colombia 5557 2.87 (0.88)** 2.82 (0.77)** 1.83 (0.88)** 2.93 (0.80)** 454.99 (76.24)** 2.66 (0.86)
Boys 2406 2.90 (0.88)* 2.81 (0.79) 1.91 (0.91)** 2.92 (0.80) 469.14 (76.39)** 2.67 (0.85)
Girls 3151 2.85 (0.87)* 2.83 (0.75) 1.76 (0.85)** 2.94 (0.79) 444.18 (74.30)** 2.66 (0.89)
Low SES 1390 2.83 (0.87)* 2.80 (0.76) 1.81 (0.88) 3.01 (0.75)** 419.71 (67.04)** 2.61 (0.88)**
High SES 1390 2.90 (0.89)* 2.83 (0.80) 1.85 (0.88) 2.90 (0.82)** 493.40 (72.82)** 2.75 (0.86)**
Note. The subgroups per country (i.e., boys vs. girls; high SES vs. low SES) and the overall scores of the countries were compared.
*p < 0.05 **p < 0.001
Network Analysis
Netherlands vs. Colombia.P$&2"%$
3:$%4-.3:$46.&/
:2$2".$
%$2%$
-.2""#
%$2"2$$.%
2#-.2"A$2"$
&-.
2"
.& + ,2"#.2%1
! &P$I2%;<&
$LP2$3%4-.$##&$
34!#2%
..$;.3
 &"245.&1(!#
#.22"
.222#
.%
.%?"6.2
2"#%.2$$
2":#5$
1,2"
Network comparison tests (NCT). +$1,.
.#304-.1,3888J42
&#0$%-.#E
"7%2##.(##6
.22"2$##.&,-222
2"62"$$3<=)C)>))42
*#5!%;<&$2
%$2$2"
%;<&2%"23;I#
%;I#4$3;1#;1.;1$;1.%;1.4
.3;4$2$.%
2"2$.$%
-.2"3I";I1.;1%1;1#1$;1#;.42
2 &.$$%$2"
3!%$;!.;2;2P2;PP#;P#4%;<&
#&$2"2%;<&
.&"2$
 &.
%.253=
0=JA)>))42$1,.3=
0*)4-.1,3=**CE4$-.
2"$&65&
E+#2"%-.#2%
-.$.#$,-3"$)C4
556.22"%2
$%,-$##&
1,2"
$$#5.$.+2
2".5&622$%$&
#$&
Netherlands+52"2$$
.2$%2$#
3:$%4(2$$.%#
.$"&$%
$$225.&$&
&3:$=%4$1.
3G#H41$3G'H41#3GH42
$%;<&$22
$13G!&%H41%
3G%H42$ &$3.$4
&"2$$2##
$&;$
#.
1,%$ &%
1,2"
.& ?+ ,2"#$%
#;;.$LP2
$3%4-.$##&$34
$.2"#.
6.&2%.
%$2"#:$.
%.%?"6.2
2"#%;$$&
-.2"2#$2":
#5$
Small-world-ness.$1,$3)E84
##%3)C42
#.#30CJ04
;29%8*$##%000W5
%;29%#0+$
$$1,;2$$
Centrality. 2
%2"2"%2
#&:$E2%
 &#..$
#3!4%2.& &@$;"2
3!4".$3!4%
 &&.#&$$2
 &$.$%$2
%$ &$#&
#$$22"!%
21%3)=4%$
#P23)EE4%$#23)804%
.#3)84%%;<&#I
3)J4%"2#
NCT: boys vs. girls. ,-2"$$%
$.&65&%%$3<=)0)
=)=8422#56
.%2"5&63=EA
1,2"
)O)C842$22"2
%$&6%
.& @-&#%2"%$
LP2$3.$4-.$##&$
34.%.%:#
.## &G!HG!H
$2"2.G.GH
-.2":#
5$
NCT: low vs. high SES. ,-2"
$$%$2##$
65&3<=JJA)O))*422
#5622"6
5&.3====A)O)E*42
$22"2%$&6%

1,2"
Colombia+1-.2"$%
$531(4#&2$3:$
4$%#
$5.&$&&3:$=
41$%.;#5
2$$;#.
.;#?-.
1,2"@$#&2"2$
%;<&.###.
#%2"$.2
&2 &2#;
%;<&
Small-world-ness.-.2"$
3)804##%3)42
#.#3C0)4
;29%8$##%000W5
%#E+$$
-.1,;2$$
Centrality. 2
%2"2"%
2#&:$E%
.#.2.$&."#
3.4$.34$$#
#$34%.
2"&$2.$
1,2"
#5&.2.
22% &
#3!A)84;$#31%A)=4
$#3PA)4%;<&#3A)E4
$$#
NCT: boys vs. girls. +,-%.&3,OEC)4
$.#%-.3,OE)C42"
$$%-..&65&%%
-.3<=J)=C4.%
2"5&63=)8A)OJ042
$22"2%$&6%

NCT: low vs. high SES. ,-2"
$$%-.2##$
65&3<=*EA)O=)422"2
65&.3=80EA)O)422
!2".&3=0))C4
!2"3=*E4(22"65&2
%$22".&"$&
%;2;2%%.
2"
SINM for low vs. high SES. +$$
2"%$%23:$8%4!3:$8
4."$?2!2"
32"4#&% &.
1,2"
;$$$&#$
2"#:$8.
2"$##
.&1($
Small-world-ness low vs high SES. 2!2"
$3)C4##%
3)*42#.#
3J)C4;29%80$##
%000W5%#2=J
2$2!2";2
$$2$%!2"
$##3)C8)C4#.
#3**84;2
9%0*2000W5%
#3EE4
1,2"
.& + ,2"#$%
#;;.-.$
%2!."$3%4%!."$34
$.2"#.
6.&2%.
%$..2.%
22".@$22!
2"3%432"4.2$:
#5$
Centrality low vs. high SES.%%2
!!2"#&:$C34:
.$#2%.#
$##$34:2!
2"2"2%&3I4
%!2"2"2#%
#5&3I4?%
%22"2#.2;$
#.&2%.
"2##.&
1,2"
.& '+-&#%-.$%2!
."$3.$4%!."$34
.$%22"#2
.3GHGH4"23GIHGIH4.
.2".%.%
:#5$
Summary.$-.2"
6#.&,-$$
#52.1
$%#5
3&42%$6.2$$%$
-.2"%$2"$##
%;#5&%;$
%#$.$$2#;%;
<&2;$$
;$#311%42 &
1-.2";$%
#$2$$&
%2;-
6..222"$1,
&-.1,2&
$$3%;%#42
$-.2"&2$
#%.&2!6
5&2"#$##$&
%$&6%2$$%
&.$.$#($.
1,2"
&%-.!2"65&%
%2;$#&&$$
6.22"
Discussion
$##5##&#&2"
###%$%&
$$%$$#5&2
$2"31,4.&9-(,
2.##$2"%
$3)C426
#..#%
$$%(5#%
2$%$&##1,1()8%2
6$,-.26
#&1X"X3)))4;$$
$;$%;9#
$?$$#5#
% &2#.2;$&
6$$%3(&F(&)41
%2225$%$5
22"&$5#$5
%2"%3#4&22
$##%$$2%$2
2"&.$%#&"
1,2"
#.&
22$%$$&%$$
%$1,
Theoretical Relevance
2"31,4%$%
&###3(&
)J4%$%1,$$%.2
.#+$$
&#&.234#$
;$"2
#$%;<&#%%
#3(&)JAF))CAI##))4
&$%!&#&$&7
3(&F(&)A,$)8415
##%1,3;41()82
$#%$$.2
##%$$2
2".##5&5
.$-.1,#2
$$11,2#&
%$222$
$$.%$1#&;2;
$$#%&$2
2"@$"&3+F700*4
1,2"
#$2"&
-.2".&.&&
&&%2&.9#$
&83A--
+F("))=42$1,&
.%$#&#%
#$#.%#
$$3,
)A$2)4"Q3)E4
%$&%$B;6
%;#3%;#%;<&4#
$%$
#%#&%.6#
$$
(#%$$
#%5%
;#53K00C42.$$%
2.#.3I##F7
)42#$7.
812"&6#$&.%
1%#%%
#$$$&.5.2
#3))C41
#&
##$2&2% $
.$.&%;@$3%;<&4
.$$69#2
23 &4%25
%$$$&%2"&%&$2"&
2"3$##&4
1,2"
?$;
$. #2#$7
"$$&&.#$
$. #5#"&&7
1()81,%2"2%$.%
#$7/1$2"
.;#52;$%
#$.$$2%;<&$
 &$&;$$
%;<&$2$$2
#.&%;<&A.
.#%2&2%;<&.
%..9#26$%
#2;$$ &
$$2"2.$
2& &$"&.
#1-.2"
;$%$
-.6;
#5&$.&#7$
5.2$2&
$.%$2
&$..&#5&
$3$F:&))*A?.F))*A
 Y.F))84+$6;
1,2"
#5&&.&2$!
;$.%.
3;$4$2"##.$2.2;
$&6;#5&
Practical relevance
(#%52&
&$B#
#%%$&3(&F(&)A
27F)=A,$)84+2
2"%$&%#2
##D$
2#&62"(
#&2"##3.##4
$22"&#7
2"1%22
G &.$HG5
H$$3!#"#)C41#&
.#9#$.
3$#%42"(
2"2%##&
$.22".$&%
##%"2
19%
#$7%%#&"2$
1,2"
$.#5#%2"
,#%
%%$&#5.3$
&#AG;BZH!'#%)4
-#.5%(&(&3)4
#% &2%
 &$$1,1
-..2
##%#-.2
#.2,.&.%)
.&#$;
$1())C3(&F(&)A)=4
2& $#%.2
$$
$&.&(&(&3)4
"2#&62
$52#$$&#I2
2&#&;.
-.1,2"2%;<&
.$-.1,1
$$2$
,$"2.A
.2$$-.3(&F
(&)4##$%##
1,2"
$-.&.%
6
Limitations and future research
+$2$%
#%$%&
$2#5%1
,2"31,4?$$$.#2
%2:%$
$&5%1,;
($$$.5%&
$$%#+%"&.
$.$%.2%
#31,$$4##%
#$3I##))42"
##2#$22%&
%;.$;$&
$$2.2;$. 6%;
$$3!#"#+#[$F.
)C422"##$.%
#&%2"$##
#2&%%$$$$#&2"
##%$&%#
!#&#.&#%2
.2$&..5&2$%&
1,2"
.2#%
9%#&&2222.
#7&2%#3#$
)E4&#%$%$$%%$$ 
%#&5%
.%#%6%
#3(&)JAF)4
&2%;# 3?!-)C4
2$$$2# 
+1()8$$5.
##2&.###%
2"##1#&##$
$@$.##&;
##@$$$.#3
..F))E4($2"
%#%2"
%%$&3)C4?
#&"%$%3#4$.
2&9#2&%$#&
#22"$##&
#&$$.
%#%3(&)))JA(&F
)E4?##&$
$3)=4%2
2$2"#1())C%;
1,2"
#2#&&2%;<&.$2
 &$%225
#%2A$%;#
&$.
&..2
2"27.2$2
5%%@$.#
$$.#(9$
%$$.&..%$3)C4
 (&$.&I##73)4#
6%#5&%
.#2#&34.$#&
A29%+2
1())C3?!-))C42
#2$$M.B##;;
$2#2"22
1()83?!-)C4$$
&6;#5&A &$
.2.3G1
 &@$2"2H42;
$%;<&2;#53G1
/#H4:"2;#5&2
.$.&2.%
6#.$#%
1,2"
2"2$$.#"$
%#5&%
Conclusion
1$1,$##2.
#&2"###%$%
2&;##
##&2"###2
&7$$&%
122&.$$$%
.262"%
6$#%.$$"#.$
2%$$#$22
#%2"##$
$$62"$$
$.$&.$.$#2$
$$6&##.$
#&2$.
'
#&2"###2&$&&
%##&.##&
;.$;$2%$&%
#%
1,2"
Acknowledgements
We thank the reviewers for their important suggestions which improved our manuscript
considerably. This work is part of the research Yield Graduate Program with project number
022.006.0, which is financed by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research
(NWO).
%
(&3))J4%
#177 3##EJ>C=4
#/LLL))CL0J*;)=J8E8;8L8)));
(&3))41&%"./
"#"6!<!
2!'%A=8>CE#/LLL))*L)JE0;
JE=3))4))))C())
(&3)J41/I2$"2.#1
(?BI%F"273!4A23##=>
E4-/##/LLL#/LLL)))JL0J*;=;=0;
888)0;C\
(&F(&3)4($$##$$%
$B 7 
??348>J#/LLL))*)L)08))C0=))8*CE)
(&F3)E41 &1"$F
.";K3!42,
 3##)8>J4,2Q"/$
(&F63))41
1,2"
#&##B 
7 2&C@3=48E8>8C#/LLL))=JL));
)CC=0E=8E8
(.F.V(;3))4%#9
2"%!<2;@34EJ>0J
#/LLL))=L&JEEJ
(9I!.!FI&I3))*4
#%#$&$8&!
0!)?34=E>==E
#/LLL))CL ))J))E
(#K+30EC4!6/(&##%
2&%!?3C4==8>=EJ
#/LLL))=JL))8008
77&.$(--F30J04
$&%#5%$B 
<&%2'34**#/LLL)=)JL=8)*J0
(U&;FP#(3))E4
$%#922"&2
2D
34=JEJ>=J8#/LLL))J=L#)E)))*J)
.F-(?3)=4,2"&/(
##$$%#&#& %!
82&C340>#/LLL/)ECL$;
#&;)8);*8C)*
..KF3))E4#%
1,2"
&2&%!3E4)C>)J
#/LLL))=JL))==;08]E)C
"30*E4!#%6.
#%$B 
2&@;3C40>)8
#/LLL))=JL));=8EEJC0
--+KF("3))=4)) )
&62,2!!.$
,/2
.:-
F3)C42%7$%
$/$$2"3-(,42&
%!?34>#/LLL))=JL))=0*)
!&(F-"300=4A2)2& ?
:/$-%
#/LL#&#LL00;0**E0;)))
!#"#.F:!13)*4!#&
2"$&/($##:2!%2
<23408>#/LLL)=J8*L=E*;)J;)*C;
!#"#-(?+#PF
.3)4@#/,2"$7%#
#&B @E3E4>*
#/LLL)*C=JL )E*)E
!#"#F:!13)J4./#%$
2"$%#/LL;
1,2"
# L2.L#"L.L9
!#"#+#[$F.3)*#.
E4$#;;
< !:2!%2##>*
#/LLL))*)L))J=J)*E8E*=
:&F3))4!9.&%%
$#3!)>E%
#/LL9L.L)CCE)
:-30J*4-&2"/-#$
58>=0
#/LLL))CL)=J*;*J==3J*40));J
:F.3))*4#
2#:C3=4E=>EE
#/LLL))0=L.L"9)E8
:$F!3004K#2.&%^
#73)340>
CE#/LLL)))L#E=*))
K300C4$B&/
K%18
F 0!)82&1&
K&
KI&&F:(3)C4(
$%2$&.
 #/LLL)==*0L%%)C)))E8
K:F!#"#3)J4!9#&#&/(2
1,2"
##%$.%#&
1G73C4)JE)=8
#/LLL)=JL $#)JE)=8
$F63)))4($$%%#&
$/##2$B
#$B%;#7 
E@3C4C*0>J)8#/LLL)))L)0*;
=J]3)))4*E/CRC*0//(1;-!S=)-?A;
"27$"(I!.";KF
$3))*4%(K#
%1/#2(K1
%B 7 2&34)8>
#/LLL))=JL));)CC=)))8
#:F&!300J4%%
59$/?.2
B 7 2&
EC340>)#/LLL))=JL));)CC=*00
F(I3))C4%$;#%
#7 2&@34>J
#/LLL))JL8=C0*8#E)\E
FI(3))C4%$;#%
#7 2&@34>J
#/LLL))JL8=C0*8#E)\E
I(FI##(3))E41
..6:$1
1,2"
<!7$8&&!))!
 . &0!)+3##*0>84
#/LLL)E=EL0J*E)C)88
300J4<&!22!
)!7&8HB#
3P=4#/LLL))CL));EE)83JE40))8C;0
$#FK$&I3))*4,2"G;2;H/(
@$%2"@$
1G7?3E4#/LLL)=JL $#))))8
1F"+!3)))47$$
#%$&%!
'340>8%#/LL222 L.LC8J**
1F+7-3))847$$
&$#@$8,&D!
3:.$&)J4
"FQ3)E4&6%
6%$$B %2
A2&3*4)*E>)
#/LLL)))L8=
K2(F$3)))4K6$B
9#$2
7 E@34*)>0#/LLL)))L31-14)0*;
=J]3))))=4*E/R*)//(1;-!=S=)-?A;]
IINF--3)4+"%
#&_2&<@3)C4E=>8)
1,2"
#/LLL))JL))==0J)))*EE
I##(3))4$$&#%#/
%##1&
 3E4=*=>E)0#/LLL))CL)080;
EJ83)4)));
I##(3))J4($;#&#$%
B 7 I
F ;348>#/LLL)))JL)JJ8;))J;0=;0
I##(F73)4/
5B 7 
??34J>8)#/LLL))*)L)08))C0=))8*CE8
.$7+,$2P!FK.-
3)))4K#&/.&
B 
7 34E=>8J#/LLL))*)L)08))C0))*00
+2F"K300E42$%&
&%
#%B I:2!
#/LLL)))CL .00E)J
2FK13)))47!)
&-0))2
!)8,& 
!)#/LLL))JL-?0J*)88J**=
27:;:FN;3)=4#
6%#%;
1,2"
 ,D&3*40E>08E
#/LLL)JJL)0C=CC8E0E
&!3))84-&%$A2
8,&#,< 1&=>E*
#/LLL))JL8=C0*8#E)\
&!3))*4(##&%/!;.
##%%$$
2&'?3*4JC)>JC0#/LLL))=JL)))=;
)CC]C=*JC)
$1P?F:&3))*4A<;
2).&7JA
<2 2. 27&22F
-$(/1F11$&-
-
,+:]$I$IF
$2'3)4+"G`H$%9#&;$
&_/(#&&&$.;
&&;72&
3*4)8*>)CC#/LLL)JJL)08CJ0JCE88E)
,23))J4$6#$$
&B %2A2&@@3J4
0)*>0=J#/LLL)))L)C0
,$K"+KK,+$-F,-
3)84(%%.$!
B 7 ?;3J4>
1,2"
#/LLL))*)L)08))C0=)8)J*C=
?!-3))C47!  2&
 )/?!-/K.:$
%#/LL222LL;L=CCE8*8#%
?!-3)C4
&24/?!-$.
#/LLL#/LL9L)J*JL0J*0CE88E8;
?!-3)J4-#/$1A2
%)3##8>8)4/?!-$.%
#/LL222L#LL1(;)8;;#;-#;;
#%
?!-3)J.4-#C/#$$
%9@$1A2%)3##*0>
=EE4/?!-$.%
#/LL222L#L$L1(;)8;;#;
-#;C;$;;-$;P;%;-9;
a$;#%
?#(:F"73))4,&
22"/K7#
?3=4E8>8
#/LLL))CL )))=))C
?.F3))*4$!$#/-
D1 . 3$&4*%
#/LL%#25L;;5L;
$L\!\\!$#\#\:#%
1,2"
F#&3))84-#$$2"
$2"8) 8
34)#/LLL)))JL8C080C\=
I(30*04%$34
/(2%#&
;16(I##I(F
$3!4&&2
&3##C8>JE4IK&
I(300)4-B#&#
&1:$FI$3!4&,&
 &23##J>C84,2Q"/-.'&
I(F3))4$/
#$.&$&0!)
2!<!+J=>08#/LLL))CL.0J*;
)J8))8=;0L8)))0;J
I(F3)4#$7
$%7 2&
@'3=4C*>*E#/LLL))*)L))EC8))8*JJ=
I(!F&I!3))*41
(1(I."F-
'3!42&)!I !
!2!3P8##EC>E04&'I/
!#/LLL))CL)JE0;JE=3)*48)E;
I(F"3004-$&&$B
/(%#1
1,2"
?##FP3!4A2&
)))!3##)8>=*4,2
Q"/#;P
IF+7"30*84!6%
%&$0!)
2&3E4CE>C=
-3))04+B2_/;6
%;$%12&%& 
8&!H!<!3##=8>84
#/LLL)E=EL0J*))=*=J0C
-+-#F-3004?
"(2&"_/1%;$&
B 2&'?3=4=J0>=0)
#/LLL))=JL));=8EC===J0
%'3))4%1
&),&&2&)2
 3##C=>0E4%
#/LL."L."_O(=-F#O
%'3))04$$1I+7F
(+53!47 )2&2,+#,
!23##0J>4,2Q"/$L&F
:K$#
3))C473)&2)2&?9%'&
#/LLL))0=L#%/L0J*)088*88J)))))
 Y.F-3))8426$$
1,2"
&_$##%
# ?!3%!$44. 
1&A2&'34>J
!F3))J4&&1#,
822&
#/LLL)))L0J*)EJ)EJC8*#&))C
"300E4&C34E8>88
.300C4"
B 2%:
#/LLL)=)JL=ECJ*
$2'+,b"?,&KF
"I3)4.%$#
9#&;$&/($&B 
7 2&@3=4JC=>JJJ
#/LLL))=JL))JEJ)
$";.!F&(3)4$5
;"2
! 0H?340>8
#/LLL))CL #))))E
"$-.!#"#":
F+#3)E4(2%
$2"%.&4%)@80*
#/LLL))=*L#)80*
"$-!#"#F(3)C4,2"-#
/#%22".
1,2"
$%#/LL;# L2.L
#"L,2"-#L9
"$-!#"#F2.$%(9
.73)841:/:$
%#/LLLL1:L
#$1(+-(?.
$"9:I$##c63)E4-22
&2%%#
&22D
34*J>0#/LLL))J=L#=E)
-PK+
$7F "!3))C4(&%
/#%%.&
$$2&%!?3E4*E>C
#/LLL))=JL))==;08]=E*E
+F7300*4-&%G;2H
2" ?C?3CC*E4EE)>#/LLL))=*L=)0*
+5(!%'+F;I
3))J4#%1#,
822&#/LLL)))L0J*)EJ)EJC8*#&)=8
... Students' attitude toward S&T has consistently been shown to decline as they grow older, which affects learning and later career choices (Potvin and Hasni, 2014a;Denessen et al., 2015;van Aalderen-Smeets and Walma van der Molen, 2018). A recent study modeled science interest as a dynamic relational network, in which different interest components, such as attitude, are shown to reinforce one another (Sachisthal et al., 2019). Central components within this network are most influential in positively affecting the network, and are thus interesting targets for interventions. ...
... Central components within this network are most influential in positively affecting the network, and are thus interesting targets for interventions. Among 15-year-olds in the Netherlands, enjoyment seems to be a central component that influences other components such as behavior and self-efficacy (Sachisthal et al., 2019). Furthermore, it is quite possible that the decline in interest or motivation is not inevitable; it seems that the school environment is a more determining factor for whether students are willing to learn science rather than the home environment (Vedder-Weiss and Fortus, 2012). ...
... This information is essential for tailoring learning environments such that they can trigger interest in S&T (Loukomies et al., 2015). Ultimately, interest could reinforce other affective components and science-related behaviors (Palmer et al., 2017;Sachisthal et al., 2019;Vu et al., 2021). Fourth, supported by both our quantitative and qualitative results, is that language can be a hindering factor in S&T learning; students sometimes explicitly indicated their troubles with the terms used in the lesson unit. ...
Article
Full-text available
The primary aim of this study was to identify how elementary school students' individual differences are related to their learning outcomes and learning process in science and technology (S&T) education, using a mixed methods design. At the start of the study, we assessed the reading comprehension, math skills, science skills, executive functions, coherence of speech, science curiosity and attitude toward S&T of 73 fifth and sixth graders. The students then received a four-lesson inquiry-and design-based learning unit on the concept of sound. Learning outcomes were measured through a pre-and post-test regarding students' conceptual knowledge of sound, a practical assessment of design skills and a situational interest measure. A factor score regression model (N = 62) showed significant influence from prior conceptual knowledge and the latent factor "academic abilities" (reading, math, and science skills) on post conceptual knowledge. The latent factor "affective" (curiosity and attitude toward S&T) and to a lesser extend also prior conceptual knowledge were predictive of situational interest. Learning process was measured through individual interviews and student worksheets within a subsample (N = 24). We used latent profile analysis to identify three profiles based on students' individual differences, from which the subsample for qualitative analyses was selected. Codes and themes that emerged from the qualitative analyses revealed differences between students from the three profiles. The results of this study show how different types of students succeed or struggle within S&T education, which is essential for teachers in order to differentiate their instruction and guidance. Differentiation aimed at supporting language and the integration of science into design, while facilitating a variety of learning activities and assessments that move beyond written assignments, could help achieve the most optimal learning conditions for each student.
... The idea of a network of mutual relations to model psychological constructs was introduced by van der Maas and colleagues (van der Maas et al., 2006(van der Maas et al., , 2017 as an explanation for the positive correlations (the positive manifold) between intelligence sub-test scores. This led to a productive area of research with applications in many areas of psychology (Dalege et al., 2016;Robinaugh et al., 2020;Sachisthal et al., 2019Sachisthal et al., , 2020Zwicker et al., 2020). The general hypothesis in psychological network models is that correlations between observed behaviors, such as cognitive functions, psychopathological symptoms, and attitudes (or, motivation constructs), are not due to unobserved common causes, but to a network of interacting psychological, social, and/or biological factors. ...
... An example of how such a network approach can be applied to the area of motivation can be found in a study of interest in science (Sachisthal et al., 2019). This study included measures of students' value of science, their science engagement, and achievement. ...
... A positive change in a central variable should lead to a positive change throughout the network and these central variables may differ between contexts. For example, enjoyment emerged as the central node in the network of Dutch students, whereas engagement behaviors emerged as central in the network of Colombian students and therefore different approaches for increasing science interest are advised for the two countries (Sachisthal et al., 2019). Central variables may be efficient intervention targets as interventions informed by network analyses have been shown to be highly effective as these central variables were later shown to be predictive of subsequent behaviors (e.g., Sachisthal et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
The question of how learners’ motivation influences their academic achievement and vice versa has been the subject of intensive research due to its theoretical relevance and important implications for the field of education. Here, we present our understanding of how influential theories of academic motivation have conceptualized reciprocal interactions between motivation and achievement and the kinds of evidence that support this reciprocity. While the reciprocal nature of the relationship between motivation and academic achievement has been established in the literature, further insights into several features of this relationship are still lacking. We therefore present a research agenda where we identify theoretical and methodological challenges that could inspire further understanding of the reciprocal relationship between motivation and achievement as well as inform future interventions. Specifically, the research agenda includes the recommendation that future research considers (1) multiple motivation constructs, (2) behavioral mediators, (3) a network approach, (4) alignment of intervals of measurement and the short vs. long time scales of motivation constructs, (5) designs that meet the criteria for making causal, reciprocal inferences, (6) appropriate statistical models, (7) alternatives to self-reports, (8) different ways of measuring achievement, and (9) generalizability of the reciprocal relations to various developmental, ethnic, and sociocultural groups.
... Node centrality has been shown to be related with relevant outcome variables: In attitude networks, central nodes predicted voting behaviour (Dalege et al., 2017), and in clinical networks, central nodes predicted post-treatment outcomes in anorexia nervosa (Elliott et al., 2020). In a previous study on the SINM using PISA 2015 data from the Netherlands and Colombia, enjoyment nodes were strongest in the SINM for Dutch students and behaviour nodes were strongest in the SINM for Columbian students indicating that the efficacy of intervention targets may vary across cultural environments (Sachisthal et al., 2019). ...
... Considering the cross-sectional nature of the data set and the fact that the psychometric network approach to science interest is still in its early stages (Sachisthal et al., 2019), the current study should be seen as an exploratory study. We do expect to find a positive correlation between centrality of nodes and their strength of relation with the outcome measure (course enrolment). ...
... We do expect to find a positive correlation between centrality of nodes and their strength of relation with the outcome measure (course enrolment). Based on earlier studies we hypothesize that (1) generally, enjoyment nodes will be central to the SINMs (Sachisthal et al., 2019) but that (2) centrality of other nodes may differ between the specific course networks (Ainley & Ainley, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, students' interest in science has been conceptualized as a network model: the science interest network model (SINM) in which affective, behavioural and cognitive components interact together; building on science interest being a dynamic relational construct. In the current study, we combine the Australian Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 and Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth 2008 data (N ¼ 4758) to investigate relationships between the network characteristics of Year 10 students with their decision to enrol in a science course in Year 12. Specifically, we identified indicators central to the SINM and tested whether they predicted chemistry, physics and biology course enrolment. Students' intentions to pursue a science-related study or career (future intentions in science) and their enjoyment of science (science enjoyment) were the most central indicators for all three science courses. Centrality was strongly related to course enrolment (r ¼.36-.74), lending support to the validity of network
... Science interest is seen as a multi-component construct, where behavior, enjoyment, knowledge components, values, and motivational aspects mutually influence each other (Ainley, 2017;Sachisthal et al., 2018). Parents' interest in science has been shown to be related to parent-child interaction at exhibits: parent and child engaged with more exhibits if parents had a positive science attitude (Szechter and Carey, 2009), and parent and child spent more time at exhibits if the science topic of an exhibit was of interest to parents (Tare et al., 2011). ...
... This relation could be considered as a validation of the TOSRA Inquiry Attitude subscale (Fraser, 1981) in the museum context. Attitude toward science is recognized as an important educational outcome as it relates to lifelong learning (Organisation for Economic Co-operation, and Development [OECD], 2009;Ainley and Ainley, 2011;Sachisthal et al., 2018). ...
... This "eternity" value could motivate parents to act differently, for example, by sharing this information with the child by interpreting results in addition to asking open-ended wh-questions. Also, knowledge about a real-world phenomenon could make parents more interested in the inquiry activity (Tare et al., 2011;Ainley, 2017;Sachisthal et al., 2018) and this could raise new questions that the parents might want to inquire. In future research, it could be informative to further investigate the effect of parental pre-knowledge on parent-child interaction for a series of phenomena, which differ in the extent that they are familiar to the parents. ...
Article
Full-text available
Effective interaction and inquiry are an essential source for children's learning about science in an informal context. This study investigated the effect of parental pre-knowledge on parent-child interactions (manipulations, parent talk, and child talk) during an inquiry activity in NEMO Science Museum in Amsterdam. The sample included 105 parent-child dyads (mean children's age = 10.0 years). Half of the couples were randomly assigned to the experimental group in which, without the child's knowledge, the parent was shown the task's solution prior to the inquiry activity. Results show that parental pre-knowledge affected the way parents interacted and inquired with their child. Compared to parents without pre-knowledge, parents with pre-knowledge inquired longer, posed more open-ended wh-questions and closed questions, and less often interpreted results. Children of parents with pre-knowledge more often described evidence and interpreted results, more often manipulated alone, and solved the task more accurately. These results indicate that parental pre-knowledge brings about parents' scaffolding behavior. In addition, it was studied how individual differences of parents and children relate to parent-child interaction. Results show that children's self-reported inquiry attitude was related to their conversation during inquiry, such that they asked fewer closed questions and more open-ended questions. Children's gender affected the cooperation between parent and child, parents more often manipulated together with boys than with girls, and girls more often manipulated alone. Fathers with pre-knowledge, but not mothers, let their child manipulate more by oneself than fathers without pre-knowledge. This study shows that more knowledge about an exhibit improves a parent's scaffolding behavior in a science museum. Results are discussed in the context of museum practice.
... Network analysis offers a novel perspective to gain insight into the co-occurrence (direct interactions) of observed indicators (Epskamp, Rhemtulla, & Borsboom, 2017) and helps us to understand how teaching practices are loosely or firmly related to each other as a system. It has been applied and is increasingly popular in personality research (see e.g., Costantini et al., 2015), research on political attitudes (see e.g., Dalege, Borsboom, van Harreveld, & Maas, 2018), and educational research (Abacioglu, Isvoranu, Verkuyten, Thijs, & Epskamp, 2019;Sachisthal, Jansen, Peetsma, Dalege, van der Maas, & Raijmakers, 2019). In contrast to factor analytic models, network analysis shifts the focus from the common shared variance to the variance between indicators (e.g., individual practices). ...
... And having more friends leads to more invitations to parties, see Costantini et al., 2015). Thus, indicators are part of the construct, instead of being measures of it (Sachisthal et al., 2019). The set of indicators (=nodes) and their interactions (=edges, representing unknown statistical relationships between two nodes) are visualized as a network, and magnitude (strength) and direction (positive versus negative) of pairwise interactions of indicators can be interpreted. ...
Article
Teaching practices are pivotal for student learning. Due to pedagogical traditions and national cultures, the structure of teaching practices may differ across countries. This study investigates the structure of teaching practices across 12 countries grouped into four major linguistic/cultural clusters. First, factor analysis is applied to investigate if the theoretical distinction between teacher-directed and student-centred practices is generalizable across countries. Then, network analysis is used to explore how individual classroom assessment practices relate to either teacher-directed or student-centred practices. Main findings include that: (1) teacher-directed and student-centred practices are two distinct factors across countries; (2) the overall structure and connectivity of teaching practices differs across countries, with smaller differences within linguistic/cultural clusters; and (3) assessment practices with the aim to structure and guide learning strongly relate to teacher-directed practices, whereas assessment practices with the aim to individualize instruction more relate to student-centred practices. We discuss the global patterning and implications.
... A network can be directed or undirected depending on whether the connections are to be examined as unidirectional (i.e., causal relation) or bi-directional. In educational and psychological research, both directed and undirected networks have been studied (Lee et al., pre-print;Sachisthal et al., 2019). A network can also be signed or unsigned depending on the nature of the connections. ...
Article
Full-text available
In their recently renamed theory, Situated Expectancy-Value Theory (SEVT), Eccles and Wigfield (2020) emphasized the importance of situations in influencing individuals’ motivational beliefs and academic choices. Adopting a novel approach—network analysis, this study aimed to examine how situations may impact the associations among expectancies, subjective task values, and achievement from a holistic perspective. In this study, situations were operationalized as grade levels (i.e., 6th -9th grade), subject domains (i.e., language arts and math), and countries (i.e., Finland and Germany). Adolescents from Finland (N = 4,062) and Germany (N = 449) were included in the study. Results showed that, overall, the networks are mostly subject-bound, yearly-varied, and country-specific, supporting the situative nature of SEVT. We also found that expectancies were consistently the closest motivational beliefs to achievement, whereas utility values were the least close ones, implying that expectancies, not utility, might be the most desirable intervention targets for achievement improvement.
... In fact, we believe it is at the root of a paradigm shift. The network perspective is not only greedily applied in empirical investigations-most notably in the field of psychopathology Fried et al., 2016;Robinaugh, Hoekstra, Toner, & Borsboom, 2019;Schmittmann et al., 2013)-it moreover inspired the formation of network theories across a range of other psychological constructs, including psychopathology (Borsboom, 2017), panic disorder (Robinaugh, Haslbeck, et al., 2019), attitudes (Dalege, Borsboom, van Harreveld, & van der Maas, 2018;Dalege et al., 2016;van der Maas, Dalege, & Waldorp, 2020), emotion (Lange, Dalege, Borsboom, van Kleef, & Fischer, 2020), interest (Sachisthal et al., 2019), and rational choice (Kruis, Maris, Marsman, Bolsinova, & van der Maas, 2020). These theoretical advances have sparked a renewed interest in formal psychological theory formation, reflected in a recent surge of studies that discuss and advocate the topic, and suggest best practices (Borsboom, van der Maas, Dalege, Kievit, & Haig, 2020;Eronen & Romeijn, 2020;Fried, 2020;Guest & Martin, 2020;Haslbeck, Ryan, Robinaugh, Waldorp, & Borsboom, 2019;Robinaugh, Haslbeck, Ryan, Fried, & Waldorp, 2020;van Rooij & Baggio, 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Twentieth century theory formation in human intelligence was dominated by factor theories; network theories will dominate the twenty first. Network theories answer a broad call for formal theories in psychological science, provide a strong approach to an idiographic science, and create an opportunity to study the developmental mechanisms of human's cognitive dynamics. Although the current century already delivered two formal stationary network theories of human intelligence—mutualism and wired intelligence—integrating dynamic mechanisms remains a serious challenge. This challenge translates into clear priorities: the identification of robust developmental phenomena, the study of the biological and cognitive mechanisms that drive these phenomena, the integration of these mechanisms into network theories of growth, the integration of network theories from different explanatory levels, and the empirical characterization of the structure of network theories.
... Second, we examine whether national differences can be observed in the networks by investigating two countries with different policies: the UK (quite strict in its lockdown) and the NL (with a more advisory approach). Differences between countries in terms of their approach toward the preventive measures and promoting compliance may lead to different patterns in terms of how the psychological factors (i.e., nodes in the network) relate (see Sachisthal et al., 2019, for an example on national differences in science interest networks). ...
Article
Full-text available
Preventive behaviors are crucial to prevent the spread of the coronavirus causing COVID-19. We adopted a complex psychological systems approach to obtain a descriptive account of the network of attitudes and behaviors related to COVID-19. A survey study ( N = 1,022) was conducted with subsamples from the United Kingdom ( n = 502) and the Netherlands ( n = 520). The results highlight the importance of people’s support for, and perceived efficacy of, the measures and preventive behaviors. This also applies to the perceived norm of family and friends adopting these behaviors. The networks in both countries were largely similar but also showed notable differences. The interplay of psychological factors in the networks is also highlighted, resulting in our appeal to policy makers to take complexity and mutual dependence of psychological factors into account. Future research should study the effects of interventions aimed at these factors, including effects on the network, to make causal inferences.
... Networks have recently been gaining importance as models that represent complex phenomena in human behavioural science [22], such as psychopathology [23,24] and personality [25][26][27]. In the educational field, for example, network analysis has been applied to learn about the influence of multiculturality on student motivation [28] and understand the role of interest in science in student involvement [29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The latest trends in research extend the focus of school effectiveness beyond students’ acquisition of knowledge and skills, looking at aspects such as well-being in the academic context. Although the concept of well-being itself has been defined and measured in various ways, neither its dimensions nor the relationships between the components have been clearly described. The aim of the present study was to analyse how the elements of well-being interact and determine how they are influenced by school factors. To do that, we conducted a network analysis based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018 international assessment. Our results demonstrated that cognitive, psychological, and social well-being variables form a solid welfare construct in the educational context, where students’ resilience and fear of failure, along with their sense of belonging, play central roles. Although the influence of school factors on student well-being is generally low, teaching enthusiasm and support promote positive school climates which are, in turn, crucial in reducing bullying.
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing attention for interest as a powerful, complex, and integrative construct, ranging in appearance from entirely momentary states of interest to longer-term interest pursuits. Developmental models have shown how these situational interests can develop into individual interests over time. As such, these models have helped to integrate more or less separate research traditions and focus the attention of the field more on the developmental dynamics. This, however, also raises subsequent questions, one being how development can be understood in terms of interest structure. The developmental models seem to suggest that development occurs roughly along the line of six dimensions, which we summarize as the dimensions of historicity, value, agency, frequency, intensity, and mastery. Using an experience sampling method that was implemented in a smartphone application, we prompted 94 adolescents aged 13 to 16 (60% female) to rate each interest they experienced during two weeks on these six dimensions. A latent profile analysis on 1247 interests showed six distinct multidimensional patterns, indicating both a homogeneous and heterogeneous structure of interest. Four homogeneous patterns were indicated by more or less equal levels on all six dimensions in varying degrees, and contained 86% of the interests. Two heterogeneous patterns were found, describing variations of interest that are interpreted and discussed. These results endorse the complexity of the construct of interest and provide suggestions for identifying different manifestations of interest.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.